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Solutions to digital inequality david weddle


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Solutions to digital inequality david weddle

  1. 1. Solutions to Digital Inequality<br />By David Weddle<br />
  2. 2. Digital Inequality in Virginia<br />Source: Bohland, Papadakis, Worrall and Zellmer<br />
  3. 3. From Digital Divide to Digital Inequality<br />Digital Divide = The divide between those with access to new technologies and those without it<br />Defined by the US Department of Commerce’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA)<br />DiMaggio and Hargittai proposed the concept of digital inequality <br />Inequality among the internet users in the extent to which they are able to reap benefits from their use of technology.<br />New definition goes beyond differences in access<br />
  4. 4. Five Dimensions of Digital Inequality<br />Source: Zhao and Wang<br />
  5. 5. Dimensions of Digital Inequality<br />Technical Apparatus -- Does the student have a computer?<br />Autonomy of Use– How do students access the internet at different locations (School, library, etc.)<br />Availability of Social Support– Attitude toward internet use of superiors or teachers<br />Variation of Use– The main activities for leisure or study goals when using the internet<br />Skill– Capabilities of the student in using the internet<br />Photo Source:<br />
  6. 6. Why is Digital Inequality Important?<br />Internet access expands access to education, jobs and better health<br />Provides a place for political discussion and provides citizens with direct access to government<br />Educational attainment is strongly associate d with rates of internet use<br />In 2001, 65% of employed people 16 years of age or older were internet users, compared to 37% of those who were not working (DiMaggio and Hargittai)<br />Krueger reported that workers who use computers on the job earned 10 to 15 % more than their otherwise similar peers (DiMaggio and Hargittai)<br />Freeman reports that use of the internet is associated with higher wages (DiMaggio and Hargittai)<br />Photo Source:<br />
  7. 7. $50 Million to Address Digital Inequalities <br />Photo Source:<br />
  8. 8. Solution #1<br />Install computers in all public libraries in the state and expand hours when the computers are available<br />Photo Source:<br />
  9. 9. Solution #2<br />Expand staffing and other resources so that public schools can be open to the public after normal school hours, on weekends, and during the summer months<br />Photo Source:<br />
  10. 10. Solution #3<br />Provide individuals in disadvantaged communities with computers<br />Photo Source:<br />
  11. 11. Solution #4<br />Provide high-speed internet access and mobile access for all state residents<br />Photo Source:<br />
  12. 12. Solution #5<br />Subsidize internet service providers to provide low-cost internet to all state residents<br />
  13. 13. Solution #6<br />Provide information literacy courses to enhance computer skills and enable knowledgeable use of digital technologies<br />
  14. 14. Solution #7<br />Develop free online educational content, giving first priority to content most relevant to lower socio-economic groups before content that is relevant to the rest of the public<br />
  15. 15. Best OPTIONS…<br />Photo Source:<br />
  16. 16. Solution #1<br />Public internet access plays an important role in narrowing the digital gap (Hong & Huang)<br />An important institution for facilitating information access and bridging the digital divide (Bertot)<br />People with low-income levels are more likely to use the internet in libraries (DiMaggio)<br />
  17. 17. Solution #2<br />Properly trained staff can help with computer literacy<br />Children are comfortable within the school environment<br />Lead children toward using the computer for educational purposes <br />Other benefits such as keeping children involved and out of trouble <br />
  18. 18. Solution #6<br />Provide students with tools necessary to use the computer efficiently<br />Teachers and trained staff members help to reinforce children’s learning<br />
  19. 19. Not So Fast My Friend…<br />Photo Source:<br />
  20. 20. Solution #3, #4 and #5<br />Simply having a computer doesn’t mean children know how to use it<br />What is the computer being used for? <br />Malamud and Cristian Pop-Eleches found that children who won vouchers for personal computers had lower grades in math<br />Clotfelter, Ladd and Vigdor found that providing universal access to home computers and high-speed internet access would broaden math and achievement gaps<br />
  21. 21. Solution #7<br />Access is still a problem!<br />
  22. 22. Additional Solutions <br />Install computers and trained staff promoting computer literacy in community centers and public housing<br />Require technology centers in developments that receive public financing <br />Use a combination of solutions 1 and 2 to introduce technology and provide the necessary staffing to reinforce learning<br />
  23. 23. THE END<br />Photo Source:<br />
  24. 24. References<br />Bertot, J.C., McClure; C.R. Jaeger, P.T. and Ryan, J. Public libraries and the internet 2006, Study results and findings, retrieved September 27 at<br />Bohland, James; Papadakis, Maria; Worrall, Richard and Zellmer, David. The digital dominion’s digital divide. Spring 2001<br />Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F. and Vigdor,Jacob L. Scaling the digital divide: Home computer technology and student achievement<br />DiMaggio, Paul; Hargittai, Eszter; Celeste, Coral and Shafer, Steven. From unequal access to differentiated use: A literature review and agenda for research in digital inequality<br />Malamud, Ofer and Pop-Eleches, Cristian. Home computer use and the development of capital. January 2010.<br />Zhao, Ling; Lu, Yaobin; Huang, Wayne and Wang, Qiuhong. Internet inequality: The relationship between high school students’ internet use in different locations and their internet self-efficacy. Computers and Education, Volume 55, Issue, December 2010, Pages 1405-1423.<br />