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Disaster management system in India

Disaster management system in India

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Presented by
PRAMODA G
Faculty in Earth Science
YCM
Contents
In the event of an earthquake, children and teachers in an unsafe
school building are at considerable risk. According to the Government
of Gujarat, a total of 31 teachers died and 95 were injured, 971
students perished (910 in primary schools, 37 in secondary schools, 3
in colleges and 21 in technical schools) and 1,051 were injured in the
Bhuj Earthquake of 2001. Formal education was disrupted due to
widespread damage to physical infrastructure. Many of the buildings
collapsed and many were declared unfit for use. Many of these
buildings had been poorly constructed, lacked earthquake resistant
features and were badly maintained. The casualties might have been
much higher had it not been a holiday, when many students were
either at home or were in open spaces because of the Republic Day
celebrations.
Disaster management system in India
Sendai Framework
Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on March 18, 2015
(UNISDR 2015a) as the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework
for Action 2005-2015. It is a non-binding agreement, which the
signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a
voluntary basis.
The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are:
1. Understanding disaster risk
2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk
3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience
4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to
“Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
Disasters, Risk Reduction and Management
- Definitions
Disasters
The UNISDR (2009) defines disaster as: “A serious disruption of the
functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human,
material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds
the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own
resources.”
Disaster Management
“The organization, planning and application of measures preparing,
responding to and, initial recovery from disasters.”
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Disaster management system in India

  • 1. Presented by PRAMODA G Faculty in Earth Science YCM
  • 3. In the event of an earthquake, children and teachers in an unsafe school building are at considerable risk. According to the Government of Gujarat, a total of 31 teachers died and 95 were injured, 971 students perished (910 in primary schools, 37 in secondary schools, 3 in colleges and 21 in technical schools) and 1,051 were injured in the Bhuj Earthquake of 2001. Formal education was disrupted due to widespread damage to physical infrastructure. Many of the buildings collapsed and many were declared unfit for use. Many of these buildings had been poorly constructed, lacked earthquake resistant features and were badly maintained. The casualties might have been much higher had it not been a holiday, when many students were either at home or were in open spaces because of the Republic Day celebrations.
  • 5. Sendai Framework Third UN World Conference in Sendai, Japan, on March 18, 2015 (UNISDR 2015a) as the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015. It is a non-binding agreement, which the signatory nations, including India, will attempt to comply with on a voluntary basis. The four priorities for action under the Sendai Framework are: 1. Understanding disaster risk 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction
  • 6. Disasters, Risk Reduction and Management - Definitions Disasters The UNISDR (2009) defines disaster as: “A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.” Disaster Management “The organization, planning and application of measures preparing, responding to and, initial recovery from disasters.”
  • 8. Vision Make India disaster resilient, achieve substantial disaster risk reduction, and significantly decrease the losses of life, livelihoods, and assets – economic, physical, social, cultural, and environmental – by maximizing the ability to cope with disasters at all levels of administration as well as among communities.
  • 9. Objectives 1) Improve the understanding of disaster risk, hazards, and vulnerabilities 2) Strengthen disaster risk governance at all levels from local to centre 3) Invest in disaster risk reduction for resilience through structural, non-structural and financial measures, as well as comprehensive capacity development 4) Enhance disaster preparedness for effective response 5) Promote “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction 6) Prevent disasters and achieve substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives,livelihoods, health, and assets (economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental) 7) Increase resilience and prevent the emergence of new disaster risks and reduce the existing risks
  • 10. 8) Promote the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures to prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerabilities to disaster 9) Empower both local authorities and communities as partners to reduce and manage disaster risks 10) Strengthen scientific and technical capabilities in all aspects of disaster management 11) Capacity development at all levels to effectively respond to multiple hazards and for community-based disaster management 12) Provide clarity on roles and responsibilities of various Ministries and Departments involved in different aspects of disaster management 13) Promote the culture of disaster risk prevention and mitigation at all levels 14) Facilitate the mainstreaming of disaster management concerns into the developmental planning and processes
  • 11. What is Disaster Management ?
  • 12. What it involves • Dealing with and avoiding both natural and man made disasters. • Preparedness before disaster. • Rebuilding and supporting society after natural disasters.
  • 13. PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING: When developing a disaster management plan, observance of the planning principles mentioned below. • Simplicity: The plan shall be concise. Roles and responsibilities shall be clearly stated. • Flexibility: The plan shall be flexible. • Comprehensive: It shall describe arrangements for preventing, preparing for, responding to and recovering from the effects of an emergency. • Decision Making Process: The plan shall describe the decision making process which will be adopted when an emergency occurs. While each emergency will be different, the decision making process shall remain reasonably consistent.
  • 14. • Consultation: One shall see to it that the plan suits and is understood by all in the school. The commitment of individuals to the plan is likely to be greatest when they have been involved in its development. • Dissemination: All members of the community shall be familiar with the content of the plan, and shall be trained in and regularly exercise its procedures. • Review: The plan needs to be reviewed on a regular basis, preferably annually and following any significant emergency, to ensure that it remains workable. • Co-ordination: Planning should be coordinated with other agencies, such as the emergency services and local municipalities, who shall have their own plans linked with the plans of the districts/ municipalities/ surrounding community. • Policy: Policy issued shall be resolved during the planning process. • Consistency: The plans shall be consistent with the local policies of relevant education authorities
  • 15. • Scope of Responsibilities: The plan shall describe the scope and the limitations and responsibilities. • Co-operation: The plan shall also emphasize the role in providing support to the emergency services (i.e.,police, fire services, ambulances etc) that are legally responsible for managing the emergency.
  • 16. Disaster management plans - need Disaster preparedness plan plays a vital role. The officials have complete set of instructions, which they can follow to do and also issue directions to their subordinates and the affected people. This has effect of only speeding up the rescue and relief operations, but also boosting the morale of affected people. Disaster plan are also useful at pre-disaster stage, when warnings could be issued. Plan again serves as guide to officials at the critical time and precious time is saved which might otherwise be lost in consultations with senior officers and getting formal approval from authorities. Neither economical nor practicable to protect every item and entire population against calamitous situation, response plans are formulated for relief, rehabilitation and restoration by separate agencies
  • 22. Levels of Disasters The disaster management and its planning at various tiers must take into account the vulnerability of disaster-affected area, and the capacity of the authorities to deal with the situation. Using this approach, the High Power Committee on Disaster Management, in its report of 2001, categorized disaster situations into three 'levels': L1, L2, and L3. The period of normalcy, L0, should be utilized for disaster risk reduction. Level-L1: The level of disaster that can be managed within the capabilities and resources at the District level. However, the state authorities will remain in readiness to provide assistance if needed.
  • 23. Level-L2: This signifies the disaster situations that require assistance and active mobilization of resources at the state level and deployment of state level agencies for disaster management. The central agencies must remain vigilant for immediate deployment if required by the state. Level-L3: This corresponds to a nearly catastrophic situation or a very large-scale disaster that overwhelms the State and District authorities. The categorization of disaster situations into levels L0 to L3 finds no mention in DM Act 2005. Further, the DM Act does not have any provision for notifying any disaster as a ‘national calamity’ or a ‘national disaster’.
  • 25. Disaster management plans at various levels Contingency Action Plan (CAP) at national level list out detail of actions to be taken at various levels g government at the time of calamity. CAP – action plans • Identification of vulnerable areas • Monitoring and setting up of control rooms • Warnings • Arrangements for relief campus, food, essential commodities, medical facilities, etc • Fund allocation • Alerting administration • Community preparedness 1. Steps taken before disaster
  • 26. 2.Steps to be taken during disaster • Evacuation • Settings up of relief camps and handling • Monitoring and report • VIP visit 3.Steps to be taken after disaster • Disposal of dead bodies • Cleaning of debris • Disbursement of relief 4.Steps to be taken for reconstruction • Closure of relief camps • Restoration of infrastructure • Recognition of good work • Feedback
  • 27. Institutional Framework National Level The overall coordination of disaster management vests with the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). The Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) and the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) are the key committees involved in the top-level decision-making with regard to disaster management. The NDMA is the lead agency responsible for the preparation DM plans and the execution at the national level. State governments will be carrying out disaster management with the central government playing a supporting role. The central agencies will participate only on the request from the state government. Within each state, there is a separate institutional framework for disaster management at the state-level.
  • 29. Key national-level decision-making bodies for disaster management
  • 33. Nodal Ministry for Management / Mitigation of Different Disasters
  • 34. Government of India established the NDMA in 2005, headed by the Prime Minister. Under the DM Act 2005, the NDMA, as the apex body for disaster management, shall have the responsibility for laying down the policies, plans, and guidelines for disaster management for ensuring timely and effective response to disaster. The guidelines of NDMA will assist the Central Ministries, Departments, and States to formulate their respective DM plans. It will approve the National Disaster Management Plans and DM plans of the Central Ministries / Departments. It will take such measures, as it may consider necessary, for the prevention of disasters, or mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building. Central Ministries / Departments and State Governments will extend necessary cooperation and assistance to NDMA for carrying out its mandate. It will oversee the provision and application of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
  • 35. NDMA has the power to authorize the Departments or authorities concerned, to make emergency procurement of provisions or materials for rescue and relief in a threatening disaster situation or disaster. The general superintendence, direction, and control of the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF). The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) works within the framework of broad policies and guidelines laid down by the NDMA. The NDMA has the mandate to deal with all types of disasters – natural or human-induced. However, other emergencies such as terrorism (counter-insurgency), law and order situations, hijacking, air accidents, CBRN weapon systems, which require the close involvement of the security forces and/or intelligence agencies, and other incidents such as mine disasters, port and harbor emergencies, forest fires, oilfield fires and oil spills will be handled by the National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC). Nevertheless, NDMA may formulate guidelines and facilitate training and preparedness activities in respect of CBRN emergencies.
  • 37. Facilitation Central govt role becomes of that of a facilitator during emergency, Gives assistance to state govt’s. Resource mobilization Providing additional funds, support from army, etc Special inputs By providing various national or international institutions specialised work in disaster management International assistance Through bilateral or multilateral agreements providing loans. Monitoring preparedness and prevention measures Provide necessary support to hazard prone area. Development Initiatives Through niti aayoga and other agencies should start initiatives to prepare plans
  • 38. The vision of NIDM is to create a Disaster Resilient India by building the capacity at all levels for disaster prevention and preparedness. NIDM has been assigned nodal responsibilities for human resource development, capacity building, training, research, documentation, and policy advocacy in the field of disaster management. The NIDM has built strategic partnerships with various ministries and departments of the central, state, and local governments, academic, research and technical organizations in India and abroad and other bi-lateral and multi-lateral international agencies. It provides technical support to the state governments through the Disaster Management Centres (DMCs) in the Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) of the States and Union Territories. Presently it is supporting as many as 30 such centres. Six of them are being developed as Centres of Excellence in the specialised areas of risk management – flood, earthquake, cyclone, drought, landslides, and industrial disasters.
  • 39. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) Specialist response force that can be deployed in a threatening disaster situation or disaster. Superintendence, direction and control of the NDRF shall be vested and exercised by the NDMA. The command and supervision of the NDRF shall vest with the Director General appointed by the Government of India. The NDRF will position its battalions at different locations as required for effective response. NDRF units will maintain close liaison with the designated State Governments and will be available to them in the event of any serious threatening disaster situation. The NDRF is equipped and trained to respond to situations arising out of natural disasters and CBRN emergencies. The NDRF units will also impart basic training to all the stakeholders identified by the State Governments in their respective locations. Further, a National Academy will be set up to provide training for trainers in disaster management and to meet related National and Internationalcommitments. Experience in major disasters has clearly shown the need for pre- positioning of some response forces to augment the resources at the State
  • 41. State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) It will, inter alia approve the State Plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA, coordinate the implementation of the State Plan, recommend provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures and review the developmental plans of the different Departments of the State to ensure the integration of prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures. The State Government shall constitute a State Executive Committee (SEC) to assist the SDMA in the performance of its functions. The SEC will be headed by the Chief Secretary to the State Government. The SEC will coordinate and monitor the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan, and the State Plan. The SEC will also provide information to the NDMA relating to different aspects of DM.
  • 43. State Government shall take necessary steps for the preparation of state DM plans, integration of measures for prevention of disasters or mitigation into state development plans, allocation of funds, and establish EWS. Depending on specific situations and needs, the State Government shall also assist the Central Government and central agencies in various aspects of DM. Each state shall prepare its own State Disaster Management Plan.
  • 44. 1. Co-ordination • Crucial role as co-ordinator. • State govt should initiate counter measures. • SG needs to maintain close liaison with the central as well as the district authorities. 2. Preparedness • Advance warnings • Inform district authorities and advise them on suitable line of action. 3. Resource mobilisation • Provide necessary funds from state budgeting
  • 45. Each State Government shall establish a District Disaster Management Authority for every district in the State. DDMA will be headed by the District Collector, Deputy Commissioner, or District Magistrate as the case may be, with the elected representative of the local authority as the Co-Chairperson. The State Government shall appoint an officer not below the rank of Additional Collector or Additional District Magistrate or Additional Deputy Commissioner, as the case may be, of the district to be the Chief Executive Officer of the District Authority. The DDMA will act as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM at the District level and take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA and SDMA.. District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)
  • 46. It will, inter alia, prepare the DM plan for the District and monitor the implementation of the all relevant national, state, and district policies and plans. The DDMA will also ensure that the guidelines for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, and response measures laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all the district- level offices of the various departments of the State Government
  • 47. 1. Evacuation • Advance warnings • Plans at district level should sufficiently provide for this • District headquarters is the focal point for all rescue and relied activities 2.Relief & Rescue operations 3. Damage Assessment and information collection • Based of the assessment carried by district authorities funds and other resources can be mobilised at state or national or international level.
  • 48. Preparation of disaster management plan DM Plan Short term Long term
  • 49. Short term plan(STP) • STP to be provide immediately following a disaster based on past experience • STP based and aimed at restoring normalcy in short period. • Amount of resource material required to be mobilised . • Data on the intensity and spread of various disaster in area last 10yrs (Documentation) • Lessons to serve as inputs for future planning of relief and recue. • STP should based on declared vulnerability of the area to particular type of disaster. • Forecasts on future disasters should be usefully translated into action plans. • STP incorporate suggestions & capabilities of all concerned depts, state, NGOs, CBOs. • Plans prepared by setting up committees groups at appropriate level
  • 50. LONG TERM PLAN (LTP) • Plans Should have ability to build a culture of disaster mitigation and be aimed to reduce vulnerability of the area. • LTP incorporate policy directives on preparedness as well as post disaster construction and rehabilitation phases. • Foremost requirement is establishing its needs in an area. • Rehabilitation would depend considerably on the damage assessment report. • Detailed study survey of the community. • LTP should seek an objective of achieving overall development and satisfying basic needs(shelter, economic and social) of the community. • Plans implemented successfully only through partnerships with NGOs and community participation.