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Imperialization of sub saharan africa


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Imperialization of sub saharan africa

  1. 1. Imperialization of Sub-Saharan Africa <br />
  2. 2. The Scramble for Africa <br />The scramble for Africa was a period of rapid colonization beginning in 1800 and ending in the early 1900s by European powers caused by economic, political and military motivations. Africa was an ideal country to imperialize for Europe because of its close location, abundance of natural resources and it was viewed as an inferior country to Europe; thus it was Europe’s “duty” to enlighten the ignorant people of Africa by spreading European ideas.<br />
  3. 3. The major motivation for imperialization wasPower<br />
  4. 4. People and Motivations that Caused the Colonization<br />David Livingston <br />Henry Morton Stanley<br />Leonardo II<br />Capitalism<br />Military innovation <br />
  5. 5. David Livingston and Henry Morton Stanley: The Exploration of Africa <br /> David Livingstone was a Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813-1873). He became a doctor and a missionary and devoted much of his life to exploring Africa. He helped the Europeans learn about the continent of Africa. He was the first European to cross the entire width of Africa. When he first went to Africa as a Christian missionary in 1841 when he was 27. He then decided that the best way to teach Africans about Christ was to move around the continent seeing and teaching as many people as he could. He crossed Africa during three different time periods: 1852-1856, 1858-18864 and 1866-1873. He is credited with the discovery of Lake Nyasa in 1858, the Chile River in 1859 and more of the Nile River. <br /> Henry Morton Stanley, an American explorer of Africa during the nineteenth centenary, was a person most closely involved in causing the Scramble for Africa. This is because He is recognized for his explorations on behalf of King Leopold II of Belgium. It was on the journeys that Stanley would attain treaties with the chiefs of tribes all along the Congo River with the intent for Leopold to create a colony. Stanley’s work created a major trend among explorers. <br />
  6. 6. King Leopold II<br />King Leopold II was the king of Belgium from 1856 and remained King until his death in 1909. Leopold had a private project known as the “Congo Free State.” Leopold was a brutal ruler. He believed that having control of colonies that were overseas was the key to a countries success and worked hard to gain colonial control for Belgium; this was not the belief of the Belgian people or government. Following many failed tries to gain control over colonies in Africa and Asia he created a private holding company and hired explorer, Henry Morton Stanley, who was famous from the travels he did through Eastern Africa to help find David Livingstone. Henry Morton helped him establish a colony in the Congo region. Stanley did a great job obtaining land in the Congo basin. Leopold never intended for the Congo to be a Belgian Colony, but a private state that was owned and ruled by himself. He created the International African Association, whose main focus was to achieve colonization in Africa. Through treaties with natives that were living in the Congo made accomplished by Stanley, Leopold received ownership of the land. Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches of the Congo, including its copper, rubber, and ivory. Soon there were horrifying reports of Belgian overseers brutalizing villagers. There were horrifying reports of Belgian overseers brutalizing villagers. They were forced to work for almost nothing and because many of them were beaten or mutilated, the population declined extremely. Eventually Leopold gave up his personal colony to the Belgian government because of all of the rage coming from outsiders about the way he ruled. <br />
  7. 7. Capitalism<br /> The abolition of slave trade in Europe left a need for commerce between Africa and Europe. Trade if goods became highly encouraged and explorers discovered valuable raw materials like diamond, located trade routs, and identified areas of large populations which could support a market for manufactured goods. Not only did colonization have the potential to bring power because of the amount of land controlled but also wealth from trade and resources. <br />
  8. 8. Events of the Scramble for Africa Period<br />Berlin Conference <br />Fashoda Incident<br />Boer war <br />
  9. 9. The Berlin Conference<br />
  10. 10. In later years of the nineteenth century Europe stopped exploring Africa and began to claim territories. It was because of the intense competition and the crowding domains that negotiation among the European powers became necessary. In late 1884 a conference was held by Otto von Bismark, the imperial chancellor and architect of the German Empire. The assembly was made up of 14 states that convened in Berlin to settle the political division of Africa. After the country was divvied up between the powers France controlled most of West Africa, the British East and South Africa and Belgium obtained the territory that is now Congo. The Germans dominated four colonies, one located in each region. A colony in West Africa and two large colonies in the South were held by the Portuguese. It was because of Europe’s insatiable hunger for new markets, natural resources and political power that lead to the demise of the unique African culture. <br />
  11. 11. Fashoda Incident <br />September 18, 1898 was an event caused by years of tension between the African territories of France and Great Britain. The French remained frustrated with the British because of their refusal to honor a promise to withdraw from Egypt in 1882 once order was restored. In February 1895 a member of the French parliament and leader of the "pro-colonial" faction urged his colleagues to approve an advance towards the Nile unless the British withdrew. A month later, the British declared that the entire Nile Valley belonged to the them. The pursuit to claim the Upper Nile Valley began. The French, however ended up being humiliated when defeated by the British. <br />
  12. 12. The Boer War<br /> There were two Boer Wars, the first one started in 1881 in the North of Natal. The British sent 1,200 men against 3,000 Boer men. The British wanted this land because the Boers had discovered gold and silver in that region and Britain wanted it. The Boers ended up beating Britain. The second war was fought in 1899 to 1902 and between Britain and the two Boer states. The Boers invaded the Natal Colony and Cape Colony and at the time, they were beating Britain but finally Britain came out successful and won the second Boer War. <br />