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Avatud haridus – kuidas digivõimalused õppimist muudavad?

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Ettekanne Tartu Ülikooli eetikakeskuse 11. väärtuskasvatuse konverentsil Eesti 2035: väärtuspõhine vaade haridusele. 6 detsember 2018, Tartu.

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Avatud haridus – kuidas digivõimalused õppimist muudavad?

  1. 1. Avatud haridus – kuidas digivõimalused õppimist muudavad? Hans Põldoja Tallinna Ülikooli Digitehnoloogiate instituut
  2. 2. Hans Põldoja õppejuht, haridustehnoloogia dotsent Tallinna Ülikool, Digitehnoloogiate instituut Haridus: Aalto University, School of Arts, Design and Architecture (2016) Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikool (2003) hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net
  3. 3. Millest juttu tuleb? • Mis on avatud haridus? • Mõned näited avatud õppimisest • Avatud hariduse tulevikusuunad
  4. 4. Mis on avatud haridus?
  5. 5. https://creativecommons.org
  6. 6. https://ocw.mit.edu
  7. 7. (Plourde, 2013)
  8. 8. Avatud hariduse liikumine • 2001 — Creative Commons • 2002 — UNESCO võtab kasutusele avatud õppematerjalide (Open Educational Resources, OER) mõiste • 2008 — Kaplinna avatud hariduse deklaratsioon • 2012 — Pariisi OER maailmakongress ja deklaratsioon • 2017 — Ljubljana OER maailmakongress ja tegevuskava
  9. 9. https://www.capetowndeclaration.org/read-the-declaration
  10. 10. Õpetajad ja õppijad • Aktiivne osalemine avatud hariduse liikumises • Avatud õppematerjalide loomine, kasutamine, kohandamine ja edasiarendamine • Koostööl, avastamisel ja teadmusloomel põhinevate õppemeetodite rakendamine • Avatud õppematerjalide loomist ja kasutamist tuleb vaadata hariduse loomuliku osana ja vastavalt tunnustada
  11. 11. Avatud õppematerjalid • Õpetajad, autorid, kirjastajad ja organisatsioonid peaksid oma õppematerjale avatud litsentsidega vabalt jagama, võimaldamaks nende kasutamist, tõlkimist ja edasiarendamist • Õppematerjale tuleks jagada nii kasutamist kui edasiarendamist võimaldaval kujul • Võimaluse korral peaks olema õppematerjalid kasutatavad ka erivajadustega õppijatele ja ilma internetiühenduseta
  12. 12. Hariduspoliitika • Valitsused ja haridusasutused peaksid võtma avatud hariduse prioriteediks • Avaliku raha eest loodud õppematerjalid tuleks avaldada avatud õppematerjalidena • Õppematerjalide repositooriumid peaksid kaasama ja esile tõstma avatud õppematerjale
  13. 13. https://en.unesco.org/themes/building-knowledge-societies/oer
  14. 14. https://www.oercongress.org/woerc-actionplan/
  15. 15. Avatud haridus Eestis
  16. 16. Digipööre elukestvas õppes 4.2. Tagatakse põhikooli, gümnaasiumi ja kutseõppeasutuse õppekavas seatud eesmärkide ning õpitulemuste saavutamist toetava digitaalse õppevara olemasolu, mille hulka kuuluvad e-õpikud, e-töövihikud, avatud õppematerjalid, e- õpetajaraamatud ning veebipõhised hindamisvahendid. Eesti elukestva õppe strateegia 2020 (Eesti elukestva õppe strateegia 2020, 2014)
  17. 17. https://www.hm.ee/et/tegevused/digipoore
  18. 18. https://e-koolikott.ee
  19. 19. https://www.ut.ee/et/oppimine/moocid
  20. 20. Mõned näited avatud õppimisest
  21. 21. Kuidas muuta õppimist õppijakesksemaks ja avatumaks?
  22. 22. Mõned näited avatud õppimisest • Õpilepingud • Ajaveebipõhised kursused • Digitaalsed õpimärgid ja personaalsed õpiteed
  23. 23. Õpilepingud
  24. 24. Anderson, G., Boud, D., & Sampson, J. (1996). Learning Contracts: A Practical Guide. New York: Routledge.
  25. 25. Õpileping… ... defineerib kuidas ja mida õpitakse ning kuidas õpitut hinnatakse; ... on täielikult õppija kontrollida ja vastutada, tuutori roll vaid abistav ja suunav; ... põhineb õpivestlusel (ingl conversational learning procedure) ning arusaamal, et õppija on ainus, kes oskab öelda, kas ja kuidas tema arusaamad, mõtted, teadmised, oskused, tunded on õpiprotsessi käigus muutunud;
  26. 26. Õpileping... ... eeldab süstemaatilisust s.t. pidev reflekteerimine oma õpiprotsessi üle ning paralleelide tõmbamine koostatud lepingu ja tegelikkuse vahel; ... on vajalik, et mõista täiskasvanud õppija vajadusi, eelistusi, õpiprojekti eesmärke ja selle dünaamikat; tema nägemust õpiprotsessist ja keskkonna ülesehitusest; ... aitab õppijat dokumenteerida ja analüüsida oma väljakutseid, dilemmasid, probleeme, ebakindlust, kuid ka saavutusi ja edusamme; ... aitab tuvastada, mis suunas edasi liikuda ja areneda ning formuleerida järgmine õpiprojekt.
  27. 27. Õpilepingu struktuur • Teema — Mida ma soovin õppida? Mis valdkond? • Eesmärgid — Mis on minu õpiprojekti eesmärgid? Miks ma tahan just seda teemat õppida? Mis sunnib mind seda õppima? • Strateegiad — Kuidas ma kavatsen oma eesmärgid saavutada? Missugused tegevused ma pean läbi viima ja mis järjekorras? • Vahendid/ressursid — Missuguseid vahendeid ma kasutan eesmärkide saavutamiseks (inimesed, materjalid, tehnoloogia)? Kuidas ma neile ligi pääsen? • Hindamine — Kuidas ma tean, et ma olen oma eesmärgid saavutanud? Kuidas ma hindan oma saavutusi? Mis tõestab seda? - - - - - • Reflektsioon — Mis minu jaoks töötas ja mis mitte? Miks? Mis on need aspektid, mille kallal pean veel vaeva nägema? Mis on minu tugevad ja nõrgad küljed? Mida ma peaksin järgmisena tegema?
  28. 28. https://signepr.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/opileping/
  29. 29. https://signepr.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/opileping/
  30. 30. https://signepr.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/opileping/
  31. 31. https://opikeskkonnad.wordpress.com/2018/09/26/kokkuvote-opilepingutest/
  32. 32. Mida annab õpileping õppijale? • Parem teadlikkus kursuse eesmärkidest • Iseseisvus oma õpieesmärkide püstitamisel ja sidumisel kursuseväliste tegevustega • Parem kontroll oma õppimise üle
  33. 33. Mida annab õpileping õpetajale? • Ülevaate õppijate õpieesmärkidest ja taustast • Parem võimalus pöörata tähelepanu igale õppijale eraldi • Võimalus kasutada õpilepinguid enesehindamisel
  34. 34. Väljakutsed tulevikuks • Õpilepingute koostamine pikemaajaliste õpiprojektide kohta (nt kogu magistriõpe) • Kuidas toetada õpilepingute koostamist, täiendamist ja tagasisidestamist digivahenditega? • Milliseid õpianalüütika ja personaliseeritud õppimise võimalusi õpilepingud avavad?
  35. 35. Ajaveebipõhised kursused
  36. 36. https://opikeskkonnad.wordpress.com
  37. 37. https://oppematerjalid.wordpress.com
  38. 38. Ajaveebipõhise kursuse formaat • Kursuse ajaveeb • Õppijate personaalsed ajaveebid • Erinevad Veeb 2.0 vahendid (SlideShare, YouTube, Twitter, …) • Ülesanded kursuse ajaveebis • Õppijate kodutööd postitustena personaalsetes ajaveebides • Suhtlus kommentaaride kaudu • Teema kokkuvõtted kursuse ajaveebis
  39. 39. https://kristelopib.wordpress.com
  40. 40. Miks kasutada õppetöös ajaveebe? • Parandada õppijate eneseväljendusoskust • Toetada õppijatevahelist koostööd • Luua võimalused tagasiside saamiseks kursusekaaslastelt • Tutvustada uusi õppemeetodeid • Rikastada õpikeskkonda • Motiveerida õppijaid • Avada õpikeskkond ülikoolivälistele osalejatele (Goktas & Demirel, 2012)
  41. 41. Väljataga, T., Põldoja, H., Laanpere, M. (2011). Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges. In H. Ruokamo, M. Eriksson, L. Pekkala, & H. Vuojärvi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th International Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in the Middle of Nowhere (pp. 68–75). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland. Proceedings of the NBE 2011 68 Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges Terje Väljataga terje.valjataga@tlu.ee http://terjevaljataga.eu Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee http://www.hanspoldoja.net Mart Laanpere mart.laanpere@tlu.ee Tallinn University Centre for Educational Technology Narva road 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia Tel: +372 6409 355, Fax: +372 6409 355 Open education and open educational resources movement as a recent trend in higher education focuses on providing free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. However, such a narrow approach fails to acknowledge the transformative and innovative opportunities openness can offer in higher education. The authors of the paper take a wider perspective to the concept of openness in formal higher education. In addition to open technology, content and knowledge sharing openness in course design is an important dimension to consider. Although open online course design solves many educational problems and challenges, at the same time it also creates new ones. This paper discusses about the re-occurring course design challenges that facilitators face while designing and running open courses. Through a multiple case study a variety of design responses to the design challenges is analyzed and demonstrated. Keywords: open online course model, open educational resources, pedagogical design, multiple case study 1 Introduction The concept of openness has multiple interpretations and dimensions in the context of higher education. Among others, it has been used by proponents of open classroom approach in 1970-ties and by distance education enthusiasts while establishing open universities”. The purpose was to solve a number of educational problems and challenges, for instance, to improve access to existing study programmes and attract more (or better) students following Huijser, Bedford, and Bull’s (2008) claim that everyone has the right to education. In general, openness in education is attributed to a barrier-free access to education in terms of time, affordability and admission requirements being freely available through the Internet. A recent trend is the open educational resources (OER) movement (Atkins, Brown & Hammond, 2007), which provides free access to a wide range of educational resources and online courses. OER and its importance has been widely documented and demonstrated (Downes, 2007). The key tenet of open education is that “education can be improved by making educational assets visible and accessible and by harnessing the collective wisdom of a community of practice and reflection” (p. 2) (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). The notion of openness in education is clearly triggered by the opportunities technological development offers. In addition to growing access to Internet, the latest evolution of digital technology and Web has fostered a new culture of creating and sharing open content in online communities. It has been possible due to the blurred line between producers and consumers of content allowing shifted attention from access to information toward access to other people (Iiyoshi & Kumar, 2008). In the light of ongoing technological development, there are educators who are exploring ways to expand the notion of openness in education beyond public sharing of educational content. Iiyoshi & Kumar (2008) point out that with the concept of openness we might tend to grow our collections of educational tools and resources and miss the transformative and innovative opportunities “openness” can offer. One of the emerging practices in this direction is the open online course model.
  42. 42. Ajaveebipõhiste kursuste disainiprobleemid • Kuidas luua ja säilitada kogukonnatunnet? • Kuidas kavandada õppematerjale ja -tegevusi? • Kuidas jälgida osalemist ja suhtlust? • Kuidas anda tagasisidet? (Väljataga, Põldoja, & Laanpere, 2011)
  43. 43. Kogukonnatunde loomine • Enesetutvustused • Personaalse õpikeskkonna kujundamine • Õpilepingud • Kontaktpäevad
  44. 44. Õpiülesannete kavandamine • Ülesannetes on ühendatud teoreetiline ja praktiline pool • Ülesanded suunavad reflekteerima • Ülesanded võimaldavad igal õppijal pakkuda välja oma originaalse lahenduse
  45. 45. http://opikopivingrid.blogspot.com/2010/11/opivorgustikud.html
  46. 46. Kursuse õppematerjalide avaldamine • WordPress — õppejõu konspekt • SlideShare — esitlused • YouTube — videod • Twitter — viited uudistele jms lühiteated • Mendeley — artiklite viited • Google Drive — materjalid, mida autoriõiguste tõttu ei saa avalikult jagada (nt skanneeritud raamatupeatükid)
  47. 47. Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.14742/ajet.2450 Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 2016, 32(2). 64 ascilite Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs Hans Põldoja Tallinn University, Estonia Erik Duval Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Teemu Leinonen Aalto University, Finland Blogs are used in higher education to support face-to-face courses, to organise online courses, and to open up courses for a wider group of participants. However the open and distributed nature of blogs creates problems that are not common in other learning contexts. Four key challenges related to the use of blogs in learning were identified from earlier research: fragmented discussions, a lack of coordination structures, weak support for awareness, and a danger of over-scripting. The EduFeedr system has been designed to address these issues. In this paper, the authors present their evaluation of its design and effectiveness in a total of 10 courses. The results indicate that learners find the EduFeedr system useful in following discussions and in comparing their progress with other learners. The coordination and awareness issues are seen as more important than the fragmentation of discussions and a danger of over-scripting. Introduction Blogs are used in higher education to provide a space for reflection, a forum for discussions, a portfolio of completed assignments, and for opening up courses for a wider group of participants. While some recent research has focused on the pedagogical aspects of using blogs in higher education, Sim and Hew (2010) suggest that one focus of future research should be the development of web technologies that will enhance the conversational and interactive aspects of blogging. Our study focuses on designing and evaluating an online tool that aims to address some of the issues that impede the use of blogs in online and blended learning courses. A blog is a website where the content is comprised of posts that are displayed in reverse chronological order. A typical blog is a personal website that is written by a single person; however it is also possible to have several authors. Readers can become engaged by writing comments on blog posts. Syndication technologies such as really simple syndication (RSS) and Atom enable readers to receive new posts and comments automatically. All blogs and their interconnections are often referred to as the blogosphere. The blogosphere can be seen both as a social network and as an ecosystem. The possibilities for using blogs in learning became evident soon after blogs emerged (Oravec, 2003; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Sim and Hew (2010) identified six major applications for blogs in education: (a) maintaining a learning journal, (b) recording personal life, (c) expressing emotions, (d) communicating with others, (e) assessment, and (f) managing tasks. Kim (2008) suggests that the use of blogs may help to overcome various limitations of other computer- mediated communication systems, such as difficulties in managing communication, passiveness of students, lack of ownership, instructor-centeredness, and limited archives of communication. Previous studies show that reading other blogs and receiving feedback on one’s own blog posts were the more effective aspects of using blogs in learning (Churchill, 2009; Ellison & Wu, 2008). Blogs are useful in disciplines that require students to discuss, write, reflect, and make comments about content or ideas (Cakir, 2013). Blogging has been found particularly beneficial in teacher education because it can motivate learners, foster collaboration and cooperation, promote different instructional practices, and enrich the learning environment (Goktas & Demirel, 2012). Teachers who acquire these competences during the blogging assignments can later apply these methods in their own teaching.
  48. 48. Ajaveebipõhiste kursuste väärtus • Ajaveebipõhised kursused kannavad edasi algset ideed veebist kui avatud ja hajutatud keskkonnast • Ajaveebipõhised kursused kui “õppimise kokaraamat”
  49. 49. Väljakutsed tulevikuks • Ajaveebipõhise kursuse mudeli kohandamine suurema osalejate arvuga kursustele • Õppijate kõrgendatud ootused privaatsuse suhtes • Õpianalüütika ja andmete visualiseerimine
  50. 50. Digitaalsed õpimärgid ja personaalsed õpiteed
  51. 51. (Class Hack, n.d.)
  52. 52. (Mozilla Foundation, 2012-13)
  53. 53. Õpimärkide kasutuselevõtu põhjused • Privaatne hindamine avatud õpikeskkonnas • Kursust mitteametlikult läbivate õppijate tunnustamine
  54. 54. Esimene katse — 2014
  55. 55. Ülesanded Õpiväljundid Õpimärgid Kirjeldada õpiobjektide lähenemise eeliseid ja puuduseid Otsida repositooriumitest metaandmete ja litsentsitingimuste järgi õpiobjekte Koostada lihtsamaid sisupakette, teste ja e-õpikuid ning kirjeldada neid metaandmetega Järgida õppematerjalide koostamisel autoriõiguse põhimõtteid Hinnata hindamismudeli põhjal õppematerjali kvaliteeti Koostada põhjalikuma õppematerjali ühe autorvahendi abil Analüüsida ühe digitaalsete õppematerjalidega seotud teema aktuaalseid probleeme, uurimusi ja tulevikusuundi Põhiteadmised õpiobjektidest ja repositooriumidest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide autorvahenditest Põhiteadmised arvutipõhisest testimisest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide uutest tehnoloogiatest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide autoriõigustest Põhiteadmised õppematerjalide kvaliteedist Sisupaketi koostaja Testiküsimuste koostaja e-Õpiku koostaja Süvendatud teadmised õpiobjektidest ja repositooriumidest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide autorvahenditest Süvendatud teadmised arvutipõhisest testimisest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide uutest tehnoloogiatest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide autoriõigustest Süvendatud teadmised õppematerjalide kvaliteedist Blogimisülesanne 1 Blogimisülesanne 2 Blogimisülesanne 3 Blogimisülesanne 4 Blogimisülesanne 5 Õppematerjali koostamise rühmatöö Blogimisülesanne 6 Kirjanduse analüüs Õpimärkide seosed ülesannete ja õpiväljunditega
  56. 56. Arvutipõhine testimine Sisupaketi koostaja Uued tehnoloogiad Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Testiküsimuste koostaja e-Õpiku koostaja Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Õpiobjektid Autorvahendid Arvutipõhine testimine Uued tehnoloogiad Autoriõigus Kvaliteet Süvendatud teadmised ühel õppematerjalidega seotud teemal
  57. 57. Õpimärkide kaalud • Põhiteadmiste õpimärgid — 10 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamise õpimärgid — 20 punkti • Kirjanduse analüüsi õpimärk — 20 punkti
  58. 58. Põldoja, H., & Laanpere, M. (2014). Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses. Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (toim), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (Vol. 8699, lk 172–178). Cham: Springer. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19 Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses Hans Põldoja(&) and Mart Laanpere Institute of Informatics, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Recent developments with personal learning environments and open online courses have led educators to experiment with opening up their formal higher education courses. In these courses, the online learning activities take place in open learning environments based on various Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. Although this type of courses have a number of pedagogical benefits, they also raise issues related to private grading of students’ works and recognizing the learning of informal participants. This paper presents our exploratory study on addressing these issues by introducing open badges to master’s level course that takes place in a blog-based learning environment. Students’ perspectives on using open badges were evaluated through focus group interviews. The results of the study indicate, that badges could have a potential in formal higher edu- cation, if they are used more widely and provide an explicit choice of personal learning paths for learners. Keywords: Open badges Á Assessment Á Blog-based courses 1 Introduction One of the recent trends in education is the blending of formal and informal learning. This is supported by introducing social media, personal learning environments and various open educational practices to formal higher education [1, 2]. Students can enrich their learning experience by using open educational resources from other uni- versities and taking part in Massive Open Online Courses. In many cases, such developments have led university lecturers and professors to increase the degree of openness in their courses. One approach is to move online learning activities to open learning environments that are based on social media and Web 2.0 tools such as blogs. The use of blogs in online courses provides a number of pedagogical benefits such as motivating learners, enhancing the development and expression of ideas, fostering interaction, collaboration and group work, inviting feedback from other learners, and enriching the learning environment [3]. The use of blog-based learning environments also allows educators to open up their course for informal participants or members of professional communities who are not officially enrolled to the course. Open blog-based courses in formal higher education raise also a number of issues that are not present in traditional courses. For example, blog-based learning environ- ments typically lack special features that support private feedback and grading of © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014 Y. Cao et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2014 Workshops, LNCS 8699, pp. 172–178, 2014. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19
  59. 59. Teine katse — 2015
  60. 60. Õpimärkide kaalud • Põhiteadmiste õpimärgid — 10 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamise õpimärgid — 20 punkti • Kirjanduse analüüsi õpimärk — 20 punkti • Kuldõpimärgid — 15 ja 30 punkti
  61. 61. Kolmas katse — 2016
  62. 62. Õpimärkide kaalud • Põhiteadmised … — 10 punkti • Põhiteadmised … kuldõpimärk — 15 punkti • Põhiteadmised … poolik õpimärk — 5 punkti • Uurija — 36 punkti • Õppematerjali koostaja — 24 punkti • Valgustaja — 10 punkti • Vikipeedia artikli autor — 12 punkti
  63. 63. Erinevad õpiteed
  64. 64. Uurija • 6 blogimisülesannet — 60 punkti • Kirjanduse analüüsi koostamine — 36 punkti • Kokku 96 punkti (hinne A) • Töömaht 76 tundi
  65. 65. Praktik • 6 blogimisülesannet — 60 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamine — 24 punkti • Kokku 84 punkti (hinne B) • Töömaht 66 tundi
  66. 66. Mitteblogija • Kirjanduse analüüsi koostamine — 36 punkti • Õppematerjali koostamine — 24 punkti • Esitlus kontakttunnis — 10 punkti • Vikipeedia artikkel — 12 punkti • Kokku 82 punkti (hinne B) • Töömaht 79 tundi
  67. 67. Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (toim), Advances in Web- Based Learning — ICWL 2016 (Vol. 10013, lk 40– 49). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5 Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education Hans Põldoja (✉) , Pirje Jürgens, and Mart Laanpere Tallinn University, Narva mnt 25, 10120 Tallinn, Estonia {hans.poldoja,pirje.jurgens,mart.laanpere}@tlu.ee Abstract. Open Badges as a method for assessment and recognition of learning originates from the context of informal learning. Thus, it cannot be introduced into formal higher education without reconsidering the existing assessment processes.This paper presentsexperiencesfrom three years of using Open Badges in a master level course. In each iteration, the badge system was revised based on learners’ feedback. Special attention was given to supporting learners with different learning styles. To summarize our findings, this paper proposes a set of design patterns for developing badge systems in higher education. While the learning styles proved to be useful as generic design guidelines for separating two alternative learning pathways for the course, more research is needed on advanced learning-style-based learning pathways. Keywords: Open Badges · Assessment · Higher education 1 Introduction Open Badges (OB’s) is a web technology for recognizing and verifying knowledge, competencies or involvements gained in online or offline settings. In a basic sense, badges are digital images that contain embedded information about the accomplish‐ ments. The development of the Open Badges technology started in 2010, when a group of open education activists came up with the initial concept during the Mozilla Drumbeat Festival. Inspired by the use of digital badges in gaming and various social apps, they proposed that badges could be used for verifying learning. The technical specification of the Open Badges Infrastructure (OBI) was developed together with the Mozilla Foundation and released in 2012. While digital badges are typically used within a single environment, OBI was developed as an open standard that allows people to collect badges from different issuers. The initial scenarios about using open badges focused on informal learning contexts [1]. However, in recent years there have been a number of studies about using badges in schools [2, 3] and in higher education [4–6]. Introducing open badges to formal higher education courses provides an opportunity to reconsider the existing assessment procedures. Recent research on open badges has proposed a number of reasons for adopting badges. Ahn, Pellicone, and Butler [7] see badges as motivators for behavior, pedagogical tools for promoting particular learning activities, and credentials for recognizing learning achievements. While Jovanovic and Devedzic [8] identify similar roles for open badges, they discuss additional benefits such as supporting alternative forms of assessment (e.g. peer-assessment), providing learners © Springer International Publishing AG 2016 D.K.W. Chiu et al. (Eds.): ICWL 2016, LNCS 10013, pp. 40–49, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5
  68. 68. Õppijate tagasiside • Õppijapoolne kontroll • Teadlikkus • Motivatsioon • Õpistiilid • Õpimärkide ökosüsteem • Õpimärkide metaandmed • Hindamiskriteeriumid
  69. 69. Treibold, T. (2017). Õpimärkide rakendamine kujundaval hindamisel üldhariduskoolis (magistritöö). Loetud aadressil http://www.cs.tlu.ee/ teemaderegister/ Tallinna Ülikool Digitehnoloogiate instituut Haridustehnoloogia ÕPIMÄRKIDE RAKENDAMINE KUJUNDAVAL HINDAMISEL ÜLDHARIDUSKOOLIS Magistritöö Autor: Tiina Treibold Juhendaja: Hans Põldoja Autor…………………………………….....………….“……“……………..2017 Juhendaja…………………………......................…….“……“……………..2017 Instituudi direktor…………………………….......….“……“……………..2017 Tallinn 2007
  70. 70. Väljakutsed tulevikuks • Terve õppekava katmine õpimärkidega • Õpimärkide kasutamine õppekava läbivate teemade hindamiseks • Õppijate kaasamine õpimärkide disainimisse ja väljaandmisesse • Personaalsete õpiteede visualiseerimine ja õpianalüütika
  71. 71. Avatud hariduse tulevikusuunad
  72. 72. https://www.capetowndeclaration.org/cpt10/
  73. 73. Avatud hariduse ideede levitamine laiemale üldsusele Communicating Open Taking the message of open education to the mainstream Why is this important? Ten years ago, the Cape Town Declaration laid out a compelling vision for a world of open, flexible, and effective education that has inspired thousands of educators, learners, advocates, and policymakers across the globe. Yet, after a decade of passionate advocacy, the need for broader awareness of open education persists. The challenge is not in reaching enough people, but rather in articulating the meaning and value of open education in a way that resonates with mainstream audiences in the same way that the Cape Town Declaration resonates with us. For the open education movement to rise to the next level, we need to take our message to the mainstream and explain why open should matter to them. In short, we need to become better communicators. What is the opportunity?
  74. 74. Uue põlvkonna õppijate ja õpetajate kaasamine Empowering the Next Generation The open education movement must put the next generation at its core Why is this important? Students are integral to open education, but their importance is not only about the present, it is about the future. Those sitting in classrooms ten years ago are leading classrooms today and will be the tenured professors, senior teachers, and education policymakers of tomorrow. Shifting the culture of our educational institutions toward openness needs to start with the next generation, those who are still learning the practices and habits that will inform the rest of their careers. How we engage with and support today’s students and young educators will help shape the movement—and our educational systems at large—for decades to come. What is the opportunity?
  75. 75. Koostöö teiste avatud liikumistega Connecting with Other Open Movements Open education can grow stronger through collaboration with allied movements Why is this important? Open education is one of many movements that seek to advance openness and access to knowledge. The broader Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement embraces many strategies including open access to research, open data, and copyright reform, alongside open education. Even broader alliances can be seen with movements seeking openness in other ways, including free and open source software, open government, and open culture. The open education community can also see itself as part of a larger movement to support sharing and the commons in the digital era. As the open education movement moves into the next decade, we should consider how we explore and leverage these connections toward shared goals. What is the opportunity?
  76. 76. Avatud hariduse roll arengukoostöös Open Education for Development Unlocking new opportunities for education in support of development Why is this important? The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 4 calls on the global community to ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning. This same vision is at the core of the Cape Town Declaration and is a shared value of what open education hopes to achieve. As a movement, we need to center the role of open education in advancing development around the world. The challenges to expanding educational opportunities related to development are manifold. Too often, a barrier is supplying quality, locally-relevant educational materials, especially in underserved languages and regions that traditional market mechanisms do not prioritize. Other challenges may be infrastructural, including the connectivity, power, or transportation systems needed for materials to reach students, especially in rural areas. Where access to technology is expanding, teacher training and digital literacy skills may not have caught up. While the specifics vary widely across countries and contexts, a common thread is that traditional
  77. 77. Avatud õppimine Open Pedagogy Harnessing the power of open in teaching and learning practices Why is this important? Over the last decade, much of the focus of the open education movement has been around the creation and adoption of open educational resources. Some of the most exciting frontiers in open education are in open pedagogy, widely understood to consist of teaching and learning practices enabled by the ability to retain, reuse, revise, remix and redistribute educational materials. The open environment empowers educators to step away from the confines of static textbooks and traditional assignments, and opens the door to imaginative, collaborative, engaging educational experiences that can help transform teaching and learning for the better. What is the opportunity?
  78. 78. Õppeasutuse raamidest väljapoole mõtlemine Thinking Outside the Institution Enabling everyone, everywhere, to learn anything Why is this important? Open education pioneers set out to design new formats for learning and new institutions, taking inspiration from the way open source communities work, rather than replicating traditional schools and universities. However, while open education has made tremendous progress within formal education, the biggest changes in how people learn seem less connected to the open education movement today. YouTube is the largest site of informal learning online. StackOverflow is where software developers hone their skills and LinkedIn reputations are starting to complement formal credentials. Then there is a range of other communities that share our ethos of sharing and learning (e.g., the Maker Movement) but remain disconnected from open education.
  79. 79. Andmed ja analüütika Data and Analytics Exploring the intersection of open content, open data, and open learning Why is this important? As technology use increases in education, the basic acts of teaching and learning result in the creation of ever-larger amounts of data. These data describe the behaviors of people, from what students did read or did not watch to how long it took an instructor to grade a piece of student work. At the same time, there has been an explosion of learning analytics tools intended to help students and teachers make sense of this deluge of data through machine learning, statistics, and other algorithms. These tools recommend actions that impact students, such as which assignment to complete next, or who should receive extra help. On one hand, these developments should be embraced for their tremendous potential to provide valuable guidance in support of teaching and learning. On the other hand, these changes also raise serious questions regarding how data and algorithms are designed and managed that can profoundly affect the open education space.
  80. 80. Õpiku ümbermõtestamine Beyond the Textbook Building the open learning materials of the future Why is this important? The idea of moving beyond the textbook has been at the core of the open education movement from the start. Yet experience over the last decade has driven some OER efforts in the opposite direction. Promoting open textbooks that look, feel, and act like traditional books has proved to be a highly successful adoption strategy in certain contexts. These efforts have made essential progress toward expanding the use and adoption of OER. However, the open education movement should remain conscious that the strategy of equating OER with textbooks constrains the imaginations of teachers and learners with regard to what modern, technology- enhanced open learning materials can be. What is the opportunity?
  81. 81. Avaliku rahaga loodud materjalide muutmine avatud litsentsidega kättesaadavaks Opening Up Publicly Funded Resources Publicly funded educational resources should be openly licensed by default Why is this important? Governments around the world spend billions of dollars every year on grants and contracts to develop educational resources including textbooks, curricula, teacher training, language learning materials, and more. These valuable resources are created with public funds in service of the public good, yet too rarely are they made available for public use beyond their original purpose. Governments can expand the impact, efficiency, and socioeconomic benefit of their educational investments by adopting policies that ensure that publicly funded educational resources are openly licensed and shared with the public by default. What is the opportunity?
  82. 82. Autoriõiguse reform Copyright Reform for Education Copyright reform and open education advocacy are two sides of the same coin Why is this important? Strong educational exceptions to copyright are just as important as open licensing of resources, as complementary means to ensuring educational freedoms. While the availability of openly licensed educational resources continues to grow, a wide variety of cultural and informational resources that are critical for education remain locked up by restrictive copyright terms. Limitations and exceptions to copyright can give teachers and learners the necessary freedoms to use these resources for educational purposes, without having to ask for permission. Copyright reforms taking place around the world can strengthen these exceptions—or hurt education by weakening them. The open education community needs to care about education-friendly copyright law that protects and expands rights to teach and learn. Open licensing and copyright reform are complementary of each other. The growth of openly licensed resources demonstrates the demand for freedom, openness, and collaboration in all kinds of educational materials. Working toward education-friendly changes to C
  83. 83. Mõttekohad • Millistes õpikontekstides ja kuidas rakendada Eestis avatud hariduse põhimõtteid? • Kuidas meie saame panustada ülemaailmsesse avatud hariduse liikumisse?
  84. 84. Lõpusõnum • Avatud hariduse rakendamine ei vaja uusi kalleid digivahendeid, vaid mõtteviisi muutust • Avatus peaks olema hariduses esimene valik, kuid suletud lähenemine peab olema samuti võimalik
  85. 85. Viited • Class Hack, Open Badge Anatomy (Updated): http://classhack.com/post/45364649211/open-badge-anatomy-updated • Goktas, Y., & Demirel, T. (2012). Blog-enhanced ICT courses: Examining their effects on prospective teachers’ ICT competencies and perceptions. Computers & Education, 58(3), 908–917. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.11.004 • Eesti elukestva õppe strateegia 2020. (2014). Loetud aadressil https://www.hm.ee/sites/default/files/strateegia2020.pdf • Plourde, M. (2013). MOOC (massive open online course). https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/MOOC#/media/File:MOOC_poster_mathplourde.jpg • Põldoja, H., Duval, E., & Leinonen, T. (2016). Design and evaluation of an online tool for open learning with blogs. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(2), 64–81. https://dx.doi.org/10.14742/ajet.2450 • Põldoja, H., & Laanpere, M. (2014). Exploring the Potential of Open Badges in Blog-Based University Courses. Y. Cao, T. Väljataga, J. K. T. Tang, H. Leung, & M. Laanpere (toim), New Horizons in Web Based Learning (Vol. 8699, lk 172–178). Cham: Springer. http://doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-13296-9_19 • Põldoja, H., Jürgens, P., & Laanpere, M. (2016). Design Patterns for Badge Systems in Higher Education. M. Spaniol, M. Temperini, D.K.W. Chiu, I. Marenzi, & U. Nanni (toim), Advances in Web-Based Learning — ICWL 2016 (Vol. 10013, lk 40– 49). Cham: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/978-3-319-47440-3_5 • Väljataga, T., Põldoja, H., Laanpere, M. (2011). Open Online Courses: Responding to Design Challenges. H. Ruokamo, M. Eriksson, L. Pekkala, & H. Vuojärvi (toim), Proceedings of the 4th International Network-Based Education 2011 Conference The Social Media in the Middle of Nowhere (lk 68–75). Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.
  86. 86. Kasutatud fotod • Dom Pates, https://www.flickr.com/photos/globalismpictures/5441692868/ • rawpixel, https://unsplash.com/photos/h7EIo10-yrQ • Glenn Carstens-Peters, https://unsplash.com/photos/RLw-UC03Gwc • Andy Lamb, https://www.flickr.com/photos/speedoflife/6924482682/ • chuttersnap, https://unsplash.com/photos/VMKsKFSuEg8 • salvatore ventura, https://unsplash.com/photos/5LsRnLsWC6I
  87. 87. See materjal on avaldatud Creative Commons Autorile viitamine–Jagamine samadel tingimustel 3.0 Eesti litsentsi alusel. Litsentsi terviktekstiga tutvumiseks külastage aadressi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ee/ Hans Põldoja hans.poldoja@tlu.ee Tallinna Ülikool Digitehnoloogiate instituut https://www.slideshare.net/hanspoldoja http://www.hanspoldoja.net

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