Ohio Textbook Affordability Summit: Why Openness Matters?


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Keynote presentation at Ohio Textbook Affordability Summit on September 27, 2013.

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  • I’m Una Daly, Community College Outreach Director at OpenCourseWare Consortium. I am truly honored to be invited to Ohio and kick off your Textbook Affordability Summit. Ohio has long been a leader in innovative education from OhioLink to Ohio Digital Bookshelf and Scaffold to the Stars. I have had the pleasure of working with both Danielle Budzick on an open textbook project here at Cuyahoga Tri-City College and cheering on your Scaffold to the Stars run by the Ohio Digital Bookshelf.
  • The Open Course Library is a collection of expertly developed educational materials – including textbooks, syllabi, course activities, readings, and assessments – for 81 high-enrollment college courses. 42 courses have been completed so far, providing faculty with a high-quality option that will cost students no more than $30 per course.
  • What about something small – local? Do open policies make sense on a smaller scale?Even one open textbook for a top 100 course makes sense.But WA should (a) ask if anyone else has already done this and openly licensed it (e.g., CK12), (b) alert other states / countries that it is going to make this investment and share.
  • Siyavula means “we are opening”
  • Collaborative Statistics co-author – my open textbook is better because of all the feedback that I have received from other instructors.
  • Ohio Textbook Affordability Summit: Why Openness Matters?

    1. 1. Why Openness Matters? Expand Access • Reduce Costs • Improve Quality Una Daly Ohio Textbook Affordability Summit September 27, 2013 1Except where otherwise noted these materials are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY)
    2. 2. Welcome Una Daly Community College Outreach Director OpenCourseWare Consortium
    3. 3. Agenda • Barriers to Education • Open Textbook Solution • How Openness Enables Sharing … • Business Case for Open Textbooks • Open Licensing • Case Studies and Impact • OER Impact • Steps to Adopt Open Textbooks
    4. 4. Education as Human Right “ Education is both a human right and a vital means of promoting peace and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms … to realize this potential, education must be made universally available and equally accessible to all “ World Education Report 2000, “The right to education: Towards education for all throughout life”. http://www.unesco.org/education/information/wer/PDFeng/wholewer.PDF
    5. 5. Tuition and Fees • Undergraduate costs rose 42 percent at public institutions 2001-2011 https://www.ohiohighered.org Source: National Center for Education Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp? id=76
    6. 6. Student Debt • Federal Student Loan Debt – 1-Trillion Dollars • Avg. loan upon graduation – $25,000+ Source: Chronicle of Higher Ed, Forbes Magazine, Aug 2013 http://www.forbes.com/sites/specialfeatu res/2013/08/07/how-the-college-debt-is- crippling-students-parents-and-the- economy/ Image: Student Loan, Wikipedia
    7. 7. Textbook Prices • Increased 812 percent since 1978 • 3 to 4 times inflation rate • Average student spends $1168 annually on supplies Source: Consumer Price Index, College Board. Student PIRGs
    8. 8. There is a direct relationship between textbook costs and student success       60%+ do not purchase textbooks at some point due to cost 35% take fewer courses due to textbook cost 31% choose not to register for a course due to textbook cost 23% regularly go without textbooks due to cost 14% have dropped a course due to textbook cost 10% have withdrawn from a course due to textbook cost Source: 2012 student survey by Florida Virtual Campus www.projectkaleidoscope.org
    9. 9. Solution: Open Textbooks • Online access to textbook on first day of class. • Free online, low- cost print option • Faculty can adapt for students Licensed for re-use by OpenSourceWay
    10. 10. Education is about Sharing • Faculty share knowledge with students • Students share their understanding • Faculty share with colleagues Source: David Wiley, Why be Open, slideshare 2012
    11. 11. What are Open Educational Resources? U.S. Dept. of Education – Teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use or repurposing by others. cc-by donkyhotey/flickr
    12. 12. Examples Includes – • Course materials • Lesson Plans • Modules or lessons • OpenCourseWare (OCW) • Open textbooks • Videos • Images • Tests • Software • Any other tools, materials, or techniques used to support ready access to knowledge adapted from Judy Baker’s ELI 2011 OER Workshop cc-by license
    13. 13. Business Case for Open • Open textbooks are born digital … • Digital enables editing – Add/Remove chapters – Adjust reading level • Copying and distribution are “free” online. Image: Some Rights Reserved MrKCoolsPhotostream
    14. 14. What is an Open License? • Free: Free to access online, free to print • Open: Shared, usable and re-usable • Creative Commons: less restrictions than standard copyright but author retains full rights.
    15. 15. Creative Commons Licenses Simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions Adapted from Ronda Neugebauer Slidesshare Permission: Attribute Commercial? Share alike? http://creativecommons.org
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. CC licenses are unique because they are expressed in three ways. Slide adapted from Paul Stacey slideshare
    18. 18. Search & Discoverability Slide adapted from Cable Green slideshare
    19. 19. http://oeraccess.merlot.org/ Translations & Accessibility Slide adapted from Cable Green slideshare
    20. 20. Customization & Affordability Slide adapted from Cable Green slideshare
    21. 21. Cost Savings Publisher: Wiley & Sons Publisher : Connexions $171.25 Amazon Digital Access - $0 Softbound: $26.20
    22. 22. Who creates open textbooks? • Private Foundations • Grant funded projects • Educational institutions • Faculty and other experts Source: lumen learning slideshare $100 million from private foundations in the last decade.
    23. 23. OpenStax College Ultimate Goal – Professional-grade books for top 20+ courses. All books licensed Spring 2012 Spring 2012 Spring 2013 Spring 2013 Fall 2013 Adapted from David Harrison CCCOER webinar cc-by 23
    24. 24. Large scale Open Textbook Projects • U.S. Department of Labor • Open Course Library • BCcampus Open Textbooks • California Open Textbooks • South Africa Siyavula • NGLC Kaleidoscope CC-BY-NC-SA by Cascade Hiker
    25. 25. $2 billion over four years Materials licensed with CC-BY TAACCCCT Grants Source: Cable Green, Creative Commons, 2013
    26. 26. http://www.nationalstem.org Ohio TAACCCCT Projects
    27. 27. Peer reviewed, 81 highest-enrolled lower division courses. You can download and use for teaching. All content is stored in Google docs making it easy to access, browse and download. Washington State Board Community & Technical Colleges s Open Course Library
    28. 28. English Composition I • 55,000+ enrollments / year • x $175 textbook • = $9.6+ Million every year Source: Cable Green, Washington SBCTC, 2011
    29. 29. British Columbia • Find & develop 40 open textbooks for highest-enrolled college courses. • Peer-reviews by BC faculty • Competitive bid for customization of open textbooks. • $1 million pledged by BC Higher Education Ministry http://open.bccampus.ca/forums/topic/list-of-textbooks-with-reviews/
    30. 30. California Legislation & Policy • 50 Open Textbooks for highest- enrolled college courses • California State University’s Affordable Learning Solutions • California Community College System requires CC-BY license • University of California Open Access Research Policy 50
    31. 31. South Africa’s Siyavula “we are opening” • Free High School Science Textbooks • Department of education adopted for all 10, 11, 12th grades in 2010
    32. 32. NGLC Kaleidoscope Project • Create and adopt course designs for high-enrollment courses collaboratively across multiple institutions • Use best of existing OER • First round: – 6 two-year and 2 four-year colleges.
    33. 33. Student ratings of quality of open texts 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Better quality Same quality Worse quality Number of Students • “It was very concise and aligned with exactly what we were working on in the class.” • “Having the textbook catered to us by our teacher was perfect.” 3% 56% 41% Source: Bliss, Hilton, Wiley, Thanos (2012)
    34. 34. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Historical Success Kaleidoscope www.projectkaleidoscope.org Student Success C or Better
    35. 35. Open Textbook Research 2010 • Enhanced students interactions with materials and peers • Increased faculty collaboration leading to improved practices Open Learning Journal, 2011 http://bit.ly/14aGKiP
    36. 36. OER Research Hub 2013-2014 • Use of OER leads to critical reflection with evidence of improvement in practice. • Participation in OER pilots leads to policy change at institutional level. • Open education models lead to more equitable access to education • OER adoption at institutional level leads to financial benefits for students and/or institutions
    37. 37. Open Textbook Adoption 1. Find and Select Open Textbooks Peer Review 2. Adoption Process Support for customization 3. Feedback and Research Students, faculty, and staff 4. Revisions Sustainability & Support San Miguel stairs creative commons licensed by larry&flo 2007
    38. 38. Discover Open Textbooks Repositories & Listing Sites How to Adopt an Open Textbook
    39. 39. Collaboration Needed • Involve all campus stakeholders – Faculty – Campus advocates – Students – Researchers – Publishers – College Bookstores – Authors – Librarians – Professional organizations for educators Image cc-by Sujin Jetkasettakorn/ FreeDigitalPhotos.net
    40. 40. • Promote open practices and policies • Help faculty adopt OER • Get student input • Openly license your own work • Join the open education community Open Textbook Sustainability
    41. 41. • Find & Adopt open textbook workshops • Understanding open licenses • Open textbook development workflow • Online accessibility • Faculty and student surveys • Access to community of OER practitioners & experts Need Help Getting Started? We can help …
    42. 42. Thank you! Contact Information Una Daly unatdaly@ocwconsortium.org
    43. 43. Share http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4424154829/in/photostream/ IMG_4591 http://www.flickr.com/photos/bionicteaching/4700979984/ cc-by-sa La belle tzigane http://www.flickr.com/photos/joyoflife/21063837 cc-by-sa Asian Library Interior 5 http://www.flickr.com/photos/ubclibrary/453351638/ cc-by-nc-sa Petru http://www.flickr.com/photos/joyoflife/23724427/ cc-by-nc-sa Opensourceways http://www.flickr.com/photos/opensourceway/4371000710/ cc-by-sa Photo credits: