Water Related Disasters and Concepts of IWRM

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Presentation made at GWP-C's Disaster Mitigation Workshop held in Guyana in December 2009.

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Water Related Disasters and Concepts of IWRM

  1. 1. Hydro-Climatic Disasters in Water Resources Management 30 Nov - 02 Dec 2009, Georgetown, Guyuna
  2. 2. <ul><li>No single definition </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster event may be classified as; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At least 10 people are killed and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100 or more are affected and/or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An appeal for international assistance or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A state of emergency is declared </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Q: What defines disaster in Guyana </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Susman (1990 )- Interface between an extreme physical environment and a vulnerable human population </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson (1992) - Temporary event triggered by natural hazards that overwhelm local response capacity and seriously affect social and economic development of the region </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A disaster a serious disruption of the functioning of a society or community </li></ul><ul><li>Causes widespread human, material or environmental loss which exceeds the capacity of the affected society to cope without external intervention </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>What are the important sources in Guyana? </li></ul>Discussion question
  6. 9. <ul><li>Hydro-meteorological: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Droughts/famine, Floods, Wind storms, Avalanches, landslides, extreme temperatures, heat waves, hurricanes, forest fires, insect infestations and storm surges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geophysical disasters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Global incidence of natural disasters (1991- 2000): most are climate-related
  8. 11. <ul><li>Priority 1 . Make disaster risk reduction a priority at the national level </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 2. Improve risk information and early warning </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 3. Build understanding and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 4. Reduce disaster risks in key sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 5 . Strengthen preparedness and response (Community resilience) </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Two main function of water resources management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage for beneficial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control extreme occurrences </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Two main function of water resources management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage for beneficial use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control extreme occurrences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process that promotes coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources </li></ul><ul><li>Aim at maximizing equitable economic and social welfare and sustainability of vital ecosystems </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>IWRM is a systematic process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable development/management of water resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equitable allocations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficiency - monitoring WR uses in context text of social-economic / environmental objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IWRM must be understood as a process than method </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Limited freshwater sources </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in population and resultant pressures on WR </li></ul><ul><li>Increased economic activities – demand and pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Improved standard of living - higher consumption, hence competition and conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Over-exploit of land resources – damaging effects on water resources and disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change and variability impacts </li></ul><ul><li>A globally accepted concept that makes good sense </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Principle 1 . </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 4. </li></ul><ul><li>Water has an economic value </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Main uses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water for people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water for production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water for ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each water use has its problems and constraints </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate willingness and capacity to address them jointly (water governance) </li></ul><ul><li>Recognising the inter-related nature and impact of uses and sources an important step in IWRM </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>IWRM and water efficiency strategies are designed to meet development goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase production/food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty / vulnerability reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tackle specific water challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigating drought effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase access to water and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address competition for water </li></ul></ul>Water Uses
  16. 19. <ul><li>Land and water management </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and quantity </li></ul><ul><li>Surface and groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-sectoral and upstream –downstream dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater and coastal zone management (as a special up-down stream case) </li></ul>Integration
  17. 20. <ul><li>IWRM process implies change (reforms) </li></ul>IWRM Process
  18. 21. Management Instruments Enabling Environment Institutional Framework Sets out the “ GAME RULES” The “players’ COMPETENCIES and SKILLS” (needed to play the game) CHANGES CAN BE MADE INTO Define: Who the “PLAYERS” Are what they should do IWRM CHANGE AREAS
  19. 22. DISASTER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM HYDRO-CLIMATIC DISASTERS DISASTER RESPONSE WATER DISASTER RISKS WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IWRM APPROACH
  20. 23. <ul><li>Failure in Agricultural Production </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in hydro-power based industries </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of life & property </li></ul><ul><li>Disease outbreak & epidemics </li></ul><ul><li>Economic stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and disaffection </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Assess to information on hydro-climatic disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Increase budgets for water related disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Promote linkages between IWRM and water related disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Raising awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting disaster knowledge </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>What is the relationship between water and disaster management? </li></ul>Discussion Question
  23. 26. <ul><li>Hydro-Climatic disasters will continue to live with us and hence we need to adapt methods to manage them so as to reduce their negative impacts to the society </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Good management of these disasters would call for maximum utilization of positive impacts minimization of community vulnerability though; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness creation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster proofing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improving on environmental protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Development of disaster Early Warning (DEW) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation of IWRM process at catchment level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>REMEMBER: </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing for disasters is far more cost-effective than to recovering from them after they have occurred </li></ul>

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