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Open Educational Practices: What, Why and How



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Open Educational Practices: What, Why and How



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Presentation at Vanderbilt University February 22, 2019. Discusses open educational practices, open pedagogy, and the values, benefits, challenges and risks of these.

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Presentation at Vanderbilt University February 22, 2019. Discusses open educational practices, open pedagogy, and the values, benefits, challenges and risks of these.

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Open Educational Practices: What, Why and How

  1. 1. OPEN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES: What, Why and How Christina Hendricks, University of British Columbia, Vancouver Presentation at Vanderbilt University, February 22, 2019 Except images licensed otherwise, this presentation is licensed CC BY-SA 4.0
  2. 2. Go to use code 28 41 84 Open education & you
  3. 3. Open Educational Practices (OEP) & Open Pedagogy: What?
  4. 4. What can be open? Resources/ Content Courses Practices/ Pedagogy
  5. 5. Open in which ways? Cost Licenses Technical Accessibility Participation, Connection Free or minimal cost Revisable or not, commercial use or not, etc. Tools & tech skills needed to reuse or revise; open source Web accessible, Universal Design for Learning Beyond an individual course
  6. 6. Catherine Cronin on OEP “the creation, use, and reuse of open educational resources (OER) as well as open pedagogies and open sharing of teaching practices.” (Cronin, 2017, p18). See also Cronin & MacLaren (2018)
  7. 7. Some examples of OEP  Use, revision & creation of OER  Open reflection & sharing of teaching practices, processes  Open enrollment courses  Open scholarship -- Open Practices Briefing Paper (Beetham et al., 2012) OER logo not eligible for copyright; open access logo from PLoS, licensed CC BY-SA 3.0 ; both on Wikimedia Commons
  8. 8. “… open pedagogy … is focused on teaching and learning as compared with broader aspects of scholarship” (Cronin & MacLaren 2018). OEP and open pedagogy Open Edu Practices Open Pedagogy
  9. 9. Quotes about open pedagogy  “shift the student emphasis to contribution to knowledge as opposed to simple consumption of knowledge” (Heather Ross)  “the ability for learners to shape and take ownership of their own education” (Devon Ritter)  “connect with a broader, global community” (Tannis Morgan)  “teacher as ‘the’ authority vs. students being able to bring other sources of authority” (Jim Luke)
  10. 10. OER-enabled pedagogy “the set of teaching and learning practices that are only possible or practical in the context of the 5R permissions which are characteristic of OER.” -- Wiley & Hilton (2018) Reuse Revise Remix Retain Redistribute
  11. 11. Open Pedagogy: How? Examples
  12. 12. Non-disposable assignments “… assignments that are sustainable or not disposable, assignments that would have benefit to others beyond the limited course time and space” -- Maha Bali (2017) David Wiley on disposable assignments (2013) Images licensed CC0 on ttrash can and symbol for no
  13. 13. Wikipedia projects
  14. 14. Students & Open Textbooks See A Guide to Making Open Textbooks with Students Antologia Abierta de Literatura Hispana, cover licensed CC BY 4.0 Environmental Science Bites, Cover licensed CC BY 4.0
  15. 15. Students contributing to other OER Montgomery College UN SDG assignments
  16. 16. Students contributing to curriculum Creating assignments, exam questions, tutorials:  DS106 assignment bank  Rajiv Jhangiani’s Social Psychology course  Video tutorials, Digital Photography course Creating learning outcomes, assignments, grading policies & rubrics  Robin DeRosa’s First Year Seminar
  17. 17. Small Steps ▪ My Introduction to philosophy course: Philosophy in the World assignment ▪ Also, student-created introductions to readings
  18. 18. Open Pedagogy: Why? Values & benefits, challenges & risks
  19. 19. Open pedagogy & social justice “open pedagogy is an ethos that has two … components: • A belief in the potential of openness and sharing to improve learning • A social justice orientation – caring about equity, with openness as one way to achieve this” -- Maha Bali, “What is Open Pedagogy?” (2017) Photo licensed CC0 on
  20. 20. Access & Agency OER & OEP focus on (among other things): Access Agency Cost Revision, creation of OER Publicly & easily (?) available Contribution to knowledge Accessibility re: disabilities Co-create See, e.g., DeRosa & Jhangiani, Open Pedagogy Notebook
  21. 21. Values & Activities Equity: incl. Access & Agency Collaborate ConnectContribute
  22. 22. Collaborate Contribute Connect  Share authority in courses; e.g., co- create curriculum  Flexibility, student choice  Transparency, build trust  Contribute to public knowledge (learners & teachers)  Democratizing knowledge  Adapt, create, share OER  Connect w/wider networks:  Blogs  Social media  Social annotation  Community- engaged learning; research with community See Hendricks 2017a, 2017b
  23. 23. Go to use code 28 41 84 Interlude: What’s “open” about all of this?
  24. 24. Student Perceptions: Benefits You’re able to be part of community conversations … happening right now.” -- What Students Have to Say about Open ED “I became a better writer .... I knew [the blog posts] could potentially be seen by people outside … so I wanted to make sure my information was accurate and written well.” -- student at Keene State College “I liked how the wiki made me feel like I was actually making a contribution with my work – it’s become meaningful.” -- student contributor to UBC Open Case Studies
  25. 25. Student Perceptions: Challenges Wiki projects are a good idea for learning, but making students fill a database for the sole purpose of UBC being viewed as a diverse source of knowledge seems shady. --student contributor to UBC Open Case Studies Some of the challenges I faced was uncertainty. As a student who has never used this kind of learning before I was scared honestly.” -- Keene State College student How can we be sure we’re not exploiting students to create resources for courses without pay? -- UBC student
  26. 26. Risks Privacy and student data Bullying & harassment Digital tattoo
  27. 27. Sava Singh on the fallacy of open Photo licensed CC0 on “… open is not good for everyone ... The hype around open, while well-intentioned, is also unintentionally putting many people in harm’s way and they in turn end up having to endure so much. The people calling for open are often in positions of privilege, or have reaped the benefits of being open early on …” -- Sava Singh, “The Fallacy of Open” (2015)
  28. 28. Go to use code 28 41 84 How to address challenges & risks?
  29. 29. Christina Hendricks Twitter: @clhendricksbc Mastodon: Thank you!
  30. 30. Works cited, p. 1  Bali, M. (2017, April). Post on April Open Perspective: What is Open Pedagogy? Retrieved from pedagogy/  Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Open practices: Briefing paper. JISC. Retrieved from  Cronin, C. (2017). Openness and Praxis: Exploring the Use of Open Educational Practices in Higher Education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(5). Retrieved from  Cronin, C., & MacLaren, I. (2018). Conceptualising OEP: A review of theoretical and empirical literature in Open Educational Practices. Open Praxis, 10(2), 127–143.
  31. 31. Works cited, p. 2  DeRosa, R. & Jhangiani, R. (n.d.). Open pedagogy. The Open Pedagogy Notebook. Retrieved from  Hendricks, C. (2017a, May 23). Navigating open pedagogy, part 2. Retrieved from  Hendricks, C. (2017b, October 25). Open Pedagogy, shared aspects. Retrieved from  Luke, J. (2017, April 23). What’s open? Are OER necessary? Retrieved from  Morgan, T. (2017, April 13). Reflections on #OER17 – From beyond content to open pedagogy. Retrieved from from-beyond-content-to-open-pedagogy/
  32. 32. Works cited, p. 3  Ritter, D. (2017, April). April open perspective: What is open pedagogy? Retrieved from  Ross, H. (2017, April). April open perspective: What is open pedagogy? Retrieved from  singh, sava. (2015, June 27). The fallacy of “open.” Retrieved from  Wiley, D. (2013, October 21). What is open pedagogy? Retrieved from  Wiley, D., & Hilton, J. (2018). Defining OER-enabled pedagogy. The International Review of Research in Open & Distributed Learning, 19(4). Retrieved from
  33. 33. • Presentation template by SlidesCarnival licensed CC BY 4.0 • Images not attributed above: o Photo on title slide & section slides by Monika Majkowska on Unsplash o Library photo on slide 7 by Victoria Kure-Wu on Unsplash o Post-it notes photo on slide 7 by Kelly Sikkema on Unsplash o Laptop photo on slide 7 by Headway on Unsplash o UN Sustainable Development Goals graphic on slide 16 is public domain on Wikimedia Commons • All icons were purchased with a subscription to The Noun Project Credits

Editor's Notes

  • Blessinger & Bliss 2019. Introduction to Open Education: Towards a Human Rights Theory.

    Spatial dimension of open:
    “Regarding the spatial dimension, open education (e.g., open educational resources, open courseware, massive online open courses) allows people to access and participate in education regardless of their physical/geographic location, provided of course that they have the means”

    Temporal dimension
    “allows people to access and participate in education regardless of the time of day, month, or year, and independent of others’ time considerations. In other words, open education need not be a synchronous form of communication as in the traditional higher education model”

    Process dimension
    “Within the structural constraints of the educational platform and the usage policies and rules, students are free to determine if, when, and how they will access and participate in open education and they are free to self-determine what learning needs (outcomes) they want to meet”

  • Beetham et al (2012)
    Open scholarship includes open access publication, open science and open research
  • Open pedagogy having to do specifically with teaching practices with students
  • “In introducing the idea of OER-enabled pedagogy, we ask what it means to add the 5R permissions to these public entities - to be consciously engaged in either building upon work previously done by another or to construct a new public entity that explicitly offers other learners permission to publicly transform and adapt it. When student works are openly licensed, granting others 5R permissions in their use of the artifacts, each work becomes the beginning of an ongoing conversation in which other learners participate as they contextualize and extend the work in support of their own learning. Open licensing also ensures that these artifacts will be perpetually and freely available to all who wish to engage them as part of their learning.”

    We propose the following four-part test to determine the extent to which a specific teaching and learning practice qualifies as OER-enabled pedagogy, as exemplified by the idea of renewable assignments:
    Are students asked to create new artifacts (essays, poems, videos, songs, etc.) or revise/remix existing OER?
    Does the new artifact have value beyond supporting the learning of its author?
    Are students invited to publicly share their new artifacts or revised/remixed OER?
    Are students invited to openly license their new artifacts or revised/remixed OER?
  • Link to info:

    400 level English course at UBC, Canadian Studies: Kathryn Grafton, instructor.

    CanLit Edit-a-thon (43 students plus instructor), 2017.

    “This CanLit Edit-a-thon assignment asks you to address the exigence of equitable representation in Wikipedia by contributing new or expanding existing articles about Canadian literature. … As a group, choose a topic relevant to our focus on Canadian literature (e.g., an author, text, or institution) that you argue is currently underrepresented in and symptomatic of systemic bias on Wikipedia.”
  • Links:
    Antologia Abierta de Literatura Hispana:
    Environmental Science Bites:
    A guide to making open textbooks with students:

    The following is from Rebus’ Guide to Making Open Textbooks with Students:
    Dr. Julie Ward, an assistant professor of twentieth- and twenty-first-century Latin American literature at University of Oklahoma…. In the fall 2016 semester, she embarked on a project in her Spanish-language literature course, Introduction to Hispanic Literature and Culture, in which groups of four to five students selected ten texts from the fifteenth century to the twentieth century to include in a critical edition.
    Ward and a graduate student “research guide” had pre-established lists of texts students could review and choose from.
    For each work, the student groups compiled context in the form of an introduction, at least ten annotations on the text about style, references and colloquialisms, an image and a biography about the author… and a bibliography.
    The content of the critical edition was developed in the class, but the work on the text didn’t end there. In the subsequent semester, two students were paid to take the critical edition, verify the facts and public domain licenses, and format it using Pressbooks.

    Environmental Science Bites
    From Letter to Readers:
    “This book was written by undergraduate students at The Ohio State University (OSU) who were enrolled in the class Introduction to Environmental Science.  The chapters describe some of Earth’s major environmental challenges and discuss ways that humans are using cutting-edge science and engineering to provide sustainable solutions to these problems.  Topics are as diverse as the students, who represent virtually every department, school and college at OSU.  The environmental issue that is described in each chapter is particularly important to the author, who hopes that their story will serve as inspiration to protect Earth for all life.”

  • Montgomery College UN SDG assignments (see MC assignments tab):
    One example: The Hidden Costs assignment

    Regarding apparel industry, create infographic, PSA, or cartoon about hidden costs of this industry (e.g., pollution, habitat destruction, human rights abuses).

    Infographic includes:
    Original computations/statistics comparing the cost of production with the retail price and also demonstrating the human cost involved (based on a garment/item that you purchased)
    A plan detailing where and how the infographic will be distributed
  • Links:
    Ds106 assignment bank:
    Jhangiani Social Psychology course:
    Student video tutorials explained:
    DeRosa First Year Seminar:

    From above article on student video tutorials:
    “… at certain points in the course where students have struggled in the past, all students are given the opportunity to raise their grade if they create a tutorial video for a particular assignment. These tutorial videos are evaluated and a few of these are selected to be placed into the course.
    “Finally, after demonstrating high levels of mastery, strong students are offered the opportunity to be a teaching assistant for the upcoming semester. These students create notes for each unit, study guides for exams, tutorial videos, and review presentations and games that are all added to the course and released as OER.”

    From Jhangiani’s blog post:
    The students were asked to write 4 questions each week, 2 factual (e.g., a definition or evidence-based prediction) and 2 applied (e.g., scenario-type).
    For the first two weeks they wrote just one plausible distractor (I provided the question stem, the correct answer, and 2 plausible distractors). They also peer reviewed questions written by 3 of their (randomly assigned) peers.
    For the next two weeks they wrote two plausible distractors; For the next two weeks they wrote all 3 plausible distractors; For the remainder of the semester they wrote the stem, the correct answer, and all the distractors.

    From DeRosa:
    “In OpenSem, I decided to let students design the grading process.  It took a couple of weeks (while we simultaneously did other things as well) to hammer it out. Basically, they designed a competency-based model where they would have unlimited time within the confines of the course to improve each assignment if it initially they did not “achieve the competency.” Achieving the competency would require them to meet all of the parameters of the rubrics, which were often designed by the students as they crafted the assignments.”
  • Links:
    Intro to philosophy:
  • From DeRosa and Jhangiani essay open pedagogy:

    “So one key component of Open Pedagogy might be that it sees access, broadly writ, as fundamental to learning and to teaching, and agency as an important way of broadening that access. OERs are licensed with open licenses, which reflects not just a commitment to access in terms of the cost of knowledge, but also access in terms of the creation of knowledge. Embedded in the social justice commitment to making college affordable for all students is a related belief that knowledge should not be an elite domain. Knowledge consumption and knowledge creation are not separate but parallel processes, as knowledge is co-constructed, contextualized, cumulative, iterative, and recursive. In this way, Open Pedagogy invites us to focus on how we can increase access to higher education and how we can increase access to knowledge–both its reception and its creation. This is, fundamentally, about the dream of a public learning commons, where learners are empowered to shape the world as they encounter it.”

    Blessinger and Bliss (2019; Introduction to Open Education: Towards a Human Rights Theory) point to Kahle (2008: Designing Open Education Technology), who also adds:

    Ownership: “Open education is also designed for ownership when technology and content are licensed in such a way that users can both modify and retain the resource in perpetuity.” (Blessinger & Bliss 2019).
    Participation: “Open education is designed for participation when it is well-designed for access, agency, and ownership. In other words, these aspects lead to participation by learners and educators. As open education promotes these fundamental principles, students and teachers are more likely to collaborate and participate in inclusive activities.”
    Experience: referring to user-friendliness and human-centred design.
  • DeRosa & Jhangiani, “Open Pedagogy”:

    “we might think about Open Pedagogy as an access-oriented commitment to learner-driven education AND as a process of designing architectures and using tools for learning that enable students to shape the public knowledge commons of which they are a part.”

    Jesse Stommel:

    ”Open pedagogy creates a perforated community—a networked group of learners tat extends beyond the bounds of those officially enrolled in a term-based class. And hopefully a community that outlives the course that gave birth to it.”

  • Open Edu 60s & 70s 
    Claude Paquette, 1979:
    Individual differences, individual growth directing the learning
    Instructors having an indirect influence: not to make students assimilate info but help them progress individually
    Flexible space and time
    Student choice in activities and students proposing activities themselves
    Learning activities should be such that there could be multiple answers, multiple pathways to reaching goals; also bringing different disciplines together
    Class rules established by teacher and students
    Don Tunnell (1975)
    provides what he takes to be a list of characteristics many conceptions of open education share (p. 12 of Kindle edition; emphasis mine):
    (1) Students are to pursue educational activities of their own choosing;
    (2) Teachers are to create an environment rich in educational possibilities;
    (3) Teachers are to give a student individualized instruction based on what he/ she is interested in, but they are also to guide the student along educationally worthwhile lines;
    (4) Teachers are to respect students. The following count as exhibiting respect for the student
    (a) the student is granted considerable freedom; he/ she is, for the most part, autonomous,
    (b) the student’s interests and ideas are considered to be important and he/ she receives individual instruction and guidance based on his/ her interests,
    (c) there is considerable interaction between teacher and student; they are considered to be equal in some sense,
    (d) students are rarely commanded; uses of authority are minimized,
    (e) students’ feelings are to be taken seriously.

    Brian V. Hill: Hill, B.V. (1975). What’s open about open education? In D. Nyberg (Ed.), The Philosophy of Open Education (International Library of the Philosophy of Education Volume 15). Taylor and Francis.

    “We suffer from “attempts to lump diverse trends together under the rubric of ‘open education’. Let us press for more specific and descriptive labels to identify the values, objectives or procedures that are being commended to us ….”

    “An excellent candidate for sloganizing is the word ‘open’. Immediately one uses it, the options polarize. To be open … is to be not closed, restricted, prejudiced or clogged; but free, candid, generous, above board, mentally flexible, future-oriented, etc. The opposite does not bear thinking about, and there can be no third alternative. ‘Open’ is yum.”

  • Links:
    What students have to say about Oped Ed:
    Student at Keene State:
  • Keene state college student link:
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