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Administration and Supervision in Education

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Administration and Supervision in Education

  1. 1. Reporter Charo May J. Naigan MaEd Student Dr. Jovita C. Arreza Professor
  2. 2. * Significance of Administration and Supervision * Types of School Administration and Supervision * Management Functions * Administration and Supervision in Philippine Setting
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Organizational Chart OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT SERVICE BUREAU OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTING TASK FORCE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL TESTING AND RESEARCH CENTER HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SERVICE SCHOOL HEALTH & NUTRITION CENTER SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICES (188*) SCHOOL DISTRICT (2,364**) ELEM. PUBLIC PRIVATE As of Dec. 2007 SEC. 37,161 4,915 4,788 3,372 TECHNICAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SERVICE BUREAU OF ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM REGIONAL OFFICES (17) SCHOOLS PLANNING SERVICE NATIONAL EDUCATORS’ ACADEMY OF THE PHILIPPINES NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHING INSTRUMENTATION CENTER INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS COUNCIL SECRETARIAT SPECIAL OFFICES UNDER OSEC 1. CENTER FOR STUDENTS AND CO-CURRICULAR AFFAIRS 2. EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY UNIT 3. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SPECIAL CONCERNS OFFICE 4. SPECIAL EVENTS UNIT 5. DETEXT ACTION CENTER 6. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION UNIT 7. SCHOOL SITES TITLING UNIT OTHER ATTACHED AGENCIES 1. TEACHER EDUCATION COUNCIL *Including 21 interim divisions 2. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS COUNCIL **SY 2005-2006 3. LITERACY COORDINATING COUNCIL 4. PHILIPPINE HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE ARTS 5. NATIONAL BOOK DEVELOPMENT BOARD 6. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CHILDREN’S TELEVISION
  4. 4. * Introspection * Research * Training * Guidance * Evaluation • Studying the teacherlearner situation • Improving the teacher – learner situation • Evaluating the means, methods, and outcomes of supervision
  5. 5. * Emphasis on Administration * Emphasis on Curriculum * Emphasis on Instruction * Emphasis on Human Relations * Emphasis on Leadership * Emphasis on Evaluation
  6. 6. * Mc.Nelly have identified four types of supervision: * 1.Laissez-faire supervision-This type is an inspectional supervisory methods in which the class was observed,but nothing was done to help the teacher improves the job. Spinelessness and evasion of responsibility not democratic * 2.Coercive supervision-this concept was based in 3 assumptions:first,that there is a well defined body of knowledge which desirable for all pupils to learn;second,that it is possible for desirable to establish for all children to learn it;and third there is a best methods are and the best way to make teachers teach prescribed curriculum is to use coercive methods. * * DESTRUCTIVE TO HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS IT IS INCONSISTENT WITH DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES
  7. 7. * 3.Supervision as training and guidance-under this concept due recognition was given to the fact that education should be the process of guiding growth. (teaching-training institutions) * 4.Supervision as democratic professional leadership-this is the emerging philosophy of supervision. Combination of four factors formula: factor 1-deeper understanding of functional meaning of democracy factor 2-contributions of research to fund knowledge concerning learning process factor 3-centered on human relationships factor 4-groupwork
  8. 8. A summary of the contrast between old and modern concepts of administration and supervision made by Dr.Hollis P. Allen, professor at the College of Education, University of the Philippines.
  9. 9. Edicts- a proclamation having a force law
  10. 10. Meddle- to interest in what is one’s concern/interfere without right
  11. 11. Case 1 Mr.Santos was a school administrator. One day he was talking to the meeting about management.He said, among other things: “One does not have to have a good qualities as a leader but he has to appear to have them. Maintain a social distance from employees, so they can judge you from a distance rather than from a close range.”
  12. 12. CASE 2 Mrs X, a school teacher used to be very attentive and helpful principal,Mrs.Y.She brought flowers with which decorate he “boss’s”table and often sent some crabs and prawns to her house when she had plenty from her husband’s punong.The two became very close. On her part,Mrs.Y gave her preferential assignments such as assigning her bright sections giving her convenient assignment such as assigning bright sections or no advisory sections, convenient schedule of classes,etc. *What cultural pattern of human relations are involved in the whole situation?
  13. 13. Fawning- to show affection, used especially of a dog,court favor by flattering manner
  14. 14. Extraneous-coming from outside
  15. 15. Values Clinical Supervision Traditional Supervision Aim To help improve instruction Evaluation Instruction Basis Classroom Data Observer’s rating Focus Limited specific concerns Broad general concerns Frequency Based on need Based on policy Philosophy Promotes independence Promotes dependence Process Cyclical Linear Responsibility Shared between teacher and supervisor Supervisor’s responsibility
  16. 16. • Management is not carrying out a prescribed task in a prescribed way: • Management is: • Setting directions, aims, and objectives • Planning how progress will be made • Organizing available resources • Controlling the process • Setting and improving organizational standards
  17. 17. Administration is a process which six elements: Decision-making, planning,organizing,communicating,coordinating and evaluating. These elements is a process themselves. *Decision making implies the analysis of the alternatives particularly the consequences in the future. *Planning is concerned with the setting of goals an organization, preparation of programs or course action designed to accomplish goals to plot the operation of the program. *Organizing has to do with arrangements of functions of offices and personnel so as to reciprocal relations. *Without communication in an organization, it is impossible for an organization to get things done effectively. *Coordinating aims to insure smooth operation of performance of all sectors of the organization. The administrators problems is how to make the people accept assignments willingly and to adjust their behavior to that of the group.In order to accomplish a group goals requires firm and fair exercise of authority and persuasive performance of the leadership function. *Evaluating pervades all the elements of the administration process.—It aims to determine whether goals-long range or short range are implemented. It points out strengths and weaknesses of organizational operations and leads thereby, the administrator to make more rational decisions.
  18. 18. Management Functions According to Modern Authorities
  19. 19. * We speak of process as sequence of behavior,one behavior leading to another.However,one cannot actually see the process as such. He can only infer it from the behavior manifested. * Elements of the administrative process * 1.Decision making-the nerve center of administration.A switch-throwing mechanism to administration.It is important because one’s decisions affect or influence his subordinates behavior.If the decision has made and pursued action,there is literally no turning back. * Webste’s New dictionary defines decision as a judgement or a conclusion reached.
  20. 20. * Steps in the decision process 1.Determine the relevant behavior alternatives a.recall relevant information b.investigate so he can have additional information c. consult other people including subordinates. d. evaluate the behavior alternatives 2.Define the behavior alternatives 3.Evaluate the behavior alternatives-weigh advantages and disadvantages
  21. 21. * A high school principal has found after investigation that Julio a student in the fourth year,was guilty of tearing out pages of library reference book. When asked why he done it he said: “I was behind in my work. I wanted to review for my examination” Give possible alternatives from dealing with this situation? Give example of personal experience in which one leads to another.
  22. 22. *If you are planning for one year, grow rice. If you are planning for 20 years, grow trees. If you are planning for centuries, grow men! * Chinese Proverb
  23. 23. * Goal – what is it? * Objective – what is it? * Plan – what is it?
  24. 24. *Objective – A clear specific measuring post indicating progress towards achieving a short term goal. *Goal – An overall or longer term aim providing focus for day to day activities *Plan – projected courses of action aimed at achieving future objectives – they provide clear goals and map the activities needed to achieve them efficiently and effectively – they are the propellers of an airplane or rudder of a ship
  25. 25. *Planning is critical for business – we have to organize our day’s, weekly, monthly, yearly and long range activities. *Planning gives us direction and helps identify and focus important issues for business. *Mission *SMART Plan *Strategic Plans
  26. 26. * Values – what is important to a person or a company Egs – being impartial, free from discrimination, ethical, fair, flexible, safety, trust, customer focus – Tylenol challenge in 1980 * Vision – where we are headed – expresses what a business truly wants to achieve – aims to challenge, inspire and stretch people in a company – Eg – Disney’s vision is ‘ to make people happy’. * Mission – How will we get there? The path to reach the vision
  27. 27. * Values – what is important to a person or a company Egs – being impartial, free from discrimination, ethical, fair, flexible, safety, trust, customer focus – Tylenol challenge in 1980 * Vision – where we are headed – expresses what a business truly wants to achieve – aims to challenge, inspire and stretch people in a company – Eg – Disney’s vision is ‘ to make people happy’. * Mission – How will we get there? The path to reach the vision
  28. 28. * Administration of Process * Initiates the planning of programs and strategies * Long-range: on in-depth needs assessment, based on clear goals and objectives * Short term: immediate needs of the incoming school year
  29. 29. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. * Developing a Strategic Plan Based on the Values of the business Based on Vision of the business Based on Mission of business SWOT your business Focus on top important issues Design the objectives for (5) above – this is your strategic objectives Do a Gap analysis Get to WORK! Do the SMART Plan
  30. 30. * What is organizing? – * It is defining roles, responsibilities and arranging and coordinating the resources needed to successfully carry out plans – Right People in the Right Seat in the BUS called BUSINESS
  31. 31. *What is staffing? – * “putting right people in the right position” to insure maximum effectiveness and efficiency in the organization. *People are a hotel’s most valuable resource – the hotel needs the right people to be attracted to join it – then it is recruiting, training to do their jobs effectively and treating them well to retain them. *Losing employees is easy – recruiting is twice as hard – Let’s do a costing of recruitment?
  32. 32. * Leadership is about achieving business goals through the work of others David Karpin * Trait Approach – focusses on personal qualities such as height, intelligence, genetic etc * Transformational Approach – leads the organisation in new direction through leaders talent and drive * Charismatic Approach – leads through personal magnetism, charm and other qualities – Eg Steve Jobs of Apple Computers, JW Marriott of Marriott Hotels * Narcisstic Approach – leads through personal skills, magnetic attraction and also are distrustful of others and consider themselves invincible – Eg Napolean, Bill Gates,
  33. 33. *Styles of Leadership – 1.Dictatorial – lead through force and threats – “you do not lead by hitting people over the head – that is assault, not leadership” – Eisenhower 2.Authoritarian – task centred leaders, want to control, decision making is very limited 3.Democratic – participative leadership – people centered style 4.Laissez Faire – use delegation and leave employees to do their jobs with little or no input from themselves
  34. 34. * How are we doing? * Are we operating within the budget? * Are we meeting our targets? * It is keeping an eye on how the business is doing – checking on budgets, materials, costs, staff, revenues, quality, safety measures etc
  35. 35. * Standards are set,controls are observed,so that group effort is integrated into a working unit * Unity of purpose is stressed. * Coordination can be achieved through effective communication and good leadership.
  36. 36. * Evaluation in education has been defined as “ judging the worth of experience,idea or process”. * In literature it is referred as appraising. --criteria must be set to what extent and how well have the organization objectives been accomplished? * For examples, * Did the pupils increase their competency in reading? * Did the principals and the supervisors increase their competency in supervising the teaching of reading?
  37. 37. * Administrators should remember that teachers’ work should be evaluated on the basis of adequacy but rather on the basis of efficiency.
  38. 38. *Imagine that you are managing a restaurant – for each of the managerial functions list Five Activities that you would regularly undertake *In groups work on each function * 5 Minutes
  39. 39. * Professional Leadership * Shared vision & goals * Learning Environment * Concentration on Learning and Teaching * High Expectations * Positive Reinforcement * Monitoring Progress
  40. 40. * Administration-consider as service organization to bring together under favorable circumtances possible, competent teachers, educative materials and equipment and effective teaching * In our system, the division superintendent and district supervisor---administration * Division and subject supervisor—supervision * Principal-attends both supervision and administration
  41. 41. * Swanson Committee- which made a survey of public schools in the Philippines found out that principal-teacher ratio has increased from 20 to 47 in 1958. * It can be seen then that the administrative and supervisory responsibilities of the principal expanded. * Problems arise out of the dynamics of the social, political and cultural framework of the Philippine society. * Leadership patterns: social position denoted by relative wealth and ritual (compadre system or tayo-tayo) kin appointments ,respect for conformity to values and tradition (huya at utang na loob) and socially personality traits (pakikisama).
  42. 42. *Some characteristics of Filipino leadership patterns are(1) tendency for a ningas kugon pattern (2)tendency towards personalism (3) a tendency to concentrate leadership functions in few people, which is possibly due to the lack of leaders to go around or refusal to assume responsibilities. *Results to poor supervision and administration therefore poor education
  43. 43. * Case 2 * A district supervisor used to get some of his teachers together to play mahjong on Sunday afternoons or evenings. When asked by another district supervisor why he did this, he said that these teachers like other human beings need recreation. * How do you explain the outward motivations of the supervisor from the point of view of value system?
  44. 44. •The End

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