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घरेलु बालश्रम सामुदायिक अभिमुखीकरण

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विश्वमा २४ करोडभन्दा बढी बालबालिकाहरू श्रममा संलग्न रहेको तितो यथार्थभित्र बाँचिरहेका हाम्रा बालबालिकाहरूको भविष्य र त्यसले झल्काउने हाम्रो समाजको वर्तमान तथा भविष्य दुवै अत्यन्तै गम्भीर र चिन्ताजनक देखिन्छ । हाम्रो देशमा पनि बीस लाखभन्दा बढी बालबालिकाहरू श्रममा संलग्न रहेका छन् जसमध्ये १ लाख २७ हजार बालबालिकाहरू निकृष्ट प्रकारको बालश्रममा संलग्न रही आफ्नो जीवन यापन गरिरहेका छन् । यसरी निकृष्ट बाल श्रममा संलग्न हुन बाध्य भएका बालबालिकाहरूमा सर्वाधिक संख्या घरेलु बालश्रमिकहरूको रहेको छ । अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय श्रम संगठनको तथ्याङ्कअनुसार नेपालका सहरी क्षेत्रमा मात्र ५५ हजारभन्दा बढी बालबालिकाहरू घरेलु श्रममा संलग्न रहेका छन् । घरेलु श्रममा संलग्न बालबालिकाहरू विभिन्नखाले हिंसा, शोषण तथा दुव्र्यवहारहरू खप्न बाध्य भइरहेका छन् र पनि यस्तो अवस्थामा थोरै मात्र संघसंस्था तथा सरकारी निकायहरूले यस क्षेत्रलाई आवश्यक मात्रामा ध्यान पुर्याउन सकिरहेको देखिँदैन भने भइरहेका प्रयासहरूमा पनि कमी कमजोरीहरू देखिन्छन् ।

यही करु ालार्इ मध्यनजर गर्दै सिविसले घरेलु बालश्रम र हस्तक्षेपका उपायहरू विषयभित्र विभिन्न कार्यि नर्दिेशकाहरू तयार गरकेा छ र त्यसै अन्तगर्त याे घरलु बालश्रम सामुदायिक अभिमुखीकरण” पुस्तक यहाँहरूमाझ प्रस्तुत गर्न पाउँदा हामीलाई अत्यन्तै खुसी लागेको छ ।

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घरेलु बालश्रम सामुदायिक अभिमुखीकरण

  1. 1. 1;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf
  2. 2. 2 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf
  3. 3. 3;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf 3/]n' afn>d ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f k|sfzsM ;dfh;]jf tyf dfgjclwsf/df dlxnf / afnaflnsf -l;lj;_
  4. 4. 4 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf k|sfzs ;dfh;]jf tyf dfgjclwsf/df dlxnf / afnaflnsf -l;lj;_ rfjlxn, sf7df8f}+ . www.cwish.org.np ;jf{lwsf/ © M ;dfh;]jf tyf dfgjclwsf/df dlxnf / afnaflnsf -l;lj;_ ;Nnfxsf/ M zflGt clwsf/L ;+of]hg M ldng w/]n n]vg M /d]zs'df/ kf}8]n / a]bk|;fb ;fksf]6f ;xof]uLx¿ M k"0f{snf zdf{, o'j/fh l3ld/], k|ltzf b]jfg, dbg lzjfsf]6L, sdn rfkfufFO{ / ;'jf; vltj8f z'4fz'l4 M ;'efj yfkf k|yd k|sfzg M h'g @))% k|sflzt ;+Vof M %)) k|lt ISBN : 99946-816-0-5 lk|—k|]; / 5kfO M 6fOD; ls|ozg k|sfzg ;xof]u M afn>d cGTosf nflu cGt/f{li6«o sfo{s|d, cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gsf] sfof{no nlntk'/ g]kfn .
  5. 5. 5;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf ljZje/ sl/a @$ s/f]8 afnaflnsfx¿ ljljwvfn] >ddf ;+nUg eO{ cfkmgf] afnfkg latfpg afWo 5g . oLdWo] clwstd afnaflnsfx¿ c;+ul7t jf cw{;+ul7t If]qsf] >ddf ;+nUg 5g . afn>d xfd|f] ;dfhsf] gsf/fTds kf6f] xf], h;n] dfgj ;Eotfdfly g} k|Zg p7fpF5 . 3/]n' afn>d o:t} afn>dsf] If]qx¿dWo] Ps k|d'v >d If]q xf] . g]kfndf klg %% xhf/eGbf a9L afnaflnsfx¿ 3/]n' >ddf ;++nUg eO{ hLjg ofkg ul//x]sf 5g . 3/]n' >ddf afnaflnsfsf] ;+nUgtfn] afnaflnsfsf] zf/Ll/s dfgl;s / ;fdflhs ljsf;df c;/ t u5{ g} ;fy} ;Dk'0f{ ;dfhnfO{ g} w]/} kl5 ws]Nb5 / lg/Gt/ ul/aLtkm{ pGd'v u/fpFb5 . t;y{ klg o; 3/]n' afn>d k|yfsf] cGTo x'g' h?/L 5 . 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0f tyf 3/]n' >ddf afnaflnsfnfO{ ;+nUg u/fpg] k|yfs} cGTo ug{sf nflu ;/sf/L, u}/;/sf/L kIfx¿af6 w]/} k|oTgx¿ ul/g' h?/L 5 . g]kfndf >L %sf] ;/sf/ / cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gn] ;+o'Qm ¿kdf lgs[i6 k|sf/ sf] afn>d cGTo ug{ ;doa4 sfo{s|d nfu" ul//x]sf] 5 / 3/]n' afn>d o; sfo{s|dsf] Ps k|d'v nlIft ;d"x klg xf] . 3/]n' afn>ddf c;fWo} sd k|oTgx¿ ePsf] b]lvG5 . o;sf] sf/0f eg]sf] 3/]n' afn>dnfO{ a'emg] / o;df x:tIf]k ug{ cfjZos ;Lk tyf cg'ejsf] sdL klg xf] eGg] nfUb5 . o:tf] cj:yfdf l;lj; -;dfh ;]jftyf dfgj clwsf/df dlxnf / afnaflnsf_ n] 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0f cGTosf nflu :yfgLo lgsfo ljz]ift gu/kflnsfx¿ / cGo u}/;/sf/L ;+3;+:yfx?sf] Ifdtf ljsf; ug]{ p4]Zon] ljleGg lgb]{lzsfx¿ k|sflzt u/]sf]df ;j{k|yd t l;lj;nfO{ xflb{s awfO tyf wGojfb lbg rfxfG5' . oL lgb]{lzsfx¿n] 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0fsf] cGTo tyf lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>d cGTosf nflu ljleGg lgsfox¿ljr ;dembf/L a9fO{ 3/]n' afn>d lgjf/0f ug{ pTk|]l/t ug]{5 / cfjZos sfo{s|dx¿ ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfox¿sf] Ifdtf clej[l4 ug{ dxTjk"0f{ e"ldsf v]Ng]5 eGg] cfzf lnPsf] 5' . k|fSsyg
  6. 6. 6 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf oL lgb]{lzsfx¿sf] k|sfzg g]kfndf afn>dlj?4sf] cleofgdf Ps sf];]9'++uf ;flat x'g]5 eGg] klg czff /fv]sL 5' . o; lgb]{lzsfsf] sfof{Gjogsf] ;Gbe{df b]vfk/]sf sdL sdhf]/Lx¿nfO{ cf}+NofO{ k|fKt ;'emfjx¿sf] cfwf/df l;lj;n] cfufdL lbgdf lgb]{lzsfx¿sf] kl/dfh{g tyf k'gM k|sfzg ub}{ hfcf]; eGg] klg z'esfdgf lbg rfxfG5' . cGtdf l;lj;nufot 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0flj?4sf] cleofgdf ;+nUg x'g'ePsf ;Dk"0f{ ;+3;+:yf÷AolQmx¿nfO{ o; lgb]{lzsf kmnbfoL x'g]5 eGg] k"0f{ ljZj:t 5' . wGojfb . ldlt @))%, @& h'g n}nf 6}Udf] /]•L lgb]{zs cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gsf] sfo{no nlntk'/ g]kfn
  7. 7. 7;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf ljZjdf @$ s/f]8eGbf a9L afnaflnsfx¿ >ddf ;+nUg /x]sf] lttf] oyfy{leq afFlr/x]sf xfd|f afnaflnsfx¿sf] eljio / To;n] emNsfpg] xfd|f] ;dfhsf] jt{dfg tyf eljio b'j} cToGt} uDeL/ / lrGtfhgs b]lvG5 . xfd|f] b]zdf klg aL; nfveGbf a9L afnaflnsfx¿ >ddf ;+nUg /x]sf 5g h;dWo] ! nfv @& xhf/ afnaflnsfx¿ lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] afn>ddf ;+nUg /xL cfkmgf] hLjg ofkg ul//x]sf 5g . o;/L lgs[i6 afn >ddf ;+nUg x'g afWo ePsf afnaflnsfx¿df ;jf{lws ;+Vof 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] /x]sf] 5 . cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gsf] tYofÍcg';f/ g]kfnsf ;x/L If]qdf dfq %% xhf/eGbf a9L afnaflnsfx¿ 3/]n' >ddf ;+nUg /x]sf 5g . 3/]n' >ddf ;+nUg afnaflnsfx¿ ljleGgvfn] lx+;f, zf]if0f tyf b'Jo{jxf/x¿ vKg afWo eO/x]sf 5g / klg o:tf] cj:yfdf yf]/} dfq ;+3;+:yf tyf ;/sf/L lgsfox¿n] o; If]qnfO{ cfjZos dfqfdf Wofg k'/ofpg ;ls/x]sf] b]lvFb}g eg] eO/x]sf k|of;x¿df klg sdL sdhf]/Lx¿ b]lvG5g . o; cj:yfdf 3/]n' >ddf cf7 aif{eGbf a9L ;do sfo{/t /xL nfdf] cg'ej xfl;n u/]sf] ;+:yfsf] x}l;otn] klg xfdLn] cfkmgf cg'ejx¿ ljleGg ;+3;+:yf tyf ;/sf/L lgsfox¿;Fu ;f6f;f6 ug'{ h?/L b]lvG5 h;n] ubf{ cfufdL lbgdf o; If]qdf x'g] ljsf;] x:tIf]kx¿ k|efjsf/L / kl/0ffdd'vL x'g ;s"g . oxL s'/fnfO{ dWogh/ ub}{ xfd|f] ;+:yf ;dfh;]jf tyf dfgjclwsf/df dlxnf / afnaflnsf -l;lj;_ n] 3/]n' afn>d / x:tIf]ksf pkfox¿ ljifoleq ljleGg sfo{lgb]{lzsfx¿ t}of/ u/]sf] 5 / To;} cGtu{t of] æ3/]n' afn>d ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0fÆ k':ts oxfFx¿dfem k|:t't ug{ kfpFbf xfdLnfO{ cToGt} v';L nfu]sf] 5 . xfdL cfzf ub{5f}+ xfd|f] of] k|of; 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0fsf] cGTosf nflu cjZo g} ;fy{sl;4 x'g]5 / o;sf nflu y'k|} kf7sx¿n] o;df n]lvPsf pkfox¿nfO{ Jojxfl/s ¿kdf sfof{Gjog ug'{x'g]5 . cfef/
  8. 8. 8 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf of] k':ts t}of/ kfg{ cxf]/fq ldx]gt ug'{x'g] /d]z kf}8]n tyf a]bk|;fb ;fksf]6fnfO{ xfdL wGojfb glbO/xg ;Sb}gf}+ . ;fy} o;df z'4fz'l4 x]l/lbg] ;'efj yfkf, o;sf] n]—cfp6 l8hfOgsf sfd ug'{x'g] 6fOD; ls|ozgsf ;'j0f{ efO / o;df cfjZos lrqx¿ agfO{ ;3fpg'x'g] /fhg sfkmn], k[YjL >]i7 / pbo efOnfO{ xfdL w]/}—w]/} wGojfb lbg rfxfG5f}+ . o; k':ts k|sfzg ug{ cfly{s ;xof]u pknAw u/fpg] ;+:yf cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gk|lt xfdL cfef/ JoQm ug{ rfxfG5f}+ . cGtdf o; k':ts lgdf{0f, k|sfzg tyf ljt/0fdf ;3fpg'x'g] l;lj;df cfj4 ;Dk"0f{ efOalxgLx¿ tyf sd{rf/L ;fyLx¿nfO{ klg w]/}—w]/} wGojfb lbg rfxfG5' . of] k':ts xfd|f] klxnf] k|of; xf], t;y{ xfdL] o;df ;Defljt sdL / q'l6x¿sf] ;DefjgfnfO{ gsfg{ ;Sb}gf}+ . To;}n] xfdL oxfFx¿sf] ;'emfj, k|ltls|ofsf] af6f] x]l//x]sf x'g]5f}+ . wGojfb zflGt clwsf/L cWoIf
  9. 9. 9;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf ljifo;"rL ;xhstf{nfO{ lgb]{zg @ 3/]n' afn>lds sf] x'g < $ 3/]n' afn>dsf] sf/0f / c;/ !! lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>ddf ;'wf/ Nofpg] pkfox¿ !% 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0flj?4sf] cfrf/;+lxtf @#
  10. 10. 10 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf e"ldsf cfh ljZjdf @$ s/f]8eGbf a9L afnaflnsfx¿ >ddf ;+nUg eO{ hLjg ljtfpg k/]sf]n] lzIff, :jf:Yo, dgf]/~hgnufotsf afnclwsf/af6 jl~rt x'g afWo eO{/x]sf 5g . afn>ddf ;+nUg ePs} sf/0fn] bzf}+ nfv afnaflnsfx¿ zf/Ll/ s dfgl;s ljsf; ug{af6 al~rt x'g k'u]sf 5g . xfd|f] b]zdf 7"nf] ;+Vofdf / x]sf uf]7fnf, vnf;L, xf]6]nnufot ljljw If]qdf sfd ug]{ afn>ldsx¿sf] cj:yf o:t} kL8fbfoL 5 . cem 3/sf] rf/ kvf{nleq /x]/ lgl/x eP/ laxfgb]lv a]n'sf;Dd 3/leqsf wGbfx¿ n'?n'? ul//xg] 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] cj:yf emg} uDeL/ 5 . xfd|f] b]zsf] ;x/L If]qdf dfq %% xhf/eGbf a9L 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿ 5g, h;sf] hLjg si6bfoL 5 / tTsfn ;'wf/fTds tyf lgif]wfTds x:tIf]kx¿ ug'{ h?/L b]lvG5 . o;} ;Gb{edf !$ aif{ eGbf klg sd pd]/sf afnaflnsx¿nfO{ >ddf ;+nUg gu/fpg / !$ jif{eGbf dfly pd]/sf afnaflnsfx¿ 3/]n' >ddf ;+nUg eO{/xFbf pgLx¿sf] clwsf/ /Iff ug{ /f]huf/bftf / ;d'bfosf cGo JolQmx¿nfO{ ;r]t agfpg / kl/rfng ug{ h?/L 5 . o;} ;Gbe{df of] ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb{]lzsf tof/ ul/Psf] xf] .
  11. 11. 11;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf nf nf nf nf nf=========================== cfwf /ft;Dd ;w}+ sfd ug'{k5{ —@ ;fgf] sfFwdf sfd} sfdsf] af]em kg]{ u5{ —@ cfwf /ft;Dd ;w}+ sfd ug'{k5{ —@ ;fgf] sfFwdf sfd} sfdsf] af]em kg]{ u5{ —@ nfn nfn nfn nfn nfn nfn nf/fnf nf slt vfpFm h'7f]k'/f] slt vfpmF ufnL ;+uLt =================================== slt vfpFm h'7f]k'/f] slt vfpmF ufnL af]Ng klg 8/dbf]{ x'G5 ;w}+el/ —@ cfdf a'af;Fu e]6g cfFQ]sf] 5 dg —@ dgsf] s'/f s;nfO{ egf}+ sf] 5 ;'Gg] hg —@ k9g] n]Vg] xfd|f] wf]sf] slxn] k"/f xf]nf ;+uLt =================================== k9g] n]Vg] xfd|f] wf]sf] slxn] k"/f xf]nf xfd|f nflu s;n] kf] ;f]lrlbg] xf]nf —@ df}sf kfP xfdL klg of]Uo aGg ;S5f}+ —@ 3/, ;dfh, b]zsf] nflu s]xL g s]xL u5f}+{ —@ cfwf /ft;Dd ;w}+ sfd ug'{k5{ —@ ;fgf] sfFwdf sfd} sfdsf] af]em kg]{ u5{ —@ 3/, ;dfh, b]zsf] nflu s]xL g s]xL u5f}+{ —$ 3/]n' afn>ldssf] kL8f /rgfM /d]zs'df/ kf}8]n ;+uLtM 6Lsf e08f/L
  12. 12. 12 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf ;d'bfodf 3/]n' afn>dlj?4 r]tgf clej[l4 ug{ tyf pgLx¿nfO{ lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>dlj?4sf] cleofgdf ;fd]n u/fpgsf nflu pgLx¿aLr # 306fsf] 5nkmn rnfpg] p2]Zon] of] lgb]{lzsf tof/ ul/Psf] 5 . ;d'bfoaLr 5nkmn sfo{qmd ;+rfng ubf{ lgDg s'/fdf Wofg k'¥ofpg'xf]; . != 5nkmn sfo{qmd ;+rfng ug{'cl3 ;xefuLx¿;Fu ;xh jftfj/0f agfO{ kl/ro ug{'xf]; / o;kl5 # 306f;Dd 3/]n' afn>dsf] af/]df 5nkmn ul/g] af/]df 5nkmn ul/g] s'/fsf] hfgsf/L lbg'xf]; . @= kl/rokl5 klxnf] lqmofsnfksf] ¿kdf ;xhstf{n] æafn>ldssf] kL8fÆ uLt cfkm" klg ufpg'xf]; / ;xefuLx¿nfO{ p7g cg'/f]w ub}{ pgLx¿nfO{ klg ;Fu;Fu} ufpg nufpg'xf]; . o;kl5 lgb]{lzsfdf pNn]v ePsf] k|lqmof ckgfO{ 5nkmn rnfpg'xf]; . #= ;xefuLx¿aLr ;xh jftfj/0f l;h{gf ug{sf] nflu r'l6snf, 5f]6f syf, sljtf uLt cflb ;'gfpg] / ;xefuLx¿nfO{ klg ;'gfpg nufpg'xf]; . $= ;xefuLx¿;Fu ;s];Dd a9L cGt/lqmof ug{'xf]; . ;Defif0fsf] k|lqmofnfO{ ;s];Dd sd ug{'xf]; . %= of] lgb]{lzsf ;d'bfodf 5nkmn rnfpgsf] nflu Ps dfq ljsNk xf]Og . ;xhstf{n] o;b]lv afx]s cGo l;h{gfTds 9+uaf6 klg 5nkmnnfO{ cufl8 a9fpg ;Sg'x'g]5 . ^= 5nkmn sfo{qmdsf] cGTodf cfrf/;+lxtfdf x:TffIf/ ug{ cfXjfg ug'{xf]; . &= 5nkmn sfo{qmd s:tf] nfUof] < ;xefuLx¿af6 k[i7kf]if0f dfUg'xf]; . *= ;xefuLx¿nfO{ sfo{qmddf ;xefuL ePsf]df wGojfb lb+b} sfo{qmd ;dfkg ePsf] hfgsf/L lbg'xf]; . ;xhstf{nfO{ lgb]{zg
  13. 13. 13;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf 3/]n' afn>lds sf] x'g < ;do M;do M;do M;do M;do M ^) ldg]6 p2]Zo 5nkmnsf] cGTodf ;xefuLx¿ 3/]n' afn>d / lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>dsf] af/]df atfpg ;Sg]5g . lqmofsnfk != ;xefuLx?nfO{ Go'hlk|G6df n]lvPsf] ædgs'df/Lsf] syfÆ k9g nufpg] / lgDg k|Zgx?sf] cfwf/df 5nkmn rnfpg] . dgs'df/L zfxsf] syf dxf]Q/Lsf] uf}zfnfdf km}lnPsf] sfnfhf/sf] dxfdf/Lsf] sf/0f dgs'df/L ;fg} x'Fbf pgsf cfdfafa'sf] d[To' eof] . xh'/cfdf / sfsfsf] x]/rfxaf6 pgL / pgsf efOalxgLx¿ x's]{sf lyP . pgsf b'O{j6f efO tyf Pp6L alxgL lyP . b'O{j6f efOx¿dWo] Ps hgf kf]v/fdf / Ps hgf sf7df8f}+df 3/]n' afn>ldssf] ?kdf sfd ug]{ uy]{ . alxgL rflxF ;fg} ePsf]n] xh'/cfdf;Fu a:blyOg . pgL rflx+ lj/f6gu/sf] Ps hgf pBf]ukltsxfF a;]sL lyOg . !# jif{sL dgs'df/Ln] :s'n hfg] tLa| dg x'Fbfx'Fb} klg o:tf] cj;/ slxNo} kfOgg . laxfgb]lv a]n'sf !) ah];Dd efG;fs} wGbf ub}{ pgnfO{ 7Ls x'GYof] . efG;fsf] sfdaf6 km';{b kfPsf] k|yd r/0f
  14. 14. 14 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf a]nf n'uf w'g] tyf cGo ;/;kmfO ug]{ sfd ug'{ kb{Yof] . c¿sf] cfdfafa'n] 5f]/ f 5f]/Lx¿nfO{ dfof u/]sf] b]Vbf pgnfO{ cfkmgf cfdfafa'sf] ;Demgfn] ;tfpFYof] / c¿n] gb]Vg] u/L n's]/ ?g] ub{lyg . pgnfO{ dlxgfjf/L ? @)) .– lbOg] ul/GYof] . Tof] klg dflnsn] xh'/cfdfnfO{ lbg] u/]sf] x'gfn] pgL Tof] k};f cfkm" rnfpg kfpFlbglyOg . dflnssf 5f]/fx¿af6 k6s–k6s of}gzf]if0f / b'Jo{jxf/sf] l;sf/ x'g' kb{Yof] t/ pgsf] ph'/L ;'Gg] sf]xL lyPg . Psk6s cfkm"dfly ePsf] o:tf] Jojxf/sf] af/]df dflnSgL;Fu eGbf dflnSgLn] pN6} cfkmgf 5f]/fsf] kIf lnP/ dgs'df/LnfO{ huN6ofPsL lyOg . o;a]nf t dgs'df/Ln] dflnSgL;Fu s]xL eGg] cfF6 ug{ ;lsgg t/ dgdg} kl5 7"nf] eP/ dflnSgL / p;sf 5f]/fx¿n] u/]sf] b'Jo{jxf/sf] lj?4df abnf lng] c7f]6 ul/g . 5nkmnsf nflu k|Zgx¿ != dgs'df/Lsf] cfdfafa'sf] s;/L d[To' eP5 < @= pgsf b'O{ hgf efOx¿ s] sfd ubf{ /x]5g < #= dgs'df/L s;sf] 3/df sxfF a;]sL /lx5g < $= pgn] ToxfF s]–s] sfdx¿ ug'{ kbf]{/x]5 < %= pgn] :s'n hfg] cj;/ lsg kfOgl5g < ^= pgL lsg s;}n] gb]Vg] u/L n's]/ ?g] ub{lyg < &= dflnsn] lbPsf] tna dgs'df/Ln] rnfpg kfpFlyg < *= pgnfO{ dflnSgLn] lsg s'6]sL xf]lng < (= pgL s:tf] k|sf/sf] afn>lds x'g < !)= 3/]n' afn>lds s;nfO{ eGg] < !!= lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>d eg]sf] s] xf] < !@= ufF;, af;, skf;, lzIff, :jf:Yonufotsf afnaflnsfn] kfpg] ;a} lsl;dsf clwsf/x¿ pkef]u ub}{ afnaflnsfs} JolQmTj ljsf;sf] nflu cfkmg} 3/leq nufOg] ;fdfGo sfd afn>d xf] <
  15. 15. 15;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf @= ;xefuLn] eg]sf clGtd tLgj6f k|Zgsf] pQ/ Go'hlk|G6÷sfnf]kf6Ldf l6Kg'xf]; . #= ;xefuLx?aLr a'l4dfgsf] syf Go'hlk|G6df n]vL s'g} Pp6f ;xefuLnfO{ ;a}n] ;'Gg] u/L k9g nufpg] . a'l4dfgsf] syf t]x|y'd 3/ ePsf] a'l4dfg nfdfnfO{ 3/df vfg nufpg g} wf}–wf} k/]sf]n] * jif{s} pd]/df p;sf] sfsfn] sf7df08f} NofO{ xl/axfb'/sf] 3/df dlxgfsf] ? @)).– Kffpg] u/L /flvlbP . a'l4dfgn] xl/axfb'/sf 3/df 3/leqsf sfdx¿sf] cltl/Qm af/Ldf ;fukft /f]Kg] sfd klg ug{' kb{Yof] . ;'?s} lbgb]lv xl/axfb'/ / pgsf] kl/jf/n] a'l4dfgnfO{ /fd|f] Jojxf/ u/]sf lyP . Ps b'O{ dlxgf al;;s]kl5 a'l4dfgn] klg OdfGbf/L;fy sfd ug{ yfNof] . pm xl/axfb'/sf] 5f]/fsf] ;fyL klg eof] . o;} qmddf xl/axfb'/n] a'l4dfgnfO{ 3/ glhs} Pp6f u}/;/sf/L ;+:yfn] ;+rfng u/]sf] cgf}krfl/s afnsIffdf egf{ ul/lbP . a'l4dfg afnsIffdf k9g kfpFbf ;fx|} g} v';L eof] lsgls p;n] k9g kfpF5' eGg] s'/f ;f]r]s} lyPg . p;n] /f]huf/bftfnfO{ cfkmg} cleefjssf] ¿kdf ;Demg yfNof] . xl/axfb'/n] dlxgfsf] ? @)).– a}+sdf hDdf ul/lbg yfn] . dlxg}lkR5] a'l4dfgnfO{ hDdf ePsf] ?lkofFsf] hfgsf/L lbg yfn] . a'l4dfgn] gf} dlxg] cgf}krfl/s sIff /fd|/L kf/ u¥of] . o;kl5 xl/axfb'/n] ;+:yfsf] ;xof]u lnP/ ljBfnodf sIff $ df egf{ ul/lbP . a'l4dfg ;/f;/ sIffdf kf; x'Fb} uof] lsgls pm hlxn] klg sfd ;s]/ k9g] / u[xsfo{ ug]{ ub{Yof] . ga'em]sf] s'/f xl/axfb'/nfO{ ;f]Wg] ub{Yof] . rf8af8df xl/axfb'/n] a'l4dfgnfO{ gofF n'uf xflnlbg], tnasf] cltl/Qm o;f] b'O{rf/ k};f k'm/df;L ug{ klg lbg] ub{y] . a'l4dfg a]nfavtdf 3/kl/jf/;Fu e]63f6 ug{sf nflu t]x|y'd klg hfg] ub{Yof] . ;f]xL 3/df a;]/ a'l4dfgn] cfO= P=;Dd kf; u¥of] . kl5 p;n] xl/axfb'/s} ;Nnfxdf cfO= P= k9]sL Pp6L o'jtL;Fu ljx] u/L xl/axfb'/s} 3/ glhs} 8]/f lnP/ a:g yfn] . a'l4dfgn] xl/axfb'/sf] 3/df hDdf ePsf] k};fn] Pp6f k;n vf]nL hLjg lgjf{x ug{ yfn]sf 5g . k|To]s b'Mv;'vdf xl/axfb'/sf] 3/ hfg] cfpg] ub{5g .
  16. 16. 16 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf $= cl3Nnf] k6s ;'gfOPsf] dgs'df/Lsf] syf / a'l4dfgsf] syfdf s] km/s 5 < ;xefuLx?nfO{ k|Zg ug{'xf]; / b'O{rf/ hgf ;xefuLx?nfO{ pQ/ eGg nufpg'xf]; . %= kl5Nnf] syfdf a'l4dfgsf] hLjg ;kmn x'g'sf] kl5 s]–s] sf/0fx? 5g < ^= lgisif{sf] ?kdf 3/]n' afn>fd, lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>fd / afnsfd eg]sf] s] xf] < eGg] Go'hlk|G6df n]lvPsf] ;fdu|L k|:t't ug{'xf]; . afn>d s] xf] < afn>dsf nflu If]qLo sfo{;d"x -cf/8An'hL–l;Pn_n] u/]sf] kl/efiffcg';f/ !* jif{d'lgsf afnaflnsfåf/f pgLx¿sf] :jf:Yo, zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, af}l4s, g}lts tyf ;fdflhs ljsf;df gsf/fTds k|efj kg]{ u/L tyf pgLx¿sf] lzIff k|fKt ug]{ clwsf/ s'l07t x'g] u/L ul/g] sfd g} afn>d xf] . afnsfd s] xf] < afnaflnsfsf] zf/Ll/s dfgl;s ljsf;df gsf/fTds c;/ gkg]{ u/L pgLx¿sf] ;fdflhsLs/0f ug{, ;Lkx¿ l;Sg l;sfpgsf nflu tyf afnclwsf/sf] ;+/If0f x'g] u/L cfkmg} 3/df jf ljBfnodf jf ;dfhdf u/fOg] sfd afn>d xf]Og . o:tf sfdx¿n] afnclwsf/;DaGwL s'g} klg cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gx¿n] ;'lglZrt u/]sf clwsf/x¿dfly x:tIf]k ub}{gg . 3/]n' afn>d s]nfO{ eGg] < sfg'gåf/f dfGotfk|fKt sfd ug]{ pd]/ gk'u]sf jf ;f]eGbf sd pd]/sf afnaflnsfx¿ t]>f] JolQm jf /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/]n' sfdwGbfdf ;+nUg x'g] sfo{nfO{ g} 3/]n' afn>d elgG5 . s:tf] 3/]n' afn>dnfO{ lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>d eGg] < sfg'gåf/f dfGotfk|fKt sfd ug]{ pd]/eGbf sd pd]/sf jf ;f] pd]/ k'u]sf afnaflnsfx¿ bf;, bf;h:tf] Jojxf/ jf afFwf >d, ha/h:tL >d, a]rlavg
  17. 17. 17;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf tyf of}gzf]if0f jf b'Jo{jxf/df k/L lzIff, :jf:Yo, g}ltstfdf uDeL/ lsl;dsf] c;/ kg]{ cj:yfdf t]>f] JolQm jf /f]huf/bftfsf] 3/]n' sfdwGbfdf ;+nUg x'g] sfo{nfO{ lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>d elgG5 . &= g]kfndf 3/]n' afn>fldsx? slt 5g < tYofÍ k|:t't ug{'xf]; . cfOPncf]–cfOk]sn] ;g @))! df g]kfnsf] /fhwfgL sf7df08f}df u/]sf] ¥oflk8 Pl;:d]G6cg';f/ k|To]s % j6f 3/dWo] Pp6fn] afn>ldsx¿ /fVg] u/]sf] s'/f cg';Gwfgn] k|i6 kf/]sf] 5 . k|foM wgf8o 3/x¿n] ! hgf k"0f{sfnLg 3/]n' >lds /fVg] u/]sf 5g . ;du|df eGbf /fhwfgL sf7df08f} dxfgu/kflnsfdf dfq !% jif{d'lgsf sl/a @@ xhf/ afnaflnsfx¿ 3/]n' >ddf ;+nUg /x]sf 5g . g]kfndf !* jif{d'lgsf 3/]n' >ldsx¿ s'n *# xhf/ /x]sf 5g . tLdWo] sl/a $@ xhf/ ^ ;o &$ hgf !$ jif{ jf ;f]d'lgsf 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿ 5g . tLdWo] @ ltxfO !) b]lv !$ jif{;Ddsf afnaflnsfx¿ sfddf ;+nUg 5g . o;af6 g]kfndf !) b]lv !$ jif{s} pd]/b]lv 3/]n' >ddf k|j]z ub{5g eGg] kfOPsf] 5 . afn>d afnaflnsfsf] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, ;fhdflhs ljsf;df c;/ ub{5 . afnaflnsfx? lx+;f, b'Jo{jxf/ tyf z]if0faf6 ;'/lIft x'b}gg . afnaflnsfsf] ljrf/ / efjgfsf] plrt sb/ ul/b}g . afnsfd afnaflnsfsf] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, ;fhdflhs ljsf;df c;/ ub}{g afnaflnsfx? lx+;f, b'Jo{jxf/ tyf z]if0faf6 ;'/lIft x'G5g . afnaflnsfsf] ljrf/ / efjfgfsf] plrt sb/ ul/Psf] x'G5 .
  18. 18. 18 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf tLdWo] w]/}h;f]n] tna gkfPsf] / cfwfeGbf a9L s]6fx¿ ePsf] atfOPsf] 5 . &@ k|ltzt 3/]n' afn>ldssf cfdfafa' b'j} lhpFb} /x]sf] kfOPsf] 5 . afn>ddf k7fpg] clwsf+z 3/x¿df $ b]lv ^ hgf;Ddsf] hfxfg 5 . z}lIfs ;fdu|L æ3/]n' afn>ldssf syfx¿Æ, 3/]n' afn>lds sf] x'g <, lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>d, afnsfd / g]kfndf afn>ldsx¿ slt 5g < ;Demg}kg]{ s'/f olb s'g} afnaflnsfx¿ hLljsf]kfh{gsf] nflu jf >ldssf] ¿kdf c?sf] 3/df uP/ bf; jf bf;h:t} sfd ub{5g eg] To:tf afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ 3/]n' afn>lds elgG5 . 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿ 3/leqsf sfddf nuftf/ nflu/xg'kg]{ x'Fbf pgLx¿n] k9g, v]Ng, dgf]/~hg ug cj;/ kfPsf x'Fb}gg . pgLx¿n] ;fg} pd]/df sfd ug'{kg]{ x'G5 . o;/L 3/df /flvPsf afn>ldsx¿ !$ jif{d'lgsf 5g, jf !$ jif{dflysf eP klg bf; h:t} eP/ sfd ug'{k/]sf] 5, k9g, v]Ng kfpFb}gg, a]rlavgdf k/]sf 5g, oftgf, of}gzf]if0f jf b'Jo{jxf/df k/]sf 5g eg] o:tf] cj:yfsf] 3/]n' afn>dnfO{ lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] jf uDeL/ lsl;dsf] zf]if0f ePsf] 3/]n' afn>d elgG5 . t/ afnaflnsfnfO{ k9g], v]Ng] cflb cj;/x¿ lbO{, ;Lkx¿ l;Sg l;sfpgsf nflu tyf afnclwsf/x¿sf] ;+/If0f x'g] u/L cfkmg} 3/df jf ljBfnodf u/fOg] sfd afn>d geO{ afnsfd xf] .
  19. 19. 19;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf 3/]n' afn>dsf] sf/0f / c;/ ;do M;do M;do M;do M;do M #) ldg]6 p2]Zo ;xefuLx¿ 3/]n' afn>dsf] sf/0f, kl/0ffd / ug'{kg]{ sfdsf] af/]df atfpg ;Sg]5g . lqmofsnfk != ;xefuLx?nfO{ b'O{ ;d"xdf ljefhg u/L Pp6f ;d"xnfO{ 3/]n' afn>fdsf] sf/0f / csf]{ ;d"xnfO{ 3/]n' afn>fdaf6 afnaflnsf, ;dfh / b]znfO{ kg]{ c;/sf af/]df 5nkmn u/L ;d"xsf] lgisif{ k|:t't ug{ nufpg'xf]; . 3/]n' afn>dsf] sf/0f s] xf] t < 3/]n' afn>d Pp6f uDeL/ ;fdflhs ;d:of xf] . of] cfly{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts /fhgLlts kl/j]z;Fu ufFl;Psf] ;jfn xf] . o;sf sf/0fx¿ hl6n lsl;dsf 5g M tLdWo] k|d'v ¿kdf ul/aL÷a]/f]huf/L, clzIff, cr]tgf, ;:tf] >d, ;lhnf];Fu nufpg ;lsg] >d÷ljb|f]x ug{ g;Sg] cj:yf, a9bf] hg;+Vof, ;z:q ;+3if{÷;fdflhs c;'/Iff÷lj:yfkg, c;dfg ;fdflhs ljsf;, ;j{;'ne lzIffsf] cefj, kfl/jfl/s lx+;f, kfl/jfl/s ljrng÷ljof]u, ;x/L /demdsf] cfsif{0f, ;fdflhs lnËe]b cflb /x]sf 5g . bf];|f] r/0f
  20. 20. 20 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf 3/]n' afn>daf6 afnaflnsf, ;dfhdfly s:tf] c;/ k5{ < k9g kfpFb}gg . s'kf]lift x'gk'U5g . afnaflnsfsf] a]rlavgdf a[l4 x'G5 . pgLx¿n] cfkmgf] :jtGqtf u'dfpg k'Ub5g . of}gzf]if0fsf] l;sf/ x'G5g ÷of}gljs[ltn] k|>o kfpF5 . afnfkg pkef]u ug{] cj;/ kfpFb}gg . cfTdfanxLg afnaflnsfx¿sf] ljsf; x'G5 . Psflt/ cfdfafa';Fu lj5f]l8g', csf{lt/ b'Jo{jxf/ vKg'kbf{ pgLx¿ lg/f; / lrGtfu|:t b]lvG5g . tgfjsf sf/0f c?dfly b'Jo{jxf/ / ljWj+;fTds lsl;dsf] Jojxf/ b]vfpg] ;+efjgf x'G5 . pgLx¿df abnfsf] efjgf pTkGg x'g] ub{5 . ;du|df afnclwsf/af6 al~rt x'gk'Ub5g . ;dfhdf b'O{ ju{sf afnaflnsfx¿ pTkfbg x'gk'Ub5g . eljiodf cbIf gful/sx¿ pTkfbg x'gk'Ub5g . xfd|f] ;dfhsf clwsf+z JolQmn] 3/]n' afn>dnfO{ Psbd} ;xh / :jefljs ¿kdf lnPsf] kfOG5 . t/ cfkm" a;]sf 3/sf dflnssf cfkm" ;/xsf bfh'lbbL efOalxgLx¿ ljBfno uPsf], km';{bdf v]n]sf], cfkmgf cfdfafa';Fu n'6'k'6' u/]sf] b]Vbf 3/]n' afn>ddf ;+nUg k|To]s afnaflnsfx¿sf] dg slt s'Fl8Psf] x'G5 eGg] s'/f pgLx¿sf] x[bosf] s'/f vf]tNbf dfq yfxf x'G5 .
  21. 21. 21;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf @= lgisif{sf] ?kdf 3/]n' afn>fdsf] sf/0f / ;xefuLx?nfO{ dgs'df/Lsf] syf :d/0f ug{ nufpFb} ul/aLsf] s'rqm d]6fsf8{af6 5nkmn ub}{ k|:t't ug{'xf]; . lgs[i6 afn>fdn] afnaflnsfdfly, ;dfhdfly / b]zdfly kfg]{ c;/sf] af/]df k|i6 kfg{'xf]; . z}lIfs ;fdu|L 3/]n' afn>dsf] sf/0f / c;/ n]v]sf] Go'hlk|G6, ul/aLsf] s'rqm k|i6 kfg]{ n]v]sf d]6fsf8{x¿ 3/]n' afn>daf6 ;[lht ul/aLsf] s'rs|
  22. 22. 22 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf s] of] ;fdflhs ;d:of xn ug{ ;lsGg t < cjZo ;lsG5 . of] ;d:of hl6n k|s[ltsf] ePsf]n] xn ug{ klg nfdf] ;do nfUg;S5 . o;sf nflu cGt/f{li6«o, /fli6«o txb]lv u|fdL0f tx;Ddaf6 uDeL/ k|of; x'g' cfjZos 5 . afn>dsf] lj?4df ;r]tgf cleofg ;+rfng ug]{ tyf cGt/f{li6«o tyf /fli6«o txdf afn>dlj?4 ag]sf sfg'gx¿ Jojxfl/s ¿kdf nfu" x'g ;s]df of] ;d:of xn x'g;S5 . cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7gn] afn>d pGd"ngsf nflu cGt/f{li6«o sfo{qmd ;+rfng u/]sf] 5 . b]zleq of] sfd ug{sf nflu s]Gb«b]lv lhNnf / ufpF tx;Ddsf ;/sf/L, u}/;sf/L ;+3;+:yfx¿sf] ;fy} l;Ëf] ;dfh kl/rflnt x'g' h?/L 5 . ;dfh kl/jt{gsf nflu cGo txsf ;d'bfosf] cltl/Qm ljleGg ljBfnox¿df cWoog/t nfvf}+ ljBfyL{x¿sf] 7"nf] e"ldsf x'G5 . afnaflnsf eg]sf ;dfh kl/jt{gsf afxs x'g . pgLx¿sf] hf]; hfFu/ tyf pgLx¿df /x]sf] /rgfTds tyf l;h{gfTds IfdtfnfO{ afn>dlj?4sf] cleofgdf nufpg] xf] eg] 3/]n' afn>dsf] lj?4df hgr]tgf hufpg] sfddf pNn]vgLo k|ult x'g] s'/f lglZrt 5 .
  23. 23. 23;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>ddf ;'wf/ Nofpg] pkfox¿ ;do M;do M;do M;do M;do M () ldg]6 p2]Zo ;xefuLx¿ lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] cj:yfdf ;'wf/ ug{] pkfox¿sf] af/]df atfpg ;Sg]5g . lqmofsnfk != ;xefuLx?nfO{ lgs[i6 cj:yfdf 3/]n' afn>ldsdfly eO/x]sf] kL8f sd ug{ tkfO{+ s]–s] ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 < eg]/ % ldg]6 ;f]Rg nufpg] / JolQmut ?kdf eGg jf n]Vg nufpg'xf]; . @= ;xefuLx?sf] hf]8L agfP/ hf]8Lsf] lgisif{ n]Vg nufpg'xf]; . lgisif{ n]Vgsf] nflu Pp6f km'ln:s]ksf] kGgf lbg'xf]; . #= rf/–rf/ hgfsf] ;d"x agfO{ ;d"xut lgisif{ ;f]xL km'ln:s]kdf n]Vg nufpg'xf]; . $= cf7–cf7 hgfsf] ;d"x agfO{ ;d"xut lgisif{ ;f]xL km'ln:s]ksf] csf{kl§ n]Vg nufpg'xf]; . t];|f] r/0f
  24. 24. 24 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf %= ;xefuLx?nfO{ @ ;d"xdf ljefhg ug'{xf];, / ;f] ;d"xdf cl3Nnf] ;d"xn] lgsfn]sf] lgisif{df 5nkmn u/L n]Vg nufpg'xf]; . ^= lgisif{nfO{ b'O{lt/ leQfdf 6fF:g'xf]; / b'j} ;d"xnfO{ Pscsf{sf] lgisif{ x]/L yk36 u/L Go'hlk|G6df lgisif{ n]Vg nufpg'xf]; . & lgisif{ :j?k ;xhstf{n] lgs[i6 cj:yfdf /x]sf 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] cj:yfdf ;'wf/ Nofpg ;d'bfon] ug{;Sg] s'/fx?cGtu{t s'g} yk s'/fx? eP yk u/L lgisif{ lbg'xf]; . 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ s;/L ;xof]u ug{ ;lsG5 < ;d'bfon] lgDg k|sf/n] ;xof]u ug{ ;Sb5 M cfˆgf] 3/df ePsf 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿k|lt dfgjLo Jojxf/ u/]/ cfkm"n] hfg]sf s'/fx¿ 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ l;sfOlbP/ cgf}krfl/s afnsIff jf ljBfno k9g] h:tf cj;/x¿ lbnfpg tyf To:tf] cj;/ kfPsf] v08df pgLx¿?nfO{ hfg ;xof]u u/]/ 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿af6 s'g} uNtL eP cfkm}+ ;Demfpg] a'emfpg] sfd u/]/, afnclwsf/ tyf afn>d;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gsf] af/]df hfgsf/L /fv]/, b]zleq afnaflnsfsf xslxtsf nflu ag]sf sfg'gx¿k|lt rf;f] /fv]/, afnclwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt s'/fx¿ 3/]n' afn>ldssf nflu klg ;dfg 9+un] nfu" x'g] s'/f x'g eGg] s'/fsf] x]Ssf cfkm"n] /fv]/ / c?nfO{ klg atfP/ afnaflnsfdfly ePsf lx+;fx¿sf] lj?4df tyf 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] syf, sljtf, n]vx¿ cflb n]v]/, tyf kqklqsfdf 5kfP/ . ufpF3/, 5/l5d]slt/ x'g] afn>ldsx¿dfly x'g] lx+;fsf] lj?4df pleP/, kLl8tx¿sf] kIfdf af]n]/, !$ aif{eGbf sd pd]/sf afnaflnsfnfO{ ;xof]uLsf] ¿kdf g/fv]/ . kl/jt{gsf] ;+jfxs eP/ ,
  25. 25. 25;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf ufpF3/df ;+rfng u/]sf afnSna tyf afnaflnsfx¿sf] ;d"xx¿nfO{ ;xof]u u/]/, 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] btf{ ug{ ;xof]u u/]/, lgs[i6 cj:yf cyjf cToGt bogLo cj:yfdf /x]sf afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ ;xof]u u/]/, pgLx¿sf] kIfdf pleP/ . lgs[i6 k|sf/sf] afn>dsf] lj?4df ;8s gf6s, ;f+:s[lts sfo{qmdx¿ ;+rfng u/]/ *= 3/]n' afn>fd;Fu ;DalGwt sfg'g gLlt lgod / sfo{qmdx?sf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbg'xf]; / To:tf s'/f sfof{Gjog ug{ pgLx?sf] e"ldsfsf] af/]df 5nkmn ug'{xf]; . 3/]n' afn>dlj?4sf sfg'gx¿ cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g afnclwsf/ dxf;lGw !(*( afnaflnsfx¿aLr hft, hflt, lnË, j0f{, hGd, cflb s'g} klg s'/fsf] cfwf/df e]befj ug{ gkfOg] cfdfafa'af6 x]/rfx kfpg] kl/ro, /fli6«otfsf] clwsf/ kfpg] la5f]l8Psf afnaflnsfx¿n] cfdfafa';Fu lgoldt e]63f6 ug{ kfpg] dgdf nfu]sf s'/f eGg kfpg] ;+u7g agfpg kfpg] lzIff k|fKt ug{ kfpg] zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s b'Jo{jxf/af6 ;+/If0f kfpg] km';{bsf] a]nf cf/fd ug{ kfpg] cfly{s zf]if0faf6 ;+/If0f kfpg]
  26. 26. 26 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf of}g zf]if0f tyf b'Jo{jxf/af6 d'lQm kfpg] ckx/0f tyf a]rlavgaf6 ;+/If0f kfpg] #= /f]huf/Ldf ;+nUg x'g kfpg] Go"gtd pd]/;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7g -cfO=Pn=cf]=_ sf] dxf;lGw g+= !#*, ;g !(&# /f]huf/Ldf nufpg ;lsg] Go"gtd pd]/ !% jif{ tf]lsPsf] 5 . -wf/f @=#_ cfly{s z}lIfs ;'ljwf kof{Kt ljsl;t gePsf] l:yltdf /f]huf/Lsf] nflu Go"gtd pd]/ !$ jif{ sfod ug{ ;lsg]5 . -wf/f @=$_ $= lgs[i6 cj:yfsf] afn>d;DaGwL cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7g -cfO=Pn cf]=_sf] dxf;lGw g+= !*@, h'g ! ;g !((( dxf;lGwn] !* jif{d'lgsf ;a} afnaflnsfnfO{ hf]lvdo'Qm >ddf nufpg lgif]w u/]sf] 5 . dxf;lGwn] hf]lvdo'Qm afn>dleq lgDg s'/fx¿nfO{ ;d]6]sf] 5 M != bf;Tj jf ;f] ;/xsf ;a} :j¿kx¿, afnaflnsfsf] a]rlavg, cf];f/k;f/, C0f aFw'jf, afFwf>d, ;z:q ;+3if{sf nflu afnaflnsfsf] clgjfo{ jf ha/h:tL egf{nufot s'g} klg ha/h:tL jf clgjfo{ >d @= b]xJofkf/, clZnn lrq0f jf k|bz{gx¿sf nflu afnaflnsfsf] k|of]u, k|flKt jf ck{0f #= u}/sfg'gL lqmofsnfkx¿ vf;u/L nfu" cf}ifwx¿sf] pTkfbg tyf cf];f/k;f/sf] nflu afnaflnsfsf] k|of]u, k|flKt jf ck{0f . $= afnaflnsfx¿sf] :jf:Yo, ;'/Iff jf g}ltstfdf xflg k'¥ofpg;Sg] sfo{x¿ .
  27. 27. 27;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf cGt/f{li6«o >d ;+u7g -cfO=Pn=cf]=_sf] l;kmfl/; g+= !() o;n] lgDg sfo{x¿nfO{ hf]lvdk"0f{ sfo{sf ¿kdf kl/eflift u/]sf] 5 M != zf/Ll/s, dgf]j}1flgs / of}gb'Jo{jxf/ x'g;Sg] sfo{ @= hldgd'lg, kfgLd'lg, vt/gfs prfO jf aGb :yfgdf ug'{kg]{ sfo{ #= vt/gfs oGqx¿, pks/0fx¿ / cf}hf/x¿;Fusf] sfo{ jf ux|f}+ jhgx¿ xft}n] ;+rfng jf cf];f/k;f/ ug'{kg]{ sfo{ $= c:j:y jftfj/0fdf ul/g] sfo{, cToflws tfk, Wjlg, sDkgdf ug'{kg]{ sfo{ %= sl7g aGb]hdf ug'{kg]{ sfo{, nfdf] ;do;Dd ug'{kg]{, /ftdf ug'{kg]{ sfo{, y'gfdf /fv]/ ul/g] sfo{ /fli6«o sfg'gx¿ != g]kfn clw/fHosf] ;+ljwfg @)$& s;}nfO{ klg afFwf jf bf; t'Nofpg jf OR5flj?4 sfddf nufpg gkfOg] -wf/f @) pkwf/f !_ gfafnsnfO{ s'g} snsf/vfgf, vfgL jf o:t} cGo s'g} hf]lvdk"0f{ sfddf nufpg gkfOg] -wf/f @) pkwf/f @_ @= afnaflnsf;DaGwL P]g @)$* !^ jif{ pd]/ gk'u];DdnfO{ afnaflnsf dflgPsf] 5 . 5f]/f, 5f]/L, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL, ljjfxcl3 jf kl5 hGd]sf] eGg] h:tf cfwf/df s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ e]befj ug'{ x'Fb}g . afnaflnsfk|lt qm'/ jf oftgfk"0f{ Jojxf/ ug'{ x'Fb}g . o;f] ul/Pdf Ifltk"lt{ e/fO{ ?= %))).–;Dd hl/jfgf jf ! jif{;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 .
  28. 28. 28 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf afa' kQf gnfu]sf afnaflnsfn] afa'–afh]sf] gfd n]Vg'kg]{ 7fpFdf cfdf / cfdfsf] afa'sf] gfd pNn]v ug{ kfpg]5g . !) jif{eGbf d'lgsf afnaflnsfn] s'g} klg ck/fw u/] pgLx¿nfO{ ;hfo ug'{ x'Fb}g . afnaflnsfnfO{ cg}lts k];fdf nufpg x'Fb}g, o; p2]Zon] kmf]6f] lvRg, k|sfzg ug{, rl/qdf cf3ft kg]{ 36gf ljj/0f k|sfzg ug{, nfu" cf}ifw tyf gzfn' kbfy{sf] laqmL ljt/0fdf ;+nUg u/fpg x'Fb}g . o;f] u/]df ? !),))).– ;Dd hl/jfgf jf ! jif{ s}b jf b'j} ;hfo tyf nfu"–kbfy{;DaGwL eP yk % jif{;Dd s}bsf] ;hfo x'g]5 . a]jfl/;] afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ /fVg afnsNof0f u[xx¿sf] :yfkgf / ;+rfng ul/g]5 . s;'/sf] cleof]u nfuL y'gfdf a:g'kg]{, s}bsf] ;hfo kfPsf, nfu" cf}ifwsf] s'ntdf nfu]sf, 3/kl/jf/af6 efuL lx+8g], cg}lts lqmofsnfkdf ;+nUg JolQm;Fu /x]sf jf lghsf] cf>odf a:g'kg]{ cflb afnaflnsfnfO{ /fVg afn;'wf/ u[xsf] :yfkgf / ;+rfng ul/g]5 . ;':tdgl:yltsf afnaflnsfsf nflu ;':tdgl:ylt s]Gb«sf] ;+rfng ul/g]5 . afnaflnsfsf] kIfdf sfg'g Joj;foL geP;Dd afnaflnsfsf] d'2fsf] sf/afxL / lsgf/f ug{ x'Fb}g . afnaflnsfsf] d'2f x]g{ 5'§} afncbfntsf] u7g ul/g], ;f] geP;Dd k|To]s lhNnf cbfntdf afnOhnf; u7g ul/g]5 . s'g} klg afnaflnsf jfbL jf k|ltjfbL ePsf] d'2fnfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ sf/afxL lsgf/f ug'{k5{ . $= afn>d -lgif]w tyf lgoldt ug]{_ P]g @)%^ !$ jif{ gk'u]sf afnaflnsfnfO{ >ldssf ¿kdf sfddf nufpg x'Fb}g . afnaflnsfnfO{ /ftdf -;fFem ^ ah]b]lv laxfg ^ ah];Dd_ sfddf nufpg x'Fb}g . pgLx¿nfO{ lbgsf] ^ 306f / xKtfsf] #^ 306feGbf a9L sfddf
  29. 29. 29;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf nufpg x'Fb}g . nuftf/ # 306f sfd u/]kl5 cfwf 306f lj>fd / xKtfsf] ! lbg ljbf lbg'k5{ . pQm lj>fdsf] ;do / ljbfsf] lbgsf] kfl/>lds s§f ug{ kfOg]5}g . olb o;sf] kfngf gu/L sfd nufPdf ? %,))) .– ;Dd hl/jfgf jf @ dlxgf;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 . s;}n] klg afnaflnsfnfO{ nnfOkmsfO{, em'SofO{, 8/ qf;, k|nf]eg, bjfjdf kf/L jf cGo s'g} tl/sfn] lghsf] OR5flj?4 >ldssf] ¿kdf sfddf nufpg' x'Fb}g . OR5fljkl/t sfddf nufPdf ! jif{;Dd s}b jf ? %),))) .– ;Dd hl/jfgf jf @ dlxgf;Dd s}b jf b'j} ;hfo x'g]5 . ph'/L s;n] lbg] < dfly elgPsf ;hfo x'g] s;'/ ug]{sf lj?4df afnaflnsfsf tkm{af6 lghsf] afa', cfdf, ;+/Ifs / xsjfnfn] ph'/ lbg;S5 . P]gadf]lhd ;hfo x'g] s;'/;DaGwL d'2f h'g;'s} JolQm jf >L % sf] ;/sf/sf] ph'/Laf6 rNg]5 . ph'/L sxfF lbg] < afncbfnt u7g ePsf] eP afncbfntdf geP lhNnf cbfntdf ph'/L lbg ;lsg]5 . ph'/L slxn];Dddf lbg] < s;'/ ePsf] u/]sf] ldltn] Ps jif{leqdf lbg'kb{5 . t/ ablgotk"j{s afnssf] ;DklQ a]rlavg u/]sf]df hlxn];'s} klg / afnsnfO{ cg}lts sfddf nufPsf]df ;f] sfd eP u/]sf] ldltn] # jif{;Dd gfln; nfUg ;S5 . t/ hlt l9nf] u¥of] plt ck/fwL pDsg;Sg], k|df0fx¿ gfl;g;Sg] ePsf]n] ;s];Dd l56f] ph'/L ug'{kb{5 . z}lIfs ;fdu|L M afn>d Go"gLs/0f ub}{ lg/fs/0fsf lbzfdf nfUg] pkfox¿, 3/]n' afn>lds;DawL ;"rgf ;Fufnf]
  30. 30. 30 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf *= cGTodf ;xefuLx?dfem olb xfdLn] cfkm'nfO{ 3/]n' afn>fd lj?4 pEofpg] xf] eg] cfrf/;+lxtfdf x:tfIf/ ug{ cfJxfg ug'{xf]; / s'g} Ps ;xefuLnfO{ cfrf/;+lxtfsf aF'bfx? 7"nf]–7"nf] :j/n] k9g nufpg'xf]; / ;a} ;xefuLx?nfO{ Ps–Ps j6f cfrf/;+lxtfdf x:tfIf/ u/fpg'xf]; .
  31. 31. 31;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf d afn>d zf]if0fsf] lj/f]w ub{5' . 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0flj?4sf] cfrf/;+lxtf afnaflnsfx¿ xfd|f] b]zsf jt{dfg x'g / pgLx¿sf] ef]ufOn] eljio lgwf{/0f ub{5 eGg] dfGotfnfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{ afn>dsf] cGTosf nflu d lgDg pNn]lvt k|ltj4tf JoQm ub{5' . afn>d zf]if0flj?4sf] cleofgdf xft]dfnf] u/f}+ . x:tfIf/M gfdM ldltM
  32. 32. 32 ;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf != 3/]n' afn>dsf] k|of]u gug]{ s= cab]lv !$ aif{eGbf sd pd]/sf afnaflnsfx¿nfO{ 3/]n' afn>ldssf] ¿kdf k|of]u gug]{ . v= ;Fw} 7"nf JolQmx¿nfO{ g} plrt >d ;Ddfgsf ;fy 3/]n' >ddf ;xefuL x'g k|f]T;flxt ug]{ . u= >d P]g @)$*, afnaflnsf;DaGwL P]g @)$*, afnaflnsf;DaGwL lgodfjnL @)%@ / afn>d lgif]w / lgoldt ug]{ P]g @)%^ n] tf]s]sf] Go"gtd >ddf k|j]z ug]{ pd]/nfO{ ;b}j dfGg] . @= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;+j4{g ug]{ s= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ glhssf] j8f sfof{nodf ;"rLs[t tyf btf{ ug]{ . v= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ cgf}krfl/s, cf}krfl/s jf Joj;flos lzIffdf ;xefuL u/fpg] . u= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ ;do—;dodf cfjZostf cg';f/ :jf:Yo pkrf/sf ;'ljwfx¿ k|bfg ug]{ . 3= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] :j:ys/ a;fOsf nflu pko'Qm Joj:yf ug]{ . ª= 3/]n' afn>lds / 3/sf cGo afnaflnsfx¿aLr e]befj gug]{ . r= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ Ps aif{df sDtLdf klg Ps k6s kl/jf/;Fu e]6 ug{ k7fpg] tyf kl/jf/;Fu lgoldt ;Dks{ / e]63f6sf] ;'ljwf k|bfg ug]{ . 5= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿dfly s'6lk6, ufnL a]OHhtL, tyf cGo bJo{jxf/x¿ gug]{ . h= 3/]n'afn>ldsx¿nfO{ plrt kfl/>lds k|bfg ug]{ . dm= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ afnSnanufotsf ljleGg ;fdflhs Pj+ cltl/Qm ls|ofsnfkx¿df ;xefuL x'g] cj;/ k|bfg ug]{ . `= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ IfdtfeGbf w]/} tyf /flt ca]/;Dd sfddf gnufpg] . 6= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ Ps /f]huf/bftfeGbf klg Ps cleefjsn] ;/x
  33. 33. 33;fd'bflos cled'vLs/0f lgb]{lzsf dfof ddtf tyf :g]x / plrt cleefjsTj k|bfg ug]{ . 7= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿sf] cfTd;Ddfg / :jcl:tTjnfO{ :jLsf/ ub}{ ;Ddfghgs Aoaxf/ ug]{ . #= 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0fsf] lj/f]w ug]{ s= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿dfly x'g] zf]if0f, lx+;f tyf of}g b'Jo{jxf/ nufotsf b'Jo{jxf/x¿sf] lj/f]w ug]{ . v= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿dfly zf]if0f, lx+;f Pj+ b'Jo{jxf/x¿ ePdf glhssf] ;fdflhs ;+:yf jf k|x/L sfof{nodf hfgsf/L lbg] . u= !$ aif{eGbf sd pd]/sf] afn>d k|of]u ug{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ tyf To;/L pTkfbg ul/Psf ;fdfu|L Pj+ ;]jfx¿sf] alx:sf/ ug]{ . 3= 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0f ug]{ tyf pgLx¿dfly lx+;f b'Jo{jxf/ ug]{nfO{ ;fdflhs alx:sf/ ug]{ . $= 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0flj?4 hgr]tgf hufpg] s= 3/]n' afn>d zf]if0flj?4 3/, 6f]n, l5d]sdf hgr]tgf hufpg] / afn>dsf] k|of]u ug{ lg?T;flxt ug]{ . v= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, ljsf;, dgf]/~hg, plrt kfl/>lds tyf kfl/jfl/s dgf]/~hg k|bfg ug{sf] nflu 3/, 6f]n, l5d]sdf clek|]l/t ug]{ . u= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ lx+;f b'Jo{jxf/ gug{ tyf ;Ddfghgs Jojxf/x¿ ug{ k|f]T;flxt ug]{ . 3= afn>d zf]if0f;DaGwL /fli6«o cGt/f{li6«o sfg'gL hfgsf/Lx¿ k|bfg ug]{ / ;r]t agfpg] . ª= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿nfO{ :yfgLo j8f sfo{fnox¿df btf{ u/fpg r]tgf tyf clek|]/0ff k|bfg ug]{ . r= 3/]n' afn>ldsx¿ :jo+nfO{ pgLx¿sf] clwsf/ tyf pknAw ;]jf sfo{s|dx¿sf] af/]df hfgsf/L lbg] / ;r]t agfpg] .

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