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First aid

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First aid

  1. 1. First aid in emergencies Dr. Shankar Hippargi Consultant Dept of Accident & Emergency Medicine MMHRC- Madurai
  2. 2. First aid• The emergency care, help and treatment of an injured person, before arrival of medical care• It is not a substitute for medical care• First aid should not delay the transport
  3. 3. First aid- Aims• To sustain the life of the victim• To prevent his condition from deteriorating• To prevent the occurrence of further injuries• To prevent contamination• To seek medical help
  4. 4. Types of emergencies• Fatal emergencies: • Cases which lead to death if first aid is not provided immediately Ex: cardiac arrest, major fractures, profuse bleeding etc…• Non fatal emergencies: • Cases which are not life threatening but will require first aid to prevent worsening Ex: minor fractures, nasal bleeding etc…
  5. 5. First aid boxcontents • First aid Manual • • Roller bandage Scissors • • Spirit, dettol Forceps • • Gloves, masks Crepe bandage • • Antiseptic creams Gauze swabs (silverex, betadine) • Cotton bandage • Saline bottles • Adhesive plaster • Safety pins • Cotton • Pain killers
  6. 6. Burns• Destruction of the skin & deeper tissues due to heat• There will be loss of body fluids (plasma)• Severe dehydration
  7. 7. Types of burns
  8. 8. Causes of burns • Fire • Hot liquids • Chemical substances • Hot objects • Radiation • Electric current • Lightening
  9. 9. First aid treatment• Reassure the person & keep him in safe place• Cool the burn area with running water for 10-20 mins especially in chemical burns• Apply silverex cream only for minor burns• Prevent contamination• Do not puncture the blisters• Keep nil by mouth for major burns
  10. 10. First aid treatment• Gently remove any rings, watches, belts or constricting clothing from the injured area before it begins to swell• Dont remove anything that is sticking to the burn• Cover loosely with sterile dressing• Do not use adhesive dressings• Transfer to hospital as soon as possible
  11. 11. TRAUMA (RTA)• Injuries in RTA may range from minor abrasions to severe head, thoracic and abdominal injuries which may cause immediate death• Identifying life threatening injuries and rapid transport to the nearest multi specialty hospital may improve the chances of survival
  12. 12. Mechanism of injury• Mechanism of injury is very important in predicting the severity of injuries• Any death in a mass casualty should alert the possibility of severe injuries to other passengers
  13. 13. Cervical spine
  14. 14. Cervical spine• Cervical spine is most susceptible for injuries• Any injury above the level of collar bones will have associated C-spine injury• Injury to spinal cord can cause permanent paralysis of both upper and lower limbs• Very important to immobilize the C- spine while extricating from scene and transport
  15. 15. Cervical spine immobilization
  16. 16. Bleeding• Could be external or internal or both• Internal bleeding more profuse and dangerous than external bleeding
  17. 17. First Aid for ExternalBleeding• Apply direct pressure with the hand to the bleeding points with a sterile dressing• Elevate the bleeding part & support in that position until bleeding stops.
  18. 18. First Aid for ExternalBleeding• If bleeding continues, do not remove soaked pad, apply another dressing pad on previous one• The tourniquet is to be used only as the last resort. “LIFE OR LIMB ”• Refer to hospital immediately
  19. 19. Internal bleeding • Signs & symptoms of internal bleeding • Pale color • Rapid weak pulse • Rapid & shallow breathing • Cold, clammy skin • Pain in the bleeding part • Restless, anxiety & thirst • Sweating • Unconsciousness
  20. 20. First aid for internalbleeding• Lay the person flat on his back with raised legs• Do not give any thing by mouth• Reassure the person & transfer to hospital as soon as possible
  21. 21. Traumatic Amputation • Wash the organ with saline • Wrap the organ in a sterile gauze • Place it in a dry plastic bag • Place the bag in another bag containing ice • Send the amputated organ with the patient to hospital
  22. 22. Fracture• Signs: Swelling, deformity, pain on movement, not able to use the limb, profuse bleeding
  23. 23. Types of fracture
  24. 24. First aid in fracture• Reassure the patient, give pain killers if available• Control bleeding by direct pressure• Splint the limb and elevate above the level of heart• Support the upper & lower joint of the injured part with a splint• Do not try to straighten or repair the fractured part
  25. 25. Lower limb fractures• Splint the limb and elevate
  26. 26. Upper limb fractures
  27. 27. Penetrating injuries
  28. 28. First aid in penetratinginjuries• Reassure the patient• Never attempt to remove the object- may cause severe uncontrollable bleeding and may cause sudden death• Rapid transport
  29. 29. Poisoning• Poisons are any substance in a form of solid, liquid or gas which, when taken into the body in sufficient amount will have a negative or destructive effect on health
  30. 30. Routes of poisoning• Oral• Inhalational• Direct skin contact• Intravenous (rare)
  31. 31. Signs & symptoms ofpoisoning • Burns or stains around the mouth • Unusual breath odours • Abnormal breathing & pulse rate • Abdominal pain • Sweating • Vomiting • Diarrhea • Seizures • Unconscious
  32. 32. First aid in poisoning• Check the responsiveness, then seek medical help• Decontaminate (wash) the skin• Do not induce vomiting• Transport the patient as soon as possible• Send the container / medication strip to hospital
  33. 33. Nasal bleeding• Bleeding from the nose• Causes: Trauma, hypertension, bleeding disorders, assault
  34. 34. First aid• Pinch the nose• Lean forwards• Apply ice packs over nose
  35. 35. Heat stroke• Heat stroke is a potentially fatal emergency• Temperature regulation center- inoperable• The temperature continuously rises, causing eventual brain damage• Immediate active intervention is necessary to avoid coma and death• Very high mortality
  36. 36. Signs & Symptoms• Flushed, hot, dry skin- victim has ceased sweating• Rapid, strong pulse• Irrational or aggressive behavior, visual disturbances• Vomiting• Seizures• Decreased level of consciousness• Coma
  37. 37. First aid• Complete rest in shade• Remove victims clothing• Cool victim with any means possible• Evaporative cooling: Spray water on patient’s body and keep him under a fan• Nil by mouth - dehydration should be corrected by intravenous fluids• Rapid transport
  38. 38. Universal precautions• Assume every patient as potentially infected with HIV, HBV, HCV• Health care provider must be protected against exposure to blood and other body fluids from patients• Chances of getting infected with HIV, HBV, and HCV are high in health care providers• Use appropriate protective equipments like gloves, gowns, masks, shoes, goggles
  39. 39. Universal precautions• Your life is more important to you than the victims life, so be careful about your health• Remember that “ I ” comes before “U” even in the alphabets• Do not become a patient yourself• Do not do the things which you are not trained Ex: Trying to save a drowning victim without knowing swimming

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