Poultry Industry Kerala Scenario

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Power points on the current poultry production scenario in Kerala, prepared for the Investors meet

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Poultry Industry Kerala Scenario

  1. 1. Poultry Sector in Kerala: Current Scenario and Policy Options
  2. 2. Supply and Demand of Poultry Products in Kerala <ul><li>Demand for Eggs: 5063 million per yr </li></ul><ul><li>Production : 1196 million per yr </li></ul><ul><li>90% are non vegs </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for meat: 1.2 lakh tonnes per yr </li></ul><ul><li>Production : 32,704 tonnes per yr </li></ul>
  3. 3. Per-Capita Consumption <ul><li>Recommended Egg Consumption: 180 eggs/year </li></ul><ul><li>Actual consumption: 72 eggs/year </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended meat consumption (NIN): 11 kg/year (total meat) </li></ul><ul><li>Actual consumption of Poultry meat : 0.9 kg/year </li></ul>
  4. 4. Changes in Poultry Population (in lakhs)
  5. 5. District-wise Poultry Population (lakhs) <ul><li>Malappuram : 15.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Thrissur : 13.06 </li></ul><ul><li>Ernakulam : 12.26 </li></ul><ul><li>Palakkad : 11.93 </li></ul><ul><li>Wyanad : 3.35 </li></ul><ul><li>Other districts : 4-10 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reasons for the Decline <ul><li>Non-availability of land </li></ul><ul><li>Higher cost of feed </li></ul><ul><li>Low availability of quality chicks </li></ul><ul><li>Higher labour cost </li></ul><ul><li>Poor credit facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Poor insurance coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Higher VAT on chicken </li></ul>
  7. 7. Suggested Policy Options <ul><li>Need for a Poultry Development Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of backyard poultry production </li></ul><ul><li>Specify preferred varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Backyard duck farming </li></ul><ul><li>Quail and turkey farming </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of poultry farmer service centres / Cooperatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicks, Feed , Biologicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medicines , Technical Advice </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Policy Options… GOVT <ul><li>Strengthening of disease surveillance centres </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of marketing network </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of broiler processing units </li></ul><ul><li>Starting poultry waste processing units </li></ul><ul><li>Exemption of VAT on poultry </li></ul><ul><li>Better insurance coverage </li></ul><ul><li>Increased R&D efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation of indigenous germplasm </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>    PROJECT PLANNING  </li></ul><ul><li>Before starting a project, four important points should be considered: </li></ul><ul><li> Capital   Land  Management  Marketing </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Choosing of  area </li></ul><ul><li>    Sufficient area of land  Good irrigation   ventilation   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Far from human activities, </li></ul></ul><ul><li> good road connection, </li></ul><ul><li>electricity, </li></ul><ul><li>clean water supply and </li></ul><ul><li>free from wild / other animals </li></ul><ul><li>  Do not mix with other kinds of poultry such as duck and village chicken   </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Good Management practices </li></ul><ul><li>Start with quality chicks from reliable sources </li></ul><ul><li>Keep houses and equipments clean. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the litter clean, dry and free from moulds. </li></ul><ul><li>Brood chicks carefully with good sanitation. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure adequate ventilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide adequate floor space, feeder space and water space. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Provide light at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt vaccination schedule to suit local conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Promptly dispose off dead birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Discourage visitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide good quality feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect in between batches </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate care of broilers during hot weather is essential. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Record Management <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  To correct the weakness of management   To make sure the breed chosen are good   To make sure the feed is good   To minimize the mortality rate   Use suitable medication. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Source of vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram, District. Phone: 0472-2840262 E-mail: dirvbi@kerala.nic.in </li></ul><ul><li>I.V.P.M. Ranipet, Tamil Nadu. </li></ul><ul><li>I.V.R.I. Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P. </li></ul><ul><li>I.A.H.V.B.I. Hebbal, Bangalore, Karnataka, PIN: 560024. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventri biologicals, Vaccine division, 3/303, Sharda Centre, Erandwave, Pune, 411004. E-mail: ventribiologicals@venkys.com </li></ul><ul><li>Intervet India Pvt. Ltd. Intervet House 33, Pune-Nagar Road, (Behind Eden Garden) Pune - 411 014 Phone +91 20 6605 0400-01 </li></ul><ul><li>Indovax, Corporate Heights, SCO - 24, Sector - 14, Gurgaon - 122001 (INDIA) Phone: 0091-124-2315044 / 45 / 46 E-mail: mail@indovax.com </li></ul>
  15. 15. TURKEY FARMING <ul><li>Turkey meat is low in fat i.e 95% fat free lowest of all avian species, </li></ul><ul><li>rich in unsaturated fatty acids, essential amino acids especially tryptophan and vitamins like niacin, Vit-B6 and Vit B12. </li></ul><ul><li>. Although body weight increases with advancement of age, feed efficiency is adversely affected. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Attain 4 kg body weight at about 12-14 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>At 20-24 weeks of age = 8 to 9 kg. </li></ul><ul><li>Dressing percentage is 75-82%. </li></ul><ul><li>Feed efficiency is comparatively poor in small turkeys than large turkeys </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>FIXED COST: </li></ul><ul><li>  Shed= ( Area for 1 bird = 1 -2 square foot) </li></ul><ul><li>  Water tank </li></ul><ul><li>  Heater (1 small hover = 500 day old chick) </li></ul><ul><li>Waterers for chicks ( 4 units = 100 birds) </li></ul><ul><li>  Feed troughs for chick ( linear feeders: 3 units = 100 birds) Automatic drinkers ( 2 unit = 100 birds) Feed troughs - hanging  (2 unit = 100 birds) </li></ul><ul><li>  Store for keeping apparatus and feed  Other expenditures (unexpected) </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>RECURRENT COST </li></ul><ul><li>  Day old chicks </li></ul><ul><li>  Poultry feed - starter and finisher </li></ul><ul><li>  Electrica/ / kerosene or coal /water- for brooding   Vaccine and medicine   Building depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>  Equipments depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>  Bank loan interest  Others expenditures (unexpected) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Housing Design and System </li></ul><ul><li> Good air ventilation - </li></ul><ul><li> Suggested dimension of the shed: 25 feet x 200 feet (1 shed) or 25 feet x 100 feet (2 sheds) </li></ul><ul><li>  Location -East - West direction,  </li></ul><ul><li>floor space = 1 m2 per bird for large varieties </li></ul><ul><li>0.81 m2 for small varieties. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Housing System <ul><li>Raised Floor System </li></ul><ul><li>Deep Litter System </li></ul><ul><li>Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Slat </li></ul><ul><li>Slat cum wire </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>BREED SELECTION  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  FEED  </li></ul><ul><li>  Starter Feed age 1 day - 4 weeks (Crude Protein content = 23 % </li></ul><ul><li>Finisher/Fattening Feed for chicken age 5 weeks - 6 weeks/sale (Crude Protein content = 20 %) </li></ul><ul><li>  ad lib feeding       </li></ul><ul><li>PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF DISEASES  </li></ul><ul><li>vaccination program </li></ul><ul><li>Biosecurity measures </li></ul>
  22. 22. Marketing Strategy <ul><li>Location / Place (near to the marketing place, no communication problem).  Production (sold as live chicken, processed and frozen, cuts and others.)  Price (Depends on the location and market demand)  Advertisement </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>To know the profit/loss level  </li></ul><ul><li>To minimize wastage cost  </li></ul><ul><li>As a guide in preparing paper work for expanding project in future </li></ul>
  24. 24. 110-120g/day Scavenging + 25-30 g balanced layer ration Scavenging + 25-30 g balanced layer ration Scavenging + 25-30 g balanced layer ration Feeding Commercial Backyard Backyard Backyard Purpose 96 95 95 95 Livability in % White tinted Brown Light Brown Egg Colour 56 55 52-55 50 Egg weight in g 1.6 1.8 2 1.8 Body weight at 72 weeks in kg 300 200-225 190-200 180-200 Annual egg production (upto 72 weeks of age) in numbers 150 180 175 180 Age at 50% egg production 139 150 152 160 Age at sexual maturity in days Athulya Gramapriya Gramasree Gramalakshmi Characteristics Comparison of performance of common layer birds.
  25. 25. Comparative performance of Native breeds of chicken in India 54 99 201 1005 4. Naked neck 49 105 180 920 3. Kadaknath 53 110 185 1005 2. Frizzle 50 92 196 1220 1. Aseel Egg weight at 40 weeks (g) Annual egg production (No.) Age at sexual maturity (days) Body weight (20 weeks) Breed
  26. 26. <ul><li>  Housing : -deep litter system. </li></ul><ul><li>open area on one side of the shed, </li></ul><ul><li>No litter material. </li></ul><ul><li>The shed is cleaned twice a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The space per adult bird 4 to 6 Sq.ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Roof hanging of 2 to 4 feet </li></ul><ul><li>The average cost of construction ranged from Rs.100 to 120 per Sq.ft. </li></ul><ul><li>All in all out system </li></ul><ul><li>flock size was small ( 200 to 500 birds), </li></ul>
  27. 27. Turkey Farming - ve Long generation interval High investment Low demand + ve White Meat Low Fat Low Cholesterol Seasonal Premium Price
  28. 28. <ul><li>Equipments : </li></ul><ul><li>one drinker for 15 to 25 birds. </li></ul><ul><li>one feeder for 50 to 75 birds. </li></ul><ul><li>Brooding using electrical bulbs. </li></ul><ul><li>feed requirement : </li></ul><ul><li>20 to 25 Kg. per bird up to Six months male birds are heavier to females. </li></ul><ul><li>chopped green grasses ad lib </li></ul>
  29. 29. Space Allowances Under Semi-intensive System
  30. 30. Space Allowance in Feeders and Waters (per bird) Feeder Waterer 0 - 4 weeks 4 cm 2 cm 5 - 8 weeks 8 cm 4 cm 9 - 12 weeks 12 cm 6 cm 13-16 weeks 16 cm 8 cm > 16 weeks 20 cm 10 cm
  31. 31. <ul><li>by NRC - 1994 is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Age (weeks) </li></ul><ul><li> 0 – 4 4 - 8 8 –12 12 –16 16–20 20–24 Br </li></ul><ul><li>ME (Kcal/kg) 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 2900 </li></ul><ul><li>Protein (%) 28 26 22 19 16.5 14 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Lysin (%) 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.80 0.65 0.60 </li></ul><ul><li>Methionine (%)0.55 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.25 0.25 0.20 </li></ul><ul><li>Methionine + 1.05 0.95 0.80 0.65 0.55 0.45 0.40 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Growth Performance of Turkeys
  33. 33. Breeding Management Ratio : 10:1 Feed : 14% CP 2650 KCal/ kg ME 2.5% Ca 0.40% A.P. Incubation period : 28 days
  34. 34. Diseases M.D. and I.B. : Resistant Fowl Cholera Coli Septicaemia Mycoplasmosis : egg, semen Fowl Pox, NCD Avian Influenza Worms
  35. 35. RDF or Lasota : 5-7 days and 30 days Pox vaccine : 6 weeks and 22 weeks RDVK : 10 weeks 20 weeks 40 weeks Vaccination Schedule
  36. 36. Disease Control Measures Water Sanitation Quality Feed Disinfection Procedure Bio-security Measures Egg Dipping.
  37. 37. Turkey Research Station / Farms in India <ul><li>Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar </li></ul><ul><li>Central Poultry Development Organization, Hessarghatta </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry Research Station, Nandanam, Chennai </li></ul><ul><li>University of Agricultural Sciences, Hebbal, Karnataka </li></ul><ul><li>Poultry Farm Department of Animal Husbandry, Quilon, Kerala </li></ul><ul><li>Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>5 to 20%. mortality </li></ul><ul><li>vaccination done - RD and Pasturellosis </li></ul><ul><li>Sex determination is not easy --Vent Sexing at the time of hatching </li></ul><ul><li>By weight - Males are heavier </li></ul><ul><li>Matured male - conspicuous black bearing attached to the skin of the upper region. </li></ul><ul><li>Dewbill or snood, - relatively large, plump and elastic in males and small , thin and elastic in females. </li></ul><ul><li>Male sturt even at day-old age and continue to do so throughout their life- Sturting is not seen in females. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Marketing : </li></ul><ul><li>at the age of six months for meat purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>The average body weight is 6 - 8 Kgs. </li></ul><ul><li>No retail market for the birds on day to day basis except during Christmas, Easter </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Reproductive parameters </li></ul><ul><li>Age of laying - 24 - 28 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>No. of eggs produced 70 – 100 </li></ul><ul><li> per year - </li></ul><ul><li>Egg weight - 85 gm </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation Period - 28 days </li></ul><ul><li>Male female Ratio - 1 : 5 </li></ul><ul><li>No.of chicks /female - 43 - 63 </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Marketing : </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for turkey poult is mostly seasonal </li></ul><ul><li>The demand is slowly picking up </li></ul><ul><li>There is no established market for the turkey </li></ul><ul><li>High average weight (6 to 8 Kg.) it is not finding a place in the diet of middle class families </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Duck farming has following advantages:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more egg s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wt= 70g </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks require lesser attention and thrive well in scavenging conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks supplements their feed by foraging. They eat fallen grains in paddy fields, insects, snails, earthworms, small fishes and other aquatic materials. </li></ul><ul><li>From commercial point of view, ducks have a longer profitable life. They lay well even in second year. </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks do not require any elaborate housing like chicken </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks are quite hardy, more easily brooded and more resistant to common avian diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshy river side, wet land and barren moors upon which chicken or no other type of stock will flourish, are excellent quarters for duck farming. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Ducks lay 95 – 98% of their eggs in the morning before 9.00 AM. Thus saving lot of time and labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks are suitable for integrated farming systems such as duck-cum-fish farming, duck farming with rice cultivation. In duck-cum-fish farming the droppings of ducks serve as feed for the fishes and no other feed or manuring of the pond is necessary for fishes (200-300 ducks per hectare of waste area). Under integrated duck farming with rice cultivation, the ducks perform four essential functions viz., intertillage as they search for food, their bills loosen up the soil around the rice plants-weeding, insect control and manuring. </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks are good exterminators of potato beetles, grasshoppers, snails and slugs. In areas plagued with liver flukes, ducks can help correct the problem (2 to 6 ducks per 0.405 hectare of land). Ducks can be used to control mosquito pupae and larvae (6 to 10 ducks per 0.405 hectare of water surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Ducks are quite intelligent, can be tamed easily, and trained to go to ponds and come back in the evening of their own. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water for swimming is not essential at any stage of duck rearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ducks should never have access to feed without water. </li></ul>
  44. 44. 1)       Age at first egg                                     120 days (4 months) 2)       Age at 50% production                        146 days ( 5 months) 3)       Annual egg production                                    300 eggs 4)       Body weight at 40 weak                                   1.8 kg 5)       Daily feed consumption per                            120-130 gms 6)       Bird            (which can be reduced to 50% under foraging ) 7)       Duck mortality i)         0-8   weeks                                    2 to 3% ii)       8-20 weeks                                    0.2 to 0.5% iii)      Adult mortality                                5 to 7%   Performance parameters of Khaki Campbell ducks are given as under :
  45. 45. Feed Consumption- Egg type Ducks <ul><li>Feed for 1st 6 months                           9 kg per bird </li></ul><ul><li>  6 months to 12 months                         12 kg per bird </li></ul><ul><li>2nd year                      24 kg per bird </li></ul><ul><li>  3rd year                      25 kg per bird </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>  ECONOMIC UTILISATION OF SPACE - 10 /SFT.     </li></ul><ul><li>* SHORT GENERATION INTERVAL (3-4 GENERATIONS IN A YEAR)   </li></ul><ul><li>   * FAST GROWING BIRD - 5 WEEKS      </li></ul><ul><li>  * START PRODUCING EGGS AT 6 WEEKS EGG PRODUCTION UPTO 40 WEEKS </li></ul><ul><li>  * EGG SIZE IS 10 GM. - products     </li></ul><ul><li>* FEED CONSUMPTION IS LOW    </li></ul><ul><li>  * WEIGHT OF BROILER BIRD IS 250 g AND OF LAYER 180g </li></ul>
  47. 47. MEAT TYPE DUCKS <ul><li>Pekin, </li></ul><ul><li>Muscovy, </li></ul><ul><li>Aylesbury, </li></ul><ul><li>Cherry Valley Rouven </li></ul>
  48. 48. Performance of the Commercial Meat Ducks 5.6 kg 3.0 kg 2.7 : 1 (M) 2.7 : 1 (F) 16 weeks Muscovy 5 3.00 3.18 : 1 49 - 56 Pekin 4 3.09 2.8 : 1 47 Quick Gro (Philippines) 3 3.09 2.8 : 1 47 C.P Duck (Thailand) 2 3.00 2.5 : 1 49 - 56 Cherry Valley (U.K) 1 weight (kg) Feed Conversion ratio Marketing age (days) Breed  
  49. 49. <ul><li>Waterers should be placed on elevated platform </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid wet litter </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Meat ducks with 24 hours of light </li></ul><ul><li>Meat bird marketed =7 to 8 weeks of age.  </li></ul><ul><li>new quills appearing during the ages of 9 to 14 weeks. </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>FCR =2.8 : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Average Live weight @ 47 days = 3.0 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Ex farm price live wt of Broiler Duck = 80-100/ kg </li></ul><ul><li>Income   </li></ul>

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