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COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER RISK
ASSESSMENT
HVCA
Learning Objectives
 Understanding the
purpose of
community risk
assessment;
 Understanding and
learn about how to
conduct community
risk assessment
exercise.
Key Concepts
 Community risk assessment provides a systematic process
for identifying, estimating and ranking local disaster risk
 Community risk assessment is a necessary step for the
adoption of adequate and appropriate risk reeducation
measures
 Community risk assessment involves four (4) interrelated
components – Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability
Assessment, Capacity Assessment and People’s perception
of risk
Participatory Risk Assessment
Hazard Assessment
Vulnerability
Assessment
Capacity Assessment
Participatory Risk Assessment
Hazard Assessment :
Determines the chances of experiencing any natural or human-made
hazard or threat in the community. Assessment includes the nature
and behavior of each of the hazards the community is exposed to.
Vulnerability Assessment :
Identifies what elements are at risk and why they are at risk.
Participatory Risk Assessment
People’s perception of risk :
Identifies the perception of risk of the heterogeneous groups and sectors,
which make up the community, measurement of the community’s disaster
risk based on people’s participation.
Capacity Assessment :
Identifies the peoples coping strategies, resources available for
preparedness, mitigation and emergency response, who has access
to and control over these resources.
Participatory Risk Assessment
Community Risk Assessment is a participatory process of determining the nature,
scope and magnitude of negative effects of hazards to the community and its
household within an anticipated time.
It determines the probable or likely negative effect (damage and Loss) on
“elements at risk” (People – lives and health, households and community
structure, facilities and services ,schools, hospitals etc. Livelihood and economic
activities -Job, equipment, crops, livestock, etc. lifelines – access rods and
bridge) and to find out why particular groups or community are vulnerable in the
context of hazard and why others are not.
The coping mechanisms and the resources (Capacities) present in the
community are also essential consideration in community risk assessment.
Why community Assessment
((HVCA) ?
To reduce the community risk and to prioritize the major hazards so that the community can
address all its disaster risk on the basis of its capacities and resources consequently finding out
the frequency, extent of damage and their other consideration.
To ensure that the risk reduction process is inadequate and appropriate. Because the Risk
reduction planning should integrate preparedness and long-term mitigation measures and able
to balance in between the two.
To ensure that risk reduction management will be cost-effective and sustainable. To balance
the two effects, one should track out the existing community capacities, material, social and
attitudinal capacities to reduce vulnerabilities.
Why community Assessment
(HVCA) ?
Community Risk Assessment -
Provides a systematic process for identifying, estimating and ranking
community risk
Contributes the awareness to the community, about potential risk they
did not know before. This is usually the contribution of External Bodies(
Govt. & non Govt. Agencies) who bring with scientific and technical
Support & information Regarding hazard which the community has not
experience before
Is an essential precaution towords proper decision making in the
Why community Assessment
(HVCA) ?
To identify and access the external resources and support by the very
community to build an effective strategies for the circumstance, which the
community cannot address by itself
 It provides the community and supporting agencies with baseline data which
is useful during the natural or man made calamities to reconstruct and
compensate the damage, needs etc.
Community risk Assessment provides the data with disaster specific baseline
to the community and supporting agencies for developmental planning purpose.
Why community
Assessment(HVCA) ?
Community Risk assessment provides database to the all intelligence
agencies and information agencies so that they can take measures during
the emergency period (even when the community is inaccessible for the
supporting agencies.)
To have an analytical yardstick regarding the growth and success of the
obtaining Process over time line.
Hazard Assessment Process
Pictures
HVCA
Hazard Assessment Process
# Hazard assessment is necessary to understand the nature, scope
and periphery of the calamity.
# Hazard assessment is the process of estimating the probabilities of
the occurrence.
# Hazard assessment is to find out the potentiality of damaging
phenomena and other harmful effects.
# Hazard assessment involves analysis of existing topographical,
geological, geomorphologic, hydrological and land-use maps, as well
as analysis of social and economic and political condition with the
previous records of incidents.
Hazard Assessment Process
Force : Wind, water (rain, flood, overflow, fun-off, flash flood, tidal wave, storm surge,
epidemic), land (slides, deposits by river, , lahars, mudflow), faire (forest faire,
settlement faire), seismic (earthquake, tsunami, liquefaction), conflicts (civil war,
insurgency ,other action leading to displacement and refugees), other human-related
(famine, drought, pests, etc.)
Warning signs and signals: Scientific and indigenous indications for
hazard.
Hazard Assessment Process
Speed of onset: Rapidity of arrival and impact. We can distinguish
between hazards that occur without almost any warning (earthquake),
hazards that can be predicted almost before three to four days
(typhoon) and very slow-onset hazard like drought and famine.
Frequency: Does the hazard occur seasonally, yearly, once every 10
years, once in a lifetime, etc.
Hazard Assessment Process
When: Dose the hazard occur at a particular time of the year ( wet or
dry session, in November to December ?
Duration: How long is the hazard felt (earthquake and aftershocks,
days/weeks/months that are is flooded; length of period of military
operation)
Hazard Assessment Matrix
Type of
Hazard
Elements
increasin
g
Force/Pac
e of the
Risk
Fore
Warnin
g
(Yes/No
)
Spee
d of
the
Risk
Time
between
Knowledg
e of the
Risk and
its Impact
Frequenc
y of
Occurren
ce
Time/Seaso
n of Onset
of Risk
How Long the Risk
Situation/Impact is
observed
Floods
Earthquak
e
Others
Vulnerability Assessment PicturesHVCA
Vulnerability Assessment
Vulnerability is a set of prevailing or consequential conditions,
which adversely affect the community’s ability to prevent, mitigation,
prepare for or responds to hazard events.
These long-term factors, weaknesses of constraints affect a
household, community’s or society’s ability (or inability) to absorb
losses after disasters and to recover from the damage.
Vulnerability precedes the disaster event and contributes to their
severity, impedes disaster response, and may continue long after a
disaster has struck.
Vulnerability Assessment
Vulnerability Assessment is the process of estimating the weakness
of ‘elements at risk’ ( People from backward community, Women in
need, Child in need) and analyzing the cause and root of cause
which place these elements at risk. The assessment takes into
account the physical, geographical, economic, social and
psychological factors, which attributes negative cause to some
people and positive to others. Because of that in a given situation
some people are in trouble while others are relatively protected.
Vulnerability Assessment
A hazard is the Trigger Event, which sets off the disaster. It could be
an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or civil conflict.
The Unsafe Condition is the vulnerable context where people and
property are exposed to risk of disaster. These make the community
vulnerable to a particular hazard. The physical environment is one
element. Other factors include an unstable economy and low – income
levels.
Vulnerability Assessment
Dynamic Pressures (Gender barrier, Religious barrier, caste barrier etc.)
within the society are the immediate cause of the Unsafe Conditions. This
Dynamic pressure answers the question of HOW unsafe or damage conditions
have arisen.
Beneath the Dynamics Pressures are Underlying Causes, which cause
communications or sections of it to be unsafe and vulnerability. These are
fundamentals and ideologies on which the society is built. Vulnerability is not a
situation that just happens. Most often it has developed as a progression from
underlying Conditions to Dynamic Pressure, to unsafe condition. These
underlying or root cause answer the question WHY dangerous or unsafe
condition persist if the fundamental causes of disaster risk are not addressed,
then the disaster situation will soon repeat itself.
Vulnerability Assessment
Matrix
Type of hazard Group at Risk
Vulnerability
Conditions
Elements
Affecting
Capacity of
Responders
Root Causes
Existing or eventually occurring situation which dater’s local community’s capacity
of mitigation, preparedness, rescue and fighting against disaster.
Capacity AssessmentHVCA
Capacity Assessment
Capacity are strengths and resources that presents in individuals,
household and the community and enable them to cope up with,
withstand, prepare for, prevent, mitigation, or quickly recover from a
disaster .
Capacities can also be categorized in the context of physical/materials,
social/organizational and attitudinal/motivational factors.
Capacity assessment is the process to determine how people cope in times of
crisis to reduce the damaging effects of hazards. Through capacity assessment,
the community’s coping strategies and resources, which are available, for
disaster preparedness, mitigation and prevention are identified.
Capacity Assessment
The Capacity Assessment Process involves the following key
components:
Understanding of people’s previous experience with hazard and
the coping strategies, which they have developed.
Analyzing which resources are available and used by the
community to reduce disaster risk and the controller who has
access and control over these resources.
Capacity Assessment Matrix
Hazard
Capacities
(Physical and Tools)
Capacities
( Financial, Social,
Services)
Capacity means power and capability to fight against a disaster, which is present in
people of all the communities. The other meaning of capacity could be tools
available with community which can be used for coping up, preparation and
mitigation activities.
Thanks

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Community Based Disaster Risk Assessment......

  • 1. COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER RISK ASSESSMENT HVCA
  • 2. Learning Objectives  Understanding the purpose of community risk assessment;  Understanding and learn about how to conduct community risk assessment exercise.
  • 3. Key Concepts  Community risk assessment provides a systematic process for identifying, estimating and ranking local disaster risk  Community risk assessment is a necessary step for the adoption of adequate and appropriate risk reeducation measures  Community risk assessment involves four (4) interrelated components – Hazard Assessment, Vulnerability Assessment, Capacity Assessment and People’s perception of risk
  • 4. Participatory Risk Assessment Hazard Assessment Vulnerability Assessment Capacity Assessment
  • 5. Participatory Risk Assessment Hazard Assessment : Determines the chances of experiencing any natural or human-made hazard or threat in the community. Assessment includes the nature and behavior of each of the hazards the community is exposed to. Vulnerability Assessment : Identifies what elements are at risk and why they are at risk.
  • 6. Participatory Risk Assessment People’s perception of risk : Identifies the perception of risk of the heterogeneous groups and sectors, which make up the community, measurement of the community’s disaster risk based on people’s participation. Capacity Assessment : Identifies the peoples coping strategies, resources available for preparedness, mitigation and emergency response, who has access to and control over these resources.
  • 7. Participatory Risk Assessment Community Risk Assessment is a participatory process of determining the nature, scope and magnitude of negative effects of hazards to the community and its household within an anticipated time. It determines the probable or likely negative effect (damage and Loss) on “elements at risk” (People – lives and health, households and community structure, facilities and services ,schools, hospitals etc. Livelihood and economic activities -Job, equipment, crops, livestock, etc. lifelines – access rods and bridge) and to find out why particular groups or community are vulnerable in the context of hazard and why others are not. The coping mechanisms and the resources (Capacities) present in the community are also essential consideration in community risk assessment.
  • 8. Why community Assessment ((HVCA) ? To reduce the community risk and to prioritize the major hazards so that the community can address all its disaster risk on the basis of its capacities and resources consequently finding out the frequency, extent of damage and their other consideration. To ensure that the risk reduction process is inadequate and appropriate. Because the Risk reduction planning should integrate preparedness and long-term mitigation measures and able to balance in between the two. To ensure that risk reduction management will be cost-effective and sustainable. To balance the two effects, one should track out the existing community capacities, material, social and attitudinal capacities to reduce vulnerabilities.
  • 9. Why community Assessment (HVCA) ? Community Risk Assessment - Provides a systematic process for identifying, estimating and ranking community risk Contributes the awareness to the community, about potential risk they did not know before. This is usually the contribution of External Bodies( Govt. & non Govt. Agencies) who bring with scientific and technical Support & information Regarding hazard which the community has not experience before Is an essential precaution towords proper decision making in the
  • 10. Why community Assessment (HVCA) ? To identify and access the external resources and support by the very community to build an effective strategies for the circumstance, which the community cannot address by itself  It provides the community and supporting agencies with baseline data which is useful during the natural or man made calamities to reconstruct and compensate the damage, needs etc. Community risk Assessment provides the data with disaster specific baseline to the community and supporting agencies for developmental planning purpose.
  • 11. Why community Assessment(HVCA) ? Community Risk assessment provides database to the all intelligence agencies and information agencies so that they can take measures during the emergency period (even when the community is inaccessible for the supporting agencies.) To have an analytical yardstick regarding the growth and success of the obtaining Process over time line.
  • 13. Hazard Assessment Process # Hazard assessment is necessary to understand the nature, scope and periphery of the calamity. # Hazard assessment is the process of estimating the probabilities of the occurrence. # Hazard assessment is to find out the potentiality of damaging phenomena and other harmful effects. # Hazard assessment involves analysis of existing topographical, geological, geomorphologic, hydrological and land-use maps, as well as analysis of social and economic and political condition with the previous records of incidents.
  • 14. Hazard Assessment Process Force : Wind, water (rain, flood, overflow, fun-off, flash flood, tidal wave, storm surge, epidemic), land (slides, deposits by river, , lahars, mudflow), faire (forest faire, settlement faire), seismic (earthquake, tsunami, liquefaction), conflicts (civil war, insurgency ,other action leading to displacement and refugees), other human-related (famine, drought, pests, etc.) Warning signs and signals: Scientific and indigenous indications for hazard.
  • 15. Hazard Assessment Process Speed of onset: Rapidity of arrival and impact. We can distinguish between hazards that occur without almost any warning (earthquake), hazards that can be predicted almost before three to four days (typhoon) and very slow-onset hazard like drought and famine. Frequency: Does the hazard occur seasonally, yearly, once every 10 years, once in a lifetime, etc.
  • 16. Hazard Assessment Process When: Dose the hazard occur at a particular time of the year ( wet or dry session, in November to December ? Duration: How long is the hazard felt (earthquake and aftershocks, days/weeks/months that are is flooded; length of period of military operation)
  • 17. Hazard Assessment Matrix Type of Hazard Elements increasin g Force/Pac e of the Risk Fore Warnin g (Yes/No ) Spee d of the Risk Time between Knowledg e of the Risk and its Impact Frequenc y of Occurren ce Time/Seaso n of Onset of Risk How Long the Risk Situation/Impact is observed Floods Earthquak e Others
  • 19. Vulnerability Assessment Vulnerability is a set of prevailing or consequential conditions, which adversely affect the community’s ability to prevent, mitigation, prepare for or responds to hazard events. These long-term factors, weaknesses of constraints affect a household, community’s or society’s ability (or inability) to absorb losses after disasters and to recover from the damage. Vulnerability precedes the disaster event and contributes to their severity, impedes disaster response, and may continue long after a disaster has struck.
  • 20. Vulnerability Assessment Vulnerability Assessment is the process of estimating the weakness of ‘elements at risk’ ( People from backward community, Women in need, Child in need) and analyzing the cause and root of cause which place these elements at risk. The assessment takes into account the physical, geographical, economic, social and psychological factors, which attributes negative cause to some people and positive to others. Because of that in a given situation some people are in trouble while others are relatively protected.
  • 21. Vulnerability Assessment A hazard is the Trigger Event, which sets off the disaster. It could be an earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide or civil conflict. The Unsafe Condition is the vulnerable context where people and property are exposed to risk of disaster. These make the community vulnerable to a particular hazard. The physical environment is one element. Other factors include an unstable economy and low – income levels.
  • 22. Vulnerability Assessment Dynamic Pressures (Gender barrier, Religious barrier, caste barrier etc.) within the society are the immediate cause of the Unsafe Conditions. This Dynamic pressure answers the question of HOW unsafe or damage conditions have arisen. Beneath the Dynamics Pressures are Underlying Causes, which cause communications or sections of it to be unsafe and vulnerability. These are fundamentals and ideologies on which the society is built. Vulnerability is not a situation that just happens. Most often it has developed as a progression from underlying Conditions to Dynamic Pressure, to unsafe condition. These underlying or root cause answer the question WHY dangerous or unsafe condition persist if the fundamental causes of disaster risk are not addressed, then the disaster situation will soon repeat itself.
  • 23. Vulnerability Assessment Matrix Type of hazard Group at Risk Vulnerability Conditions Elements Affecting Capacity of Responders Root Causes Existing or eventually occurring situation which dater’s local community’s capacity of mitigation, preparedness, rescue and fighting against disaster.
  • 25. Capacity Assessment Capacity are strengths and resources that presents in individuals, household and the community and enable them to cope up with, withstand, prepare for, prevent, mitigation, or quickly recover from a disaster . Capacities can also be categorized in the context of physical/materials, social/organizational and attitudinal/motivational factors. Capacity assessment is the process to determine how people cope in times of crisis to reduce the damaging effects of hazards. Through capacity assessment, the community’s coping strategies and resources, which are available, for disaster preparedness, mitigation and prevention are identified.
  • 26. Capacity Assessment The Capacity Assessment Process involves the following key components: Understanding of people’s previous experience with hazard and the coping strategies, which they have developed. Analyzing which resources are available and used by the community to reduce disaster risk and the controller who has access and control over these resources.
  • 27. Capacity Assessment Matrix Hazard Capacities (Physical and Tools) Capacities ( Financial, Social, Services) Capacity means power and capability to fight against a disaster, which is present in people of all the communities. The other meaning of capacity could be tools available with community which can be used for coping up, preparation and mitigation activities.