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Cell injuryadaptation 7

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for Undergraduate medical students (MBBS)

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Cell injuryadaptation 7

  1. 1. Intracellular accumulation of pigments Dr.CSBR.Prasad, M.D.
  2. 2. PigmentsPigments • They are coloured substances • They may occur normally or in abnormal circumstances • They differ in their chemical nature, origin and biological significance
  3. 3. PigmentsPigments Types: 1.Exogenous (coming from out side the body) 2.Endogenous (synthesized within the body)
  4. 4. PigmentsPigments Types: • Exogenous (coming from out side the body) Examples: 1. Carbon (anthracosis) 2. Iron (siderosis) 3. Silica (silicosis) 4. Various pigments used in tattooing
  5. 5. PigmentsPigments Types: • Endogenous (synthesized within the body) Examples: 1. Lipofuscin 2. Melanin 3. Hemosiderin 4. Hematin 5. Bilirubin
  6. 6. Pigments - LipofuscinPigments - Lipofuscin ““Wear and tear”Wear and tear” pigment Sign of free radical injury and lipid peroxidation Character: yellow brown Finely granular Location: cytoplasm, perinuclear Organs involved: Heart / Liver Causes: aging, malnutrition, wasting illness, patients receiving radiotherapy
  7. 7. Pigments - LipofuscinPigments - Lipofuscin EM: autophagic vacuoles perinuclear position lipid densities Examples: Brown atrophy of the heart
  8. 8. Brown atrophy of heart
  9. 9. Lipofuscin
  10. 10. Pigments - MelaninPigments - Melanin Appears black (melas = black gr ) Source: dendritic melanophages of the skin Formed due to the action of tyrosinase on tyrosine with the formation of DOPA
  11. 11. Pigments - MelaninPigments - Melanin Excessive production: 1. Exposure to sun light 2. Addison’s disease 3. Chloasma Decreased production: 1. Vitiligo 2. Albinism 3. Pituitary failure 4. Damage to sensory nerves
  12. 12. Pigments - MelaninPigments - Melanin Demonstration: DOPA reaction Fontana-Masson’s stain
  13. 13. Melanin
  14. 14. Melanin - Melanoma
  15. 15. Melanin - Melanoma
  16. 16. Melanin - Melanoma
  17. 17. This patient complains of weakness and has very low BP
  18. 18. Pigments - HemosiderinPigments - Hemosiderin • HGB derived • Golden-yellow coloured • Storage form of iron is ferritin/hemosiderin • When there is excess iron ferritin forms hemosiderin (Lysosomes) • Demonstrated by Prussian blue reaction (Perl’s stain)– blue black granules
  19. 19. Pigments - HemosiderinPigments - Hemosiderin Local excess: • Hemorrhages • Bruising Systemic overload Hemosiderosis (deposition in organs / tissues) Causes: increased intake, hemolytic anemia, transfusions Hemochromatosis
  20. 20. Hemosiderin
  21. 21. Asbestos body
  22. 22. Pigments – HematinPigments – Hematin [Malarial pigment][Malarial pigment] • HGB derived • Precise composition is not known • Golden brown granular • Seen only in Macrophages • Forms a complex with proteins • Prussian blue negative
  23. 23. The chest and abdominal cavities are opened here at autopsy. The lungs in the chest have a normal pink aerated appearance with minimal anthracotic pigmentation, because this 80-year-old man never smoked and never allowed smoking in his workplace. The mediastinum contains mostly fat. The pericardial sac around the heart has not been opened.The diaphragmatic domes extend upward to the level of the 6th ribs.
  24. 24. Anthracosis
  25. 25. Silicosis
  26. 26. Silicosis
  27. 27. Tattoo
  28. 28. Tattoo
  29. 29. Tattoo
  30. 30. Glycogen storage disorder
  31. 31. E N D

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