Active Voice• It is the most common, unmarkedvoice. Subject Verb Object Active > Voice The choir sings love songs.
Passive Voice• Passive verb phrases are less common and used for special discourse functions. Subject Verb ObjectPassive > Voice Love are sung by the choir. songs
Compare…The choir sings love songs.Love songs are sung by thechoir.
Normal Passives follow the three general steps to form passive sentences: •PASSIVE SUBJECT OBJECT VERB •BE+PARTICIPLE •AGENTSUBJECT COMPLEMENT
Object --- Passive SubjectTo transform an active sentence into a passive one, it is commonly believed that the main verb in active should be transitive, i.e., there should be a Direct Object in the sentence. However, the English language proves that a passive sentence can also be created from the Indirect Object in the active sentence.Therefore, this leads us to say that to form a passive sentence we need to have an Object in the active counterpart.
Verb --- Be + Participle • ACTIVE • PASSIVE teach / teaches Am/is/are taught Is teaching Is being taught Taught Was/were taught Was teaching Was were being taughtHave / has taught Have/has been taught Had taught Had been taught Will teach Will be taught To teach To be taught
Subject --- Agent Complement• When is the agent complement not necessary? when the active subject is an indefinite pronoun or a generic noun. (i.e., some-, any-, no-& “people”) This is called the impersonal passive.