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Lecture wd teachers on guidance & counseling


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Lecture wd teachers on guidance & counseling

  1. 1. A crash course in Guidance & Counseling Dona Francisca Lacsamana de Ortega Memorial National High School
  2. 2. GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Article . The RIGHTS OF THE CHILD The Right to School Guidance and Counseling
  3. 3. Guidance Process of helping the individual develop his totality as a person for his and other’s benefit.
  4. 4. Aims/Purpose of Guidance <ul><li>From the standpoint of the individual- Holistic </li></ul><ul><li>To help individual by his own effort, as far as possible, to achieve up to the level of his own capacity, to gain personal satisfaction, in as many aspects of his life as possible, and to make his maximum contribution to the society. </li></ul><ul><li>To assist the individual to meet and solve his own problems as they arise, to make correct interpretation of facts and wise choices and adjustments </li></ul>
  5. 5. * To help the individual lay a permanent foundation for sound, mature adjustments. * To assist the individual to live a well-balanced life in all respects-physical, mental, emotional, social and moral .
  6. 6. From the standpoint of the Institution <ul><li>The guidance program should facilitate the work of the institutional staff along these lines: </li></ul><ul><li>It should assist teachers on their efforts to understand students </li></ul><ul><li>It should offer teachers systematic in-service training </li></ul><ul><li>It should provide for referrals of students by teachers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Differences of Education, Guidance, Counseling, and Psychotherapy
  8. 8. PSYCHOTHERAPY - for Incapacitating psychological problems/disorders like Neurosis and Psychosis; given by psychotherapist or psychiatrist * primarily individual attention COUNSELING- for non-incapacitating problems, related to a need for self- understanding /normal developmental problems like insecurities or psycho-social maladjustment due to family problems or peer conflicts; given by counselors/therapist * Individual or small groups
  9. 9. GUIDANCE – for those with potential for self-direction but with need for Information; given by counselors *Individual or small groups INSTRUCTION/EDUCATION - Instructional needs general to all students; given by teachers * Primarily large groups
  10. 10. Psychotherapy, Counseling & Guidance are generally called Helping Professions while Education is a Teaching Profession
  11. 12. Place of Guidance in the Educational System
  12. 13. <ul><li>. Importance And Functions of Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>a.) Whenever decisions are to be made </li></ul><ul><li>b.) When there is no choice to be made </li></ul><ul><li>c.) When time may not be favorable for the </li></ul><ul><li>individual to make any decision </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>a.) Vocational Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>b.) Educational Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>c.) Personal Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>d.) Recreational Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>e.) Civic Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>f.) Leadership Guidance </li></ul>
  13. 14. Basic Principles of Guidance <ul><li>a.) Guidance is concerned primarily and systematically with the personal development of the individual </li></ul><ul><li>b.) The primary mode by which guidance is conducted lies in individual behavioral processes. </li></ul><ul><li>c.) Guidance is oriented toward cooperation, not compulsion </li></ul><ul><li>d.) Guidance is based upon recognizing the dignity and worth of individuals as well as their right to self determination. </li></ul><ul><li>e.) Guidance is a continuous, sequential, educational process. </li></ul><ul><li>f.) Guidance is preventive rather than curative </li></ul>.
  14. 15. The School Counselor <ul><li>Roles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. as a Quasi Administrator </li></ul><ul><li>2. a Generalist=gives priority to orientation, grp guidance, registration, class scheduling, course changes, cumulative record development, testing, appraisal, special class placement, information procedures, etc </li></ul><ul><li>3. a Specialist-in counseling </li></ul><ul><li>4. an Agent for Change </li></ul><ul><li>5. a specialist in Psychological Education </li></ul><ul><li>6. an Applied Behavioral Scientist </li></ul><ul><li>7. Contingency Manager-consultant to teachers who apply beh. modification in their classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>8. Counselor-Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>9. Helping Professional </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The Guidance Setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether it be in the elementary, high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and college levels, guidance has practically the same functions and scope. The only difference lies in the individuals to be served. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Guidance vs. Discipline <ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>* is most commonly restricted to situations involving the handling of misbehavior by imposing punishment </li></ul><ul><li>(implies punitive power) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes its rehabilitative fuction for those who commit errors </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive force-train to develop self-control </li></ul><ul><li>To help individuals accept the reality of external authority </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>From the guidance point of view </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline is most often conceived as a means of correcting the fault-lines in the individuals personality. Active rehabilitative procedures are needed to transform misbehavior into enlightened self-directed behavior. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>The counselor’s role in Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>The counselor must be involved in the disciplinary process. The involvement is of particular kind, however, i.e., as a counselor to the student who misbehaved: </li></ul><ul><li>The counselor has the responsibility of helping students explore, sort out, understand & correct the motivations underlying the misbehavior </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Teachers would refer pupils who are in need of counseling situation before a situation develops that calls for overt punishment. Such referral requires exceptional care & skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling is directed toward a preventive function by helping individuals </li></ul><ul><li>1.) achieve an understanding of their behavior & </li></ul><ul><li>2.) develop self-control before more serious problems develop. </li></ul>
  20. 21. The Guidance Tools and Techniques <ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>A. ) Services pertaining to individuals </li></ul><ul><li>- preparation & use of an individual inventory for each student in the school </li></ul><ul><li>- preparation & use of informational sources to meet the needs of pupils </li></ul><ul><li> - counseling services </li></ul><ul><li>- planning & assisting w/ systematic follow- </li></ul><ul><li>up studies. </li></ul><ul><li>- planning & assisting w/ placements for </li></ul><ul><li> pupils </li></ul><ul><li>- conducting case conferences & assisting teachers </li></ul><ul><li> to make case studies of individuals </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>B. Services pertaining to staff members </li></ul><ul><li>- providing leadership for staff members in carrying on the guidance program </li></ul><ul><li>- assisting teachers to secure & utilize information related to his respective subject field ( ex. evaluation by the students) </li></ul><ul><li>- organizing & conducting in-service training related to the GP for administrators & teachers </li></ul><ul><li>C. Services pertaining to the evaluation of Guidance Services </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Basic Guidance Services </li></ul><ul><li>Appraisal/Individual Inventory/Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Process of collecting, organizing, synthesizing & interpreting relevant information of varied types abt. THE students for the purpose of gaining a better understanding of the individuals w/ witch it is concerned. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Psychometric </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Observation: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Anecdotal Records- of some significant item of conduct; a word snapshot at the moment of the incident; a narrative of events in w/c the students takes such a part as to reveal something w/c may be significant abt. his personality </li></ul><ul><li>b. Rating Scales </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>2. Self-Reports- written by the students </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Personal Data Blank </li></ul><ul><li>Self-appraisal & autobiographical materials </li></ul><ul><li>3. Cumulative Record- Case history & development </li></ul><ul><li>4. Case Study- involves clinical method, interview, observation, tests Q’s, projective techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Psychometric Appraisal/Psychological Testing </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>II. Information Service </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Info; (Scholarships; student </li></ul><ul><li>financial aids & student jobs)* Occupational Info;* Personal-Social Info </li></ul><ul><li>III. Testing Service-designed to help students have an objective view of their assets & liabilities </li></ul><ul><li>III. Placement Service- to help students select & utilize opportunities w/in the school & the outside labor market </li></ul><ul><li>IV. Counseling Service </li></ul>
  26. 27. The Counseling Service <ul><li>* the Heart of the Guidance Program </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to facilitate self-understanding & self-development through dyadic (one-to-one) or small group relationships w/c major focus tends to be upon personal development and decision making that is based on self-understanding & knowledge of the environment. </li></ul>
  27. 28. What Counseling is not <ul><li>1. it is not the giving of information , though information maybe given in counseling </li></ul><ul><li>2. not giving of advise, suggestions & recommendations (advise shld be recognized as such & not camouflaged as counseling) </li></ul><ul><li>3. not influencing attitudes, beliefs, or behavior by means of persuading, leading, or convincing, no matter how indirectly, subtly, or painlessly. </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>4. not influencing of behavior by admonishing, warning, threatening, or compelling w/o the use of physical force or coercion (not discipline) </li></ul><ul><li>5. not the selection & assignment of individuals for various jobs or activities </li></ul><ul><li>6. not interviewing (while interviewing is involved, it is not synonymous) </li></ul>
  29. 30. What Counseling is <ul><li>concerned w/ influencing voluntary behavior change on the part of the client ( client wants to change & seeks counselor’s help to change) </li></ul><ul><li>to provide conditions w/c facilitate voluntary change (conditions such as the individual’s right to make choices, to be independent & autonomous </li></ul><ul><li>as in all relationships, limits are imposed upon the counselee </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>-Conditions facilitating behavioral change are provided through interviews (not all counseling is interviewing, but counseling always involves interviewing). </li></ul><ul><li>-Listening is present in counseling but not all counseling is listening. </li></ul><ul><li>-The counselor understands his client (the distinction between the way others understand is qualitative rather than quantitative and understanding alone does not differentiate counseling from other situations. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>-Counseling is conducted in privacy and discussion is confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Structure </li></ul><ul><li>-structure in counseling is defined as a joint understanding between the counselor and client regarding the characteristics, conditions, procedures, and parameters of counseling. </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>2.initiative </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Client </li></ul><ul><li>Walk-in </li></ul><ul><li>-When clients come on their own for counseling it is assumed that they will be cooperative thereby facilitating change. </li></ul><ul><li>Referred </li></ul><ul><li>-a. reluctant client- is one who has been referred by a third party and is frequently “unmovatived to seek help”. </li></ul><ul><li>-b. resistant client- refers to a person in counseling who is unwilling to change. Such an individual may have actively sought counseling but does not wish to go through the pain that change demands. Instead the client clings to the certainty of present behavior, even when counterproductive and dysfunctional. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>How can the counselor help these client. </li></ul><ul><li>a.) Anticipate the anger, frustration,& defensiveness that some clients display. </li></ul><ul><li>b.) Show acceptance, patience, and understanding. Such non-judgmental attitudes promote trust in the relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>c.) Use persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Two direct persuasion techniques; </li></ul><ul><li>1.)”foot in the door”-counselor asks the client to comply with a minor request and then later follows a larger request. </li></ul><ul><li>2.)”door in the face”-counselor asks the client to do a simply impossible task and then follows by requesting the client to do a more reasonable task. </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Counselor’s Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>* by identifying potential counselees through study of the cumulative records (problem checklist administered), discussion with staff members, case conferences & observation. It is the counselor’s responsibility to take the initiative in locating those whose problems & needs are blocking adjustment to the home, school or community. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>d.) Confrontation- pointing out to the client exactly what the client is doing. </li></ul><ul><li>“ you said that”; “But or “ how come that”, ;”what happened…” </li></ul><ul><li>The Physical Setting </li></ul><ul><li>*must be a place conducive. Free from noise, soft lighting, quiet colors, an absence of clutter, & harmonious comfortable furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors shld. not be interrupted when conducting sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor should put “DO NOT DISTURB” signs on the door to keep others from entering. </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory & Visual Privacy is mandated by professional codes of ethics & assures maximum client self-disclosure. </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>As a second parent, as an adviser to these students, from the root word of it, it is your job to advise the students, to tell them what to do & how to do things the right way. You become an authority to them. </li></ul>
  37. 39. As a counselor to them, I become not an authority. I don’t take the role of a parent but more of a best friend whom they can open up things with w/o passing judgments to them. It is not my job to tell them what to do (unless they ask for it) or how to do things the right way, rather, with some key questions & a learned conversational techniques, I facilitate in their own determination of what is right and wrong to them, and for them to arrive at a better decision beneficial to them and to others . Most of the time, I am more of a listener than a talker in our conversation.
  38. 40. <ul><li>In the life of these students, we play different roles and functions but with the same objective-To help them in their full self-actualization. This is the same reality, every child has outside the four walls of this School. He has his real parents, his best friend, his neighbors, his relatives, his enemies. That sometimes when the parents and the child can’t meet halfway, the child seeks the counsel of his best friend or even his neighbor. </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>To be both the child’s parent and a best friend would be a great challenge to take but a wonderful and admirable achievement. But of course, reality would tell us, not all parents have the slightest idea how to do it, especially when they are the ones who need much guidance & counseling. </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>Trust-it’s one thing we need to establish with the students. It’s one thing we have to work for it to gain it from them. It’s one thing we can’t force them to give it to us. It is their right, their freedom to choose whom to give it to, & when to give it to. </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>With regards to Protocol, my apologies to all the Department Heads. I had literally followed my notes wherein the position was never mentioned. What I understood was, w/ whatever I do, the Principal gives the approval & I coordinate directly to the teacher concern. Now I know better…I coordinate first with the Head Teacher, as advised now by our Principal. </li></ul>
  42. 44. <ul><li>In reverse, with whatever you want me to do for you and with you, or to any complains, you may tell it first to our Principal, being my direct Boss or to our designated Administrative Officer, (my other Boss) I being one of the NTPs…and they are the ones who are to admonish me. This is, if we are to follow formalities. </li></ul><ul><li>… but I really appreciate a frank , prudent & an honest personal approach for anything that I can do for you. </li></ul>
  43. 45. <ul><li>My Apologies too to the Advisers who I have not called during a handling of some problems or conflicts, especially those brought by subject teachers or the students themselves. It was not my intention to disregard you…I just thought, I gave you a favor by not disturbing you anymore, especially with some petty quarrels among students which are easy to resolve and because of some other circumstances like when the problem needs an immediate attention. I understand you are very busy and tired that sometimes you are already grumpy and angry especially to the misbehaved students. </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>And trust me… a Grumpy, Angry and Impatient Teacher would not be helpful in resolving a conflict among students. A facilitator, a mediator must be cool headed while helping iron out the situation, otherwise, with an uncontrolled behavior you could be a trauma to the child in crisis instead of a Help. </li></ul>
  45. 47. <ul><li>With the absence of a Prefect or a Committee on Discipline active for the work, I had to make do of the situation at hand. Most of the time, I mixed Discipline w/ Counseling in one session. Now, that there is already an active group for the Disciplinary work, it is a great relief on my part. Now, I can go full blast with my Guidance Program. By the way, my dear collogues, giving of admission slip is part of Discipline since it is itself a punishment to the misbehaved student & my office must not punish. </li></ul>