Pronoun antecedent powerpoint

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Pronoun antecedent powerpoint

  1. 1. Pronouns and Antecedents
  2. 2. Review <ul><li>Pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A word that substitutes for a noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Pronouns (specific persons/things): I, me, you, she, her, he, him, it, we, us, you, them, they </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possessive Pronouns (show ownership): my, mine, your, yours, her, hers, his, its, our, ours, your, yours, their, theirs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive/Reflexive (emphasize a particular noun): myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative/Interrogative (used in subordinate clauses): who, whom,whose, which, that </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrative (identify and point to nouns): this, that, these, those </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indefinite (do not refer to specific person/thing): anything, everyone, everything, nobody, anyone, all, any, anybody, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, neither, none, no one, nothing, one, several, some, somebody, someone, something </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Review <ul><li>Antecedent </li></ul><ul><li>Noun that the pronoun is replacing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wanda (noun)= She (pronoun) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The students (noun)=They (pronoun) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Driver (noun)=He/She (pronoun) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elephant (noun)=It (pronoun) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General Rule for Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement <ul><li>Antecedent and pronoun must match in number , person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and gender . </li></ul><ul><li>Singular antecedent (noun)=singular pronoun </li></ul><ul><li>Plural antecedent (noun)=plural pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alex (singular 3rd person)= he (singular 3rd person) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marbles (plural 3rd person)=those (plural 3rd person) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male or female </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Note about Gender <ul><li>If you aren’t sure of the gender of the antecedent, use “she or he”, “his/her”, “him/her” as the pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The police officer always carries his/her badge when on duty. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things and animals don’t have gender—use “it”, “its” to refer to non-human objects/groups. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: The team won its game. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Person What is it? Singular Plural 1st Person Refers to self I, me We 2nd Person Person/thing speaking to You You 3rd Person Someone/ Thing separate from you He, She, It (or nouns referring to he, she, it) They (or nouns referring to they)
  7. 7. Steps for Determining if Pronouns and Antecedents Agree <ul><li>Find the pronouns in the sentence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Sally went to her boyfriend’s house, but he wasn’t home. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decide what nouns the pronouns are referring to (ie. find the antecedents ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Sally went to her boyfriend ’s house, but he wasn’t home. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself “What person/number/gender is the antecedent?” “Does the pronoun match the antecedent in number and person?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sally (3rd person, singular)=her (3rd person, singular) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boyfriend (3rd person, singular)=he (3rd person, singular) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Special Cases Tricky Pronoun-Antecedent Situations
  9. 9. 1) Indefinite Pronouns <ul><li>Indefinite pronoun=pronoun that does not refer to specific people or things </li></ul><ul><li>For the most part indefinite pronouns are SINGULAR </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPT </li></ul><ul><li>Both, few, some, several (PLURAL) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Ways to Deal with Indefinite Pronouns <ul><li>To make an indefinite pronoun and a pronoun agree (in the same sentence): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use she/he or his/her with the SINGULAR indefinite pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: In class everyone performs at his or her own fitness level. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use they or their with the PLURAL indefinite pronoun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Both of the boys perform at their own fitness level. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Ways to Deal with Indefinite Pronouns <ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Make the antecedent a plural noun. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When someone has been drinking, they are likely to speed. WRONG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When drivers have been drinking, they are likely to speed. RIGHT </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 2) Collective Nouns <ul><li>Collective noun=noun names a class or group (made up of several individuals) </li></ul><ul><li>They should be considered singular unless individuals are emphasized (then plural). </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Collective Nouns: committee, class, crowd, family </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement w/ Collective Nouns <ul><li>As a unit: (singular) </li></ul><ul><li>The committee granted its permission to build. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals emphasized: (plural) </li></ul><ul><li>The committee put their signatures on the document. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3) EVERY, EACH, ONE <ul><li>When “every”, “each”, or “one” is the antecedent, the pronoun should be singular . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every student should complete his/her teacher’s survey by the end of the week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each piece of silverware is in its place in the drawer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the girls snuck out of her house on Friday night. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 4) Antecedents Joined by AND <ul><li>Treat as plural --Make pronoun plural </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jill and John moved to Luray, where they built a cabin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mickey and Minnie live in Disneyland in their special mouse castle. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 5) Antecedents Joined by NOR or OR or beginning with NEITHER, EITHER <ul><li>Make the pronoun agree with the antecedent nearest to the pronoun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Either Bruce or Tom should receive first prize for his poem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither the mouse nor the rats could find their way through the maze. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 5) Antecedents Ending in -s <ul><li>Some antecedents ending in –s are not plural because they focus on just one item—Make the pronoun singular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics, economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The College of Arts and Sciences </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 6) Titles of Books, Movies and Companies <ul><li>Each of these are singular regardless of whether the item ends in –s or is joined by AND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Grapes of Wrath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romeo and Juliet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Einstein Brothers Bagels </li></ul></ul>

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