Definition of School Supervision
Supervision of any school ordinarily refers to the improvement of the total
teaching-learning situation and the conditions that affect them. It is a socialized
functions designs to improve instruction by working with the people who are
working with the students/pupils.
Supervision can also be defined in terms of function and purposes for
which it shall be used as a) skills in leadership, b) skills in human relation, c) skill
in group process, d) skill in personnel administration and e) skill in evaluation.
Scope of School Supervision
The major functions logically under school supervision can be cited as:
Inspection. This is actually a study of school conditions, to discover
problems or defects of the students, teachers, equipment, school curriculum,
objectives and methods. This could be done via actual observation, educational
tests, conference, questionnaires and checklists.
Research. This has something to do to remedy the weaknesses of the
solution to solve problems discovered. The supervisor should conduct research
to discover means, methods and procedure fundamental to the success of
supervision. The solutions discovered are then passed on the teachers.
Training. This is acquainting teachers with solutions discovered in
research through training. Training may take the form of demonstration teaching,
workshops, seminars, classroom observations, individual or group conferences,
intervisitation, professional classes or the use of bulletin board and circulars, and
writing suggestions in BPS Form 178.
Guidance. Guidance involved personal help given by someone. It is the
function of supervision to stimulate, direct, guide and encourage the teachers to
apply instructional procedures, techniques, principles and devices.
Evaluation. As an ultimate functions of supervision, evaluation appraises
the outcomes and the factors conditioning the outcomes of instructions and to
improve the products and processes of instructions.
Activities of Supervision. The activities logically that are falling under
supervision can be enumerated as:
1. survey of the school system;
2. improvement of classroom teaching;
3. in-service education of teachers;
4. selecting and organizing materials for instructions;
5. researching the problems of teaching;
6. determining the desirable physical condition of teaching and
7. performing semi-administrative duties.
Types of School Supervision
The type of school supervision that can be cited are in terms of:
Laissez-faire type. This type of supervision utilizes inspectorial
supervisory methods unaided by any objective control, in which the teachers are
observed, but noting is done to help them improve the work they are doing. In
other words. The teachers are left free; they are not to be imposed upon or
Coercive type. This type of supervision is the opposite of the laissezfaire. The supervisor visits the teachers in order to observe them. The teachers
acquired ready-made-procedure or standard prescribed by the supervisors.
Training and Guidance type. This type of supervision emphasizes the
improvements of teachers as well as her technique through direction, training
Democratic leadership type. It consists of the teacher’s cooperation in
the formulation of policies, plans and procedures. Supervisor observes teacher
inside the classroom setting with the aim of improving the teaching-learning
situation via cooperation process or group action. The teachers, supervisors and
administrators are regarded as co-workers in a common task.
Interrelation of Administration and Supervision
Administration and supervision are interrelated in that every administrator
is a supervisor and every supervisor participates in administrative affairs.
1. Administration represents the whole of the education system;
supervision represent a portion of it in terms of improving the total
2. Administration emphasizes authority; supervision, service. Every act of
administration is based upon authority; supervision is based upon
3. Administration provides favorable condition essential to good teaching
and learning; supervision carries out the better operation and
improving it. In simple words, administrations provide; supervision
4. Administration decides, directs and orders the execution of educational
program; supervision assists, advises guides and leads the operation
and improving the program. In other word, administration directs;
Basis of Administrative and Supervisory Principle
Principle is an accepted fundamental truth. It can be a law, a doctrine. A
policy or deep seated belief which governs the conduct of various types of
human endeavors. In administration and supervision, principles becomes part of
a philosophy which serves to determine and evaluate his educational objectives,
attitudes, practices and outcomes.
General Principles of Administration and supervision
These general principles can be stated as a summary of the substance
and implications of philosophy of administration and supervision:
School administration and supervision…
1. must be democratic … is recognizing individual differences, respect
personality and extend consideration to all;
2. must be cooperative in character … in that cooperation is synonymous
to group action;
3. to be effective … must be scientific, that is, research oriented activity to
discover solution to problem;
4. must be based on accepted educational philosophy;
5. must be creative … means initiating, devising, inventing or producing
6. must be evaluated in the light of results;
7. must be preventive and constructive … that is helping teachers to
avoid committing mistakes, anticipating difficulties, building self
confidence, by discovering their own weaknesses;
8. must be centered on child growth and development … in terms of
growth mentally, physically, morally, emotionally and socially; and
9. must be flexible … in terms of school building, curriculum, teaching
objectives and procedures, instructional material and devices, school
requirements and standard norms.
The Major Functions of School Administration
Some of the major functions of administration can be cited:
1. Planning of school programs and activities … plan to show objectives,
instructional materials and the procedures and the means to attain setobjective.
2. Directing school work and formulating and executing educational
policies … that is decision-making, who to carry out plans, who
teaches what; and working out policies and regulations for all those in
3. Coordinating administrative and supervisory activities … in terms of
harmonizing educational activities and makes them instruments for
4. Providing the necessary leadership.
5. Evaluating the teaching personnel and school program … as an
administrative function includes teacher performance rating and school
6. Keeping records and reporting results … in that, records are kept for
comparison and evaluation purposes; and reporting results to public
will help them understand what the school can do and are doing.
Operational Areas of School Administration
The operational areas within which school administration operates can be
specified as: 1.) administration of school personnel, 2.) school finance and
budget management, 3.) school plant management, 4.) curriculum organization
and management, 5.) guidance and discipline, 6.) school and community relation,
7.) non-formal education; and 8.) evaluating results of school administration.
Administration of Teaching Personnel
Good personnel makes the quality school. A modern school needs a well
trained and highly efficient teachers who represents several fields of
specialization. School personnel should consists of persons who have deep and
abiding interest in the optimum development of the personality of each youth.
Tact, sympathy, square dealing and all other factors found in successful
personnel administration must be used with the students, teachers and
employees rather than repressive disciplines. The administrator need not look
deeply to see the real value of school personnel and students as human being.
Teaching personnel. The Dictionary of Education (Good ___ ) defined as
teaching personnel as those persons employed in an official capacity for the
purpose of giving instruction, whether public or private. The teaching personnel
referred to are those school administrators, supervisors, and classroom teachers
and school librarian.
The administration of the teaching personnel includes all policies, activities
and practices of the administration and staff designed to increase the
effectiveness of teaching personnel.
Educational community. The Philippine Educational Act of 1982
described educational community as those persons or group of persons who are
associated in the institutions involved in organized teaching and learning system
and that the members and elements of the educational community are:
1. Parents or guardians or the head of the institution as foster home
which has custody of the pupils or students;
2. Students or those enrolled in and who attend regularly in an
educational institution or secondary or higher level or a person
engaged in formal study;
3. Pupils who regularly attend a school of elementary level under
supervision and knowledge of a teacher;
4. School personnel refers to all persons working in an educational
institution identified as;
a. Teaching or academic staff or all persons engaged in actual
teaching and/or research assignment, either on full time or part
time basis, in all levels of education.
b. School administrators or all persons occupying policyimplementing position having to do with the functions of the
school in all levels
c. Academic non-teaching personnel or those persons holding
academic functions directly supportive of teaching. Examples
are registrars, librarians, guidance counselors and researchers;
d. Non-academic personnel or all personnel not falling under the
definition and coverage of teaching items a,b,c.
5. School institutions recognized by state which undertake education
Selection of the Teaching Staff
The selection of the teaching staff or personnel takes place within the
legal framework such as:
1. Commonwealth Act. No. 177 placed the public school teachers under
2. As a civil service they are governed by:
a. civil service rules and regulations or RA 2260 as amended by RA
b. RA 4670 or Magna Carta for public school teachers, defining
examination, appointment, promotion, transfer, separation and
Identification of new staff members. This consists of two unique
complimentary phases; recruitment and selection. Recruitment phase is
concerned with the establishing a pool of potentially acceptable candidates
whose values, interest, needs and abilities, having been carefully analyzed, fill to
satisfy the requirements of a particular role.
Orientation of staff. Sometimes referred to as induction, orientation
begins with the recruitment interview and continue on through the staff
membership/ association with the organization/school.
Assignment of staff. In this stage, degree of congruence between the
expectations for the position and qualifications and personal characteristics of
teachers is insured, and that the major expectations for the institutional role and
personal needs, dispositions and abilities of teachers are fully explored and
Improvement of staff. Maintaining the teachers require that they improve
themselves professionally while in the service. This can be done in several ways
in terms of a) classroom observation, b) individual conferences, c) school
visitation, d) professional association, e) student-teaching program, and f) inservice activities.
Privileges of Teaching Personnel in the Public School
As a civil service employees, public school teachers enjoy privileges…
1. Membership to state insurance, Government Service Insurance
System. Commonwealth Act 186 requires public school teacher to
become member of the GSIS;
2. Retirement of public school teachers. RA 660 automatically retires
government employees, including teachers upon reaching the age of
65 with 15 years consecutive service;
3. Teachers are persons in authority. By virtue of CA No. 378, teachers
can not be attack physically when performing their duties;
4. Maternity leave, RA No. 1564 provides maternity leave to regular and
temporary teachers who are married;
5. Study leave. BPS Cir. No. 25 3. 1984 and BPS No. 15, s. 1949,
encourages public school teachers to raise their educational
6. Vacation and sick leave. Sec. 274 of the Revised Administrative code
provides vacation and sick leave, except those teachers on the
teacher-leave basis. One month of vacation and sick leave is given for
every year of continues service;
7. Vacation pay, entitles those teachers for pay during Christmas and
8. Service credits are given to teachers on leave basis who are requested
to work during vacation period. The service credit may be used to
offset past and future absences due to illness or other reasonable
9. Salary loan is allowed to teachers who are members of the GSIS. The
amount loanable by GSIS usually does not exceed a three month
salary, payable in 24 monthly equal installment, deductible from his
10. Free medical consultation.
Principles to be observed in the Administration of Teacher Personnel
In the administration of teaching personnel.
1. Decisions that affect the school enterprise should be placed upon the
group, that is the teachers and the administrator, rather than the
2. Selection of teaching personnel, only the most qualified and competent
3. Merit system must constitute the sole consideration in determining who
shall be promoted.
4. Educational Qualification Performance
a. Length of service
c. Professional Development
d. Community service
5. The guarantee, security and welfare of the teachers that insure their
efficiency should be provided (salary, appointment, and benefits);
6. It is desirable to select teachers who come from different institution of
higher learning so that the impact of their difference in training and
personality will impique desirably upon a school system;
7. There should be provision for a) orientation of new teachers, b) inservice improvement, and c) maintenance of high morale in the
8. There should be provision for evaluation.
SCHOOL FINANCE AND BUDGET MANAGEMENT
Financing the school system, especially the DECS is coming from the
national government as provided for the national budget of the government.
Other sources are different forms of school fees in terms of tuition fees, trust
fees, and grant-in-aid from other sources and income generating projects of
School Budget Management
Budget maybe defined as a financial statement covering the estimated
expenditures and revenue of a specific school situation for a given time.
The making of a school budget is one of the most disturbing problems of
an administrator, especially that nowadays when the competition for public fund
is so intense.
Previously, budgeting and finance management was the concern of
superintendent and principals of the schools. Today, the theory of wider
participation of the rank and file has been generally accepted.
A budget showing a breakdown of consumable items and in addition to
equipment is preferred. Explanations of the reasons for items in a budget may
also a part of budget statement.
Budget Division and Items. The most commonly used items are 1)
personal services; 2) maintenance operating and operating expenses; and 3)