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Chemical safety


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Safety precautions regarding handling of medical laboratory chemicals.

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Chemical safety

  1. 1. Chemical Safety All chemicals should be regarded as dangerous Safety is Everyone's responsibility Dr.CSBR.Prasad, MD., Sri Devaraj Urs Medical College, Kolar-563101, Karnataka, INDIA.
  2. 2. Objectives At the end of the presentations the attendee shall be able to • Understand the importance of MSDS • Interpret the chemical labels • Enumerate the Physical Hazards • Enumerate the Health Hazards • Understand and implement methods of self Protection while dealing with chemicals
  3. 3. Hazards in the laboratory fall into three general categories • Equipment • Gases • Chemicals
  4. 4. Majority of problems, incidents and violations in the laboratory are the result of haste Awareness of the following will avert the major problems: • Past happenings in laboratories • Basic chemical knowledge • The properties of individual chemicals and • Common sense Primary responsibility for safety rests with the individual
  5. 5. Majority of problems, incidents and violations in the laboratory are the result of haste • Haste, however, makes waste, as the old saying goes • Working under such conditions, you can waste your samples, waste time and money, get crummy results, break things, and endanger yourself and others by being careless • If you do not have time to do things correctly and safely, with adequate time for thought, please stay away from the laboratory
  6. 6. MSDS (OSHA and ANSI) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) provide pertinent information to employees about hazardous materials and chemicals in the workplace MSDSs are important sources of chemical information in areas such as: • Manufacturer information • Chemical synonyms • Physical and/or Chemical Health Hazards • Spill Response • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) MSDSs be readily available in the work areas where potentially hazardous chemicals are used Note: MSDS is analogous to the manual of an instrument/equipment Isopropyl alcohol Other names 2-Propanol Isopropanol Rubbing alcohol sec-Propyl alcohol s-Propanol iPrOH Dimethyl carbinol IPA
  7. 7. MSDS example
  8. 8. MSDS example
  9. 9. Laboratory Chemicals • Irritants - Slight inflammation or other discomfort to the body • Sensitizers - Severe skin and/or respiratory responses • Corrosives - Burns • Toxins - Effect Liver (Hepatotoxin), Kidney (Nephrotoxin), , and Nervous system (Neurotoxin) • Mutagens – Damages Genetic material in cells • Carcinogens - Cancer-causing agents • Teratogens – Cause Birth Defect
  10. 10. Segregate chemicals • Flammable • Corrosive • Toxic • Carcinogen • Compressed Gases • Poisons
  11. 11. General Safety Awareness • Work in isolation shall be avoided in a laboratory - second person should be within call • Segregate chemicals by compatibility groups for storage • Note storage conditions and adhere to them Ex: Hydrogen Peroxide decomposes slowly by release of gas – so store in dark containers • Label all storage areas, appropriately, and keep all chemicals in properly labelled containers
  12. 12. Health Hazard
  13. 13. Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS)
  14. 14. Health hazard • Toxicity is the relative degree to which a chemical is harmful • It is critical that all employees who may work with hazardous chemicals understand the basic principles of toxicology and learn to recognize the major classes of potentially harmful chemicals
  15. 15. General precautions • Label all storage areas appropriately • Keep all chemicals in properly labelled containers • Date all chemical bottles when received and when opened • Note expiry dates on chemicals • Note storage conditions and adhere to them • Familiarize yourself with the appropriate protective measures when exposed chemicals
  16. 16. Labelling
  17. 17. General precautions • Post warning signs for unusual hazards such as flammable materials no naked flames or other special problems • Pour more concentrated solutions into less concentrated solutions to avoid violent reactions (i.e. add acid to water, not water to acid) • Avoid distracting other worker • Position and secure apparatus used for chemical reactions in order to permit manipulation without moving the apparatus until the entire reaction is complete
  18. 18. General precautions
  19. 19. General precautions • All unsafe conditions and unsafe acts by fellow workers, which are likely to cause an accident, should be reported • Safety carriers should be used for transporting glass or plastic containers with a capacity of two litres or greater • Incompatible chemicals should never be transported together. They should be transported in separate carriers
  20. 20. Personal Safety • Always use extracted wet benches for chemical work • Always wear safety glasses or goggles at all times in the lab • Always wear laboratory coat/apron in the laboratory • Appropriate gloves should be worn as needed • Appropriate shoes should be worn in the laboratory • Wear breathing mask as and when appropriate
  21. 21. Hand Protection • Always wear protective gloves in the laboratory specially when handling chemicals • Before use, check to make sure the gloves are in good condition and free from holes, punctures, and tears
  22. 22. Foot Protection • Foot protection is designed to prevent injury from corrosive chemicals, heavy objects, electrical shock, as well as giving traction on wet floors • Please wear sturdy shoes that cover the foot completely. These will provide the best protection. • Avoid shoes that expose feet in any way
  23. 23. Personal Hygiene • Wash hands before leaving the laboratory • Never mouth suck anything in a pipette in the laboratory • No food or drink is allowed in laboratories or areas where chemicals are used or stored • No food should be stored in a laboratory refrigerator • Never eat or drink from the laboratory glassware • Keep exposed skin covered in the laboratory
  24. 24. No food or drink is allowed in laboratories Never eat or drink from the laboratory glassware
  25. 25. Fire Prevention • Aware yourself of ignition sources in the laboratory and service areas (open flames, heat, electrical equipment) • Purchase chemicals in quantities that will be used in not distant future • Always store flammable liquids in appropriate cabinets • Do not store incompatible reagents together (e.g., acids with organic solvents) • Do not store ethers or similar chemicals for extended periods of time as explosive peroxides could form • Make sure that all electrical cords are in good condition and all electrical outlets are earthed • Remain out of the area of a fire or incident if you are not in a position to help • Familiarize yourself with siting and condition of fire extinguishers. Broken seals mean fire extinguisher has been used and need be recharged • Do not use fire extinguishers unless you are trained and feel confident to do so
  26. 26. Other general measures • Keep the laboratory floor dry at all times • Attend to spills immediately and notify other lab workers of potential slipping hazards • Only authorized personnel should do maintenance work on laboratory equipment • Sink traps should be flushed with water on a regular basis to prevent the release of chemical odors in the laboratory
  27. 27. PROTECTION • Product Substitution with less or non hazardous materials • Engineering Controls such as chemical fume hoods or enclosures • Safe Work Practices such as proper chemical storage • Personal Protective Equipment such as respirators, aprons, and eye protection • Training and Communication in safe work practices • Environmental Monitoring around chemical handling operations • Personal Monitoring for employees that work with chemicals Chemical Safety is a Shared Responsibility
  28. 28. Use safety hood when dealing with chemical fumes
  29. 29. Poor Storage
  30. 30. The hot oil in, say, pakoras, facilitates the seeping of chemicals from ink and paper into the food. The newspaper ink contains many hazardous chemicals which can trigger serious health problems.
  31. 31. E N D