Safe Chemical Handling & Initial Spill Response


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This presentation was prepared for the Sixteenth Annual Southeastern Massachusetts Drinking Water Fair held on June 16, 2011 at the Massachusetts Maritime Academy. The event was hosted by the Barnstable County Water Utilities Association and the Plymouth County Water Works Association. Attendees received Training Contact Hours (TCHs).

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Safe Chemical Handling & Initial Spill Response

  1. 1. Barnstable County Water Utilities Association Safe Chemical Handling and Initial Spill Response June 16, 2011 David P. Horowitz, P.E., CSP Tighe & Bond, Inc. 413.572.3211 [email_address] @dphorowitz on Twitter & YouTube
  2. 2. Take Away Message <ul><li>PROTECT YOURSELF </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECT OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction / Objectives <ul><li>Specific water treatment plant chemical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Means of hazard recognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spill / release situations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Protect Yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of personal protective equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe distance / places of refuge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protect Others </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the Environment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Common Chemical Uses <ul><li>Coagulation </li></ul><ul><li>Filter and Floc Aids </li></ul><ul><li>Taste and Odor Control </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection </li></ul><ul><li>pH Adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoridation </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Control </li></ul>
  5. 5. Select only the closest or the best answer <ul><li>What does MSDS stand for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Safety Data System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material Safety Data Sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material Safety Database System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mine Safety Data System </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Material Safety Data Sheet <ul><li>Expanded Label Information </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Copies During Emergency Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitals, on Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They’re Changing! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globally Harmonized System (GHS) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MSDS - Key Sections <ul><li>Appearance and Odor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of Material (Gas, Liquid, Solid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning Properties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vapor Density </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire and Explosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flashpoint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable Limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extinguishing Media </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. MSDS - Key Sections <ul><li>Reactivity Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health Hazard Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health Effects (Acute / Chronic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency and First-aid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decontamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical Information </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hazard Types <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable Chemicals (Water Reactive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammables or Combustibles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored at High Pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Route of exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Target organ </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Globally Harmonized Systems <ul><li>The Big Purple Book </li></ul>
  11. 11. WHAT? <ul><li>A rule has been proposed by OSHA to align the Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200 with provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Published in the Sept. 30, 2009 Federal Register </li></ul><ul><li>Phase-in period for the proposed rule will be 3 years after the final rule is published </li></ul><ul><li>Phase-in for the implementation of training and education programs expected within 2 years of the final rule being published </li></ul>WHEN?
  13. 13. ANTICIPATED IMPLEMENTATION <ul><li>Quote from acting Assistant Secretary of Labor for OSHA Jordan Barab </li></ul><ul><li>“ Although no date has been established for the publication of the final rule, Jordan said, “We think we have a pretty good proposal, so we’re hoping to move it along with all due speed ….” </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipated for early 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>May publish in August 2011 </li></ul>
  14. 14. WHY? <ul><li>“ The proposal to align the hazard communication standard with the GHS will </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improve the consistency and effectiveness of hazard communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce chemical-related injuries, illnesses and fatalities </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. WHO? <ul><li>Number of workers affected by the proposed HCS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 40 million workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affected Industries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5 million workplaces </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION <ul><li>Countries that have already implemented the system include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Zealand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countries/regions that have incorporated UN GHS into their local regulations include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European Union (EU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS <ul><li>Four major proposed modifications to HazComm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised criteria for classification of chemical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revised labeling provisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictograms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A specified format for safety data sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define terms </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. SAFETY DATA SHEETS <ul><li>Safety data sheets will now have a specified 16-section format. (ANSI Z400.1-1993) </li></ul><ul><li>The term Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) has been replaced with Safety Data Sheet </li></ul>
  19. 19. It’s Movie Time!
  20. 20. Chemical Specifics <ul><li>Water Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid / Caustic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoride </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanganate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disinfectants (chlorine / hypochlorite) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuels and Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel / Heating Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Gas / Propane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coolants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammables </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Potassium Permanganate <ul><li>Warning: corrosive, oxidizer </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: irritation, possible chemical burns, pulmonary edema, managanism </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong oxidizer (avoid combustibles, wooden pallets, acids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large quantities of dust presents inhalation hazard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic neurological effects </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Aluminum Sulfate <ul><li>Warning: irritant </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: irritation, shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid ingestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrolyzes in water forming sulfuric acid </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>What is the main safety hazard of polyelectrolytes (polymers used in water treatment)? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slippery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic </li></ul></ul>Select only the closest or the best answer
  24. 24. Sodium Hypochlorite <ul><li>Warning: oxidizer, corrosive (caustic) </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: irritation, chemical burns, blood disease on chronic overexposure </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaction could generate chlorine gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slippery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidizing will cause accelerated burning </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Chlorine Gas / Liquid <ul><li>Corrosive / toxic by inhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vapors condense to form hydrochloric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic at relatively low airborne concentration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause pulmonary edema </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cryogenic as a liquid </li></ul><ul><li>Reactives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia and fuel gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosive compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong odor, good warning properties </li></ul>
  26. 26. What does OSHA say about a chlorine spill? <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>In the event of a spill or leak involving chlorine, persons not wearing protective equipment and fully-encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup has been completed. The following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notify safety personnel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove all sources of heat and ignition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep all combustibles (wood, paper, oil, etc.) away from the leak. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. What Does OSHA Say? Chlorine (Continued) <ul><ul><li>Evacuate the spill area for at least 50 feet in all directions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find and stop the leak if this can be done without risk; if not, move the leaking container to an isolated area until gas has dispersed. The cylinder may be allowed to empty through a reducing agent such as sodium bisulfide and sodium bicarbonate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use water spray to reduce vapors; do not put water directly on the leak or spill area. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sodium Hydroxide <ul><li>Warning: corrosive (caustic) </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: irritation, chemical burns, hair loss </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely slippery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to remove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacts with acids </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Hydrofluosilic Acid <ul><li>Warning: corrosive </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: irritation, chemical burns, fluorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritation effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacts with caustics </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Sulfuric Acid <ul><li>Warning: corrosive </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: irritation, chemical burns, pulmonary edema </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly reactive / generates fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalation effects may be delayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutralization enhances the reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding water may not be effective </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. True/False <ul><li>Add acid to water but NEVER the reverse </li></ul><ul><li>True </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ammonia – Aqueous / Anhydrous <ul><li>Warning: corrosive </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: severe skin, eye and upper respiratory irritant </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irritation and burns at the site of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible systemic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires release hydrogen gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reacts with most water treatment chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anhydrous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly expands to toxic concentrations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryogenic liquid </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Fuel Oil – Diesel or Heating <ul><li>Warning: carbon monoxide & limited oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Routes: eye, skin, inhalation, ingestion </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: skin reddening, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combustible liquid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using direct water streams </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. What’s the best way to respond to a spill? <ul><li>PREVENT IT FROM HAPPENING!! </li></ul>
  35. 35. Chemical Feed System Designs <ul><li>Good Engineering Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operator Preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial Constraints </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Design Considerations/Flexibility <ul><li>Bulk Tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Day Tank </li></ul><ul><li>Metering Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul>
  37. 37. Chemical Compatibility <ul><li>ALWAYS check wetted material for compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Effect Ratings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>None – excellent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor – good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate – fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe – not recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance Charts </li></ul>
  38. 38. Simple System (Manufacturer Provided)
  39. 39. Transfer Pump Design Considerations <ul><li>Fill Time </li></ul><ul><li>Flooded Suction </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible Material </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity of the Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Siphoning </li></ul>
  40. 40. Metering Pump Design <ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Specific gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Suction Lift or Flooded Suction </li></ul><ul><li>Injection Pressure </li></ul>
  41. 41. Chemical Feed System Operation <ul><li>Best Management Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Structural Controls </li></ul>
  42. 42. Secondary Containment <ul><li>Concrete Berms with Coating </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Containment Pallets </li></ul><ul><li>Fabricated Containment Systems </li></ul><ul><li>110% of Largest Bulk Tank </li></ul>
  43. 44. Five Effective Generic BMPs <ul><li>Good Housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Training </li></ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention & Response Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Preventative Maintenance </li></ul>
  44. 45. Spill Prevention Measures <ul><li>Frequent Inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drums, tanks, mix stations, pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Up to Date Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Oil & Chemical Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul>
  45. 47. If You Have A Spill - Emergency Chemical Response <ul><li>Remember your priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Separate personnel from the hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Assess risk </li></ul><ul><li>Respond within your capability </li></ul><ul><li>Notify the chain of command </li></ul><ul><li>Follow your Source Protection Emergency Plan (SPEP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure Plan (SPCC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Contingency Plan (ICP) or One Plan </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Actions <ul><li>Provide Site Control: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any Responding Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contain and Curtail: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any Responding Personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initiate Regulatory Notification: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ER Coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Notify Cleanup Contractor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ER Coordinator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cleanup Only After Regulatory Approval </li></ul><ul><li>In MA – spilled oil is a hazardous waste </li></ul>
  47. 49. SPEP – General Policy <ul><li>Respond within your capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Assume hazardous </li></ul><ul><li>Report to the appropriate authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Primary objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of other personnel (immediate need) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of the water supply </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Don’t get tunnel vision <ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignition sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other hazards? </li></ul>
  49. 51. The chemical may be the least of your problems <ul><li>Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other hazards in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What caused the chemical to spill? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hidden hazards that may be present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to witnesses </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. RECOGNITION & IDENTIFICATION <ul><li>Know What You’re Dealing With </li></ul><ul><li>Response Drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Hazards (E.G., Fire) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response Equipment Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Notification </li></ul><ul><li>PPE </li></ul>
  51. 53. RECOGNITION CLUES <ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Occupancy / Location </li></ul><ul><li>Container Shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Marking and Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Placards and Labels </li></ul><ul><li>Shipping Papers </li></ul><ul><li>Senses </li></ul>
  52. 54. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS <ul><li>Inappropriate Emotional Reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Bad Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Laziness </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Become Part of the Problem </li></ul>
  53. 58. KEYS TO SAFE RESPONSE <ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Let Time Become Your Enemy </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Cut Corners </li></ul>
  54. 59. SPEP – Respond Within Your Capabilities <ul><li>First Responders – Operations Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defensive containment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From a safe distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technician Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only when material is known to be oil, dilute gasoline or non-hazardous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate equipment and materials are in-place </li></ul></ul>
  55. 60. SPEP – Response Procedure <ul><li>ER Coordinator ensures incident is properly reported </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Department </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DPW </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ConComm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DPH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communications coordinator to place internal organizations on standby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control </li></ul></ul>
  56. 61. SPEP – Actions At The Scene <ul><li>ER Coordinator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs responders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liaison to incident commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains records at the scene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on threat to water supply </li></ul></ul>
  57. 62. SPEP – Response To Threats To The Water Supply <ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform appropriate internal organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobilize resources to the scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate containment activities to protect the water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In concert with incident command </li></ul></ul>
  58. 63. Site Activities <ul><li>Assessment of conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Identify trapped or injured personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure appropriate notification </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate environmental receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Containment and curtailment </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive measures </li></ul>
  59. 64. Isolate Environmental Receptors <ul><li>As far away as reasonably possible </li></ul><ul><li>Direction of spill migration </li></ul><ul><li>Drains, doors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Spills vs releases </li></ul><ul><li>Air path isolation should wait until spill is controlled </li></ul>
  60. 65. Site Conditions <ul><li>Do not contact spilled materials </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Heat </li></ul><ul><li>Protrusions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Limited time </li></ul><ul><li>Use of stairs and ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul>
  61. 66. Spill Reporting <ul><li>Massachusetts Contingency Plan (MCP) </li></ul><ul><li>310 CMR 40.0000 </li></ul><ul><li>Bureau of Waste Site Cleanup </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Oil and Hazardous Material List </li></ul><ul><ul><li>310 CMR 40.1600 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAS # </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reportable Quantities (RQs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden release – 2 hours </li></ul></ul>
  62. 67. Spill Reporting Chemical CAS # DEP RQ (Lbs) Sulfuric Acid 7664-93-9 50 Sodium Hydroxide 1310-73-2 50 Potassium Permanganate 7722-64-7 10 Aluminum Sulfate 10043-01-3 100 Sodium Hypochlorite 07681-52-9 10 Chlorine Gas 7782-50-5 5 Hydrofluorosilicic Acid 16961-83-4 10     DEP RQ (Gal) Oil - Diesel & Heating   10
  63. 68. Spill Reporting <ul><li>How many gallons of a Sulfuric Acid spill would require reporting to DEP? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Gallon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Gallons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 gallons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need More Information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need concentration & density! </li></ul>Chemical CAS # DEP RQ (Lbs) Sulfuric Acid 7664-93-9 50
  64. 69. Spill Reporting Chemical Conc (Typ) Density DEP RQ (Lbs) DEP RQ (Gal) Sulfuric Acid 90% 1.84 50 3.3 Sodium Hydroxide 50% 1.53 50 3.9 Aluminum Sulfate 28% 1.33 100 9.0 Sodium Hypochlorite 12.5% 1.20 10 1.0 Hydrofluorosilicic Acid 25% 1.22 10 1.0       DEP RQ (Gal) DEP RQ (Gal) Oil - Diesel & Heating     10 10
  65. 70. VAPOR DENSITY <ul><li>Vapor (Gas) to Air Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>< 1 a Floater </li></ul><ul><li>> 1 a Sinker </li></ul><ul><li>Especially Important for Ventilation Controls and Monitoring </li></ul>
  66. 71. SPECIFIC GRAVITY <ul><li>Liquid’s Equivalent to Vapor Density </li></ul><ul><li>< 1 a Floater </li></ul><ul><li>> 1 a Sinker </li></ul><ul><li>Especially Important in Firefighting and Water Dilution </li></ul>
  67. 72. Select only the closest or the best answer <ul><li>A gas lighter than air is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline Vapor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A gas lighter than air is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine 2.47 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline Vapor 3-4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen sulfide 1.19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methane 0.55 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need More Info? </li></ul>
  68. 73. Conclusions / Key Points <ul><li>Employee responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the chemical hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use controls to prevent exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review MSDS during non-routine tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take action if symptoms of overexposure are felt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the 4 core objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals can behave very differently when out in the open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t take anything for granted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get away and get the right resources to the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mistakes can be costly </li></ul></ul>
  69. 74. Pop Quiz <ul><li>Hope you were paying attention… </li></ul>
  70. 75. Which of the following is a corrosive chemical <ul><li>Permanganate </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium hydroxide </li></ul><ul><li>Alum </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel oil </li></ul>
  71. 76. Which of the following exposures can be controlled with chemical gloves? <ul><li>Flammables </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosives </li></ul><ul><li>Reactives </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidizers </li></ul>
  72. 77. What is the primary hazard for sodium hypochlorite <ul><li>Corrosive </li></ul><ul><li>Flammable </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidizer </li></ul><ul><li>Irritant </li></ul>
  73. 78. What document should be the primary resource for chemical hazard info <ul><li>National toxicology program </li></ul><ul><li>NIOSH Pocket Guide </li></ul><ul><li>The internet </li></ul><ul><li>Material Safety Data Sheet </li></ul>
  74. 79. Which of the following should be done first in a chemical emergency <ul><li>Contain the spill </li></ul><ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Call the fire department </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuate the immediate spill area </li></ul>
  75. 80. Once human health is protected, what is the next objective <ul><li>Protection of treatment systems </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent chemical infiltration to finished water </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Call your lawyer </li></ul>
  76. 81. What should be done with waste generated from spill response <ul><li>Segregate for hazardous waste disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose in trash container </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralize in the treatment system </li></ul><ul><li>Place in the residuals pile </li></ul>
  77. 82. If you feel the effects of chemical exposure, what should you do next <ul><li>Finish containing the spill and evacuate </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuate the area immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Signal all team members to evacuate </li></ul><ul><li>Call you lawyer </li></ul>
  78. 83. Which of the following is most hazardous when combined with a fuel oil spill <ul><li>Activation of a gas fired heater </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing with caustic </li></ul><ul><li>Absorption with spill pads </li></ul><ul><li>Mixing with gasoline </li></ul>
  79. 84. Questions / Thanks David P. Horowitz, P.E., CSP Tighe & Bond, Inc. 413.572.3211 [email_address]