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  1. 1. SCHOOL SUPERVISION Definition of School Supervision Supervision of any school ordinarily refers to the improvement of the total teaching-learning situation and the conditions that affect them. It is a socialized functions designs to improve instruction by working with the people who are working with the students/pupils. Supervision can also be defined in terms of function and purposes for which it shall be used as a) skills in leadership, b) skills in human relation, c) skill in group process, d) skill in personnel administration and e) skill in evaluation. Scope of School Supervision The major functions logically under school supervision can be cited as: Inspection. This is actually a study of school conditions, to discover problems or defects of the students, teachers, equipment, school curriculum, objectives and methods. This could be done via actual observation, educational tests, conference, questionnaires and checklists. Research. This has something to do to remedy the weaknesses of the solution to solve problems discovered. The supervisor should conduct research to discover means, methods and procedure fundamental to the success of supervision. The solutions discovered are then passed on the teachers. Training. This is acquainting teachers with solutions discovered in research through training. Training may take the form of demonstration teaching, workshops, seminars, classroom observations, individual or group conferences, intervisitation, professional classes or the use of bulletin board and circulars, and writing suggestions in BPS Form 178. Guidance. Guidance involved personal help given by someone. It is the function of supervision to stimulate, direct, guide and encourage the teachers to apply instructional procedures, techniques, principles and devices. Evaluation. As an ultimate functions of supervision, evaluation appraises the outcomes and the factors conditioning the outcomes of instructions and to improve the products and processes of instructions. Activities of Supervision. The activities logically that are falling under supervision can be enumerated as: 1. survey of the school system; 2. improvement of classroom teaching; 3. in-service education of teachers; 4. selecting and organizing materials for instructions; 5. researching the problems of teaching;
  2. 2. 6. determining the desirable physical condition of teaching and 7. performing semi-administrative duties. Types of School Supervision The type of school supervision that can be cited are in terms of: Laissez-faire type. This type of supervision utilizes inspectorial supervisory methods unaided by any objective control, in which the teachers are observed, but noting is done to help them improve the work they are doing. In other words. The teachers are left free; they are not to be imposed upon or directed. Coercive type. This type of supervision is the opposite of the laissezfaire. The supervisor visits the teachers in order to observe them. The teachers acquired ready-made-procedure or standard prescribed by the supervisors. Training and Guidance type. This type of supervision emphasizes the improvements of teachers as well as her technique through direction, training and guidance. Democratic leadership type. It consists of the teacher’s cooperation in the formulation of policies, plans and procedures. Supervisor observes teacher inside the classroom setting with the aim of improving the teaching-learning situation via cooperation process or group action. The teachers, supervisors and administrators are regarded as co-workers in a common task. Interrelation of Administration and Supervision Administration and supervision are interrelated in that every administrator is a supervisor and every supervisor participates in administrative affairs. 1. Administration represents the whole of the education system; supervision represent a portion of it in terms of improving the total teaching-learning situation. 2. Administration emphasizes authority; supervision, service. Every act of administration is based upon authority; supervision is based upon service. 3. Administration provides favorable condition essential to good teaching and learning; supervision carries out the better operation and improving it. In simple words, administrations provide; supervision operates. 4. Administration decides, directs and orders the execution of educational program; supervision assists, advises guides and leads the operation and improving the program. In other word, administration directs; supervision serves.
  3. 3. Basis of Administrative and Supervisory Principle Principle is an accepted fundamental truth. It can be a law, a doctrine. A policy or deep seated belief which governs the conduct of various types of human endeavors. In administration and supervision, principles becomes part of a philosophy which serves to determine and evaluate his educational objectives, attitudes, practices and outcomes. General Principles of Administration and supervision These general principles can be stated as a summary of the substance and implications of philosophy of administration and supervision: School administration and supervision… 1. must be democratic … is recognizing individual differences, respect personality and extend consideration to all; 2. must be cooperative in character … in that cooperation is synonymous to group action; 3. to be effective … must be scientific, that is, research oriented activity to discover solution to problem; 4. must be based on accepted educational philosophy; 5. must be creative … means initiating, devising, inventing or producing something new; 6. must be evaluated in the light of results; 7. must be preventive and constructive … that is helping teachers to avoid committing mistakes, anticipating difficulties, building self confidence, by discovering their own weaknesses; 8. must be centered on child growth and development … in terms of growth mentally, physically, morally, emotionally and socially; and 9. must be flexible … in terms of school building, curriculum, teaching objectives and procedures, instructional material and devices, school requirements and standard norms. The Major Functions of School Administration Some of the major functions of administration can be cited: 1. Planning of school programs and activities … plan to show objectives, instructional materials and the procedures and the means to attain setobjective. 2. Directing school work and formulating and executing educational policies … that is decision-making, who to carry out plans, who teaches what; and working out policies and regulations for all those in the organization. 3. Coordinating administrative and supervisory activities … in terms of harmonizing educational activities and makes them instruments for yielding outcomes.
  4. 4. 4. Providing the necessary leadership. 5. Evaluating the teaching personnel and school program … as an administrative function includes teacher performance rating and school survey; and 6. Keeping records and reporting results … in that, records are kept for comparison and evaluation purposes; and reporting results to public will help them understand what the school can do and are doing. Operational Areas of School Administration The operational areas within which school administration operates can be specified as: 1.) administration of school personnel, 2.) school finance and budget management, 3.) school plant management, 4.) curriculum organization and management, 5.) guidance and discipline, 6.) school and community relation, 7.) non-formal education; and 8.) evaluating results of school administration. Administration of Teaching Personnel Good personnel makes the quality school. A modern school needs a well trained and highly efficient teachers who represents several fields of specialization. School personnel should consists of persons who have deep and abiding interest in the optimum development of the personality of each youth. Tact, sympathy, square dealing and all other factors found in successful personnel administration must be used with the students, teachers and employees rather than repressive disciplines. The administrator need not look deeply to see the real value of school personnel and students as human being. Teaching personnel. The Dictionary of Education (Good ___ ) defined as teaching personnel as those persons employed in an official capacity for the purpose of giving instruction, whether public or private. The teaching personnel referred to are those school administrators, supervisors, and classroom teachers and school librarian. The administration of the teaching personnel includes all policies, activities and practices of the administration and staff designed to increase the effectiveness of teaching personnel. Educational community. The Philippine Educational Act of 1982 described educational community as those persons or group of persons who are associated in the institutions involved in organized teaching and learning system and that the members and elements of the educational community are: 1. Parents or guardians or the head of the institution as foster home which has custody of the pupils or students;
  5. 5. 2. Students or those enrolled in and who attend regularly in an educational institution or secondary or higher level or a person engaged in formal study; 3. Pupils who regularly attend a school of elementary level under supervision and knowledge of a teacher; 4. School personnel refers to all persons working in an educational institution identified as; a. Teaching or academic staff or all persons engaged in actual teaching and/or research assignment, either on full time or part time basis, in all levels of education. b. School administrators or all persons occupying policyimplementing position having to do with the functions of the school in all levels c. Academic non-teaching personnel or those persons holding academic functions directly supportive of teaching. Examples are registrars, librarians, guidance counselors and researchers; d. Non-academic personnel or all personnel not falling under the definition and coverage of teaching items a,b,c. 5. School institutions recognized by state which undertake education operations. Selection of the Teaching Staff The selection of the teaching staff or personnel takes place within the legal framework such as: 1. Commonwealth Act. No. 177 placed the public school teachers under civil service. 2. As a civil service they are governed by: a. civil service rules and regulations or RA 2260 as amended by RA 6040; b. RA 4670 or Magna Carta for public school teachers, defining examination, appointment, promotion, transfer, separation and reinstatement. Identification of new staff members. This consists of two unique complimentary phases; recruitment and selection. Recruitment phase is concerned with the establishing a pool of potentially acceptable candidates whose values, interest, needs and abilities, having been carefully analyzed, fill to satisfy the requirements of a particular role. Orientation of staff. Sometimes referred to as induction, orientation begins with the recruitment interview and continue on through the staff membership/ association with the organization/school. Assignment of staff. In this stage, degree of congruence between the expectations for the position and qualifications and personal characteristics of teachers is insured, and that the major expectations for the institutional role and
  6. 6. personal needs, dispositions and abilities of teachers are fully explored and considered. Improvement of staff. Maintaining the teachers require that they improve themselves professionally while in the service. This can be done in several ways in terms of a) classroom observation, b) individual conferences, c) school visitation, d) professional association, e) student-teaching program, and f) inservice activities. Privileges of Teaching Personnel in the Public School As a civil service employees, public school teachers enjoy privileges… 1. Membership to state insurance, Government Service Insurance System. Commonwealth Act 186 requires public school teacher to become member of the GSIS; 2. Retirement of public school teachers. RA 660 automatically retires government employees, including teachers upon reaching the age of 65 with 15 years consecutive service; 3. Teachers are persons in authority. By virtue of CA No. 378, teachers can not be attack physically when performing their duties; 4. Maternity leave, RA No. 1564 provides maternity leave to regular and temporary teachers who are married; 5. Study leave. BPS Cir. No. 25 3. 1984 and BPS No. 15, s. 1949, encourages public school teachers to raise their educational qualifications; 6. Vacation and sick leave. Sec. 274 of the Revised Administrative code provides vacation and sick leave, except those teachers on the teacher-leave basis. One month of vacation and sick leave is given for every year of continues service; 7. Vacation pay, entitles those teachers for pay during Christmas and long vacation; 8. Service credits are given to teachers on leave basis who are requested to work during vacation period. The service credit may be used to offset past and future absences due to illness or other reasonable causes; 9. Salary loan is allowed to teachers who are members of the GSIS. The amount loanable by GSIS usually does not exceed a three month salary, payable in 24 monthly equal installment, deductible from his salary; and 10. Free medical consultation.
  7. 7. Principles to be observed in the Administration of Teacher Personnel In the administration of teaching personnel. 1. Decisions that affect the school enterprise should be placed upon the group, that is the teachers and the administrator, rather than the administration alone; 2. Selection of teaching personnel, only the most qualified and competent are considered. 3. Merit system must constitute the sole consideration in determining who shall be promoted. 4. Educational Qualification Performance a. Length of service b. Competence c. Professional Development d. Community service e. Others 5. The guarantee, security and welfare of the teachers that insure their efficiency should be provided (salary, appointment, and benefits); 6. It is desirable to select teachers who come from different institution of higher learning so that the impact of their difference in training and personality will impique desirably upon a school system; 7. There should be provision for a) orientation of new teachers, b) inservice improvement, and c) maintenance of high morale in the teaching staff; 8. There should be provision for evaluation. SCHOOL FINANCE AND BUDGET MANAGEMENT School Finance Financing the school system, especially the DECS is coming from the national government as provided for the national budget of the government. Other sources are different forms of school fees in terms of tuition fees, trust fees, and grant-in-aid from other sources and income generating projects of individual schools. School Budget Management Budget maybe defined as a financial statement covering the estimated expenditures and revenue of a specific school situation for a given time. The making of a school budget is one of the most disturbing problems of an administrator, especially that nowadays when the competition for public fund is so intense.
  8. 8. Previously, budgeting and finance management was the concern of superintendent and principals of the schools. Today, the theory of wider participation of the rank and file has been generally accepted. A budget showing a breakdown of consumable items and in addition to equipment is preferred. Explanations of the reasons for items in a budget may also a part of budget statement. Budget Division and Items. The most commonly used items are 1) personal services; 2) maintenance operating and operating expenses; and 3) capital outlay.