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Modern and Traditional School Administration and Supervision, Administration and Supervision in the Philippine Setting

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Modern and Traditional Supervision and Administration
Administration and Supervision in the Philippine Setting

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Modern and Traditional School Administration and Supervision, Administration and Supervision in the Philippine Setting

  1. 1. ADMINISTRATION and SUPERVISION
  2. 2. Topic Outline  The Traditional and Modern Types of School Administration and Supervision  Administration and Supervision in the Philippine Setting
  3. 3. SPECIAL OFFICES UNDER OSEC 1. CENTER FOR STUDENTS AND CO-CURRICULAR AFFAIRS 2. EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY UNIT 3. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SPECIAL CONCERNS OFFICE 4. SPECIAL EVENTS UNIT 5. DETEXT ACTION CENTER 6. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION UNIT 7. SCHOOL SITES TITLING UNITOTHER ATTACHED AGENCIES 1. TEACHER EDUCATION COUNCIL 2. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS COUNCIL 3. LITERACY COORDINATING COUNCIL 4. PHILIPPINE HIGH SCHOOL FOR THE ARTS 5. NATIONAL BOOK DEVELOPMENT BOARD 6. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR CHILDREN’S TELEVISION ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE FINANCIAL AND MANAGEMENT SERVICE HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT SERVICE PLANNING SERVICE TECHNICAL SERVICE *Including 21 interim divisions **SY 2005-2006 NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL TESTING AND RESEARCH CENTER SCHOOL HEALTH & NUTRITION CENTER PROCUREMENT SERVICE NATIONAL EDUCATORS’ ACADEMY OF THE PHILIPPINES NATIONAL SCIENCE TEACHING INSTRUMENTATION CENTER INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS COUNCIL SECRETARIAT EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTING TASK FORCE BUREAU OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION BUREAU OF ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY REGIONAL OFFICES (17) SCHOOLS DIVISION OFFICES (188*) SCHOOLS ELEM. SEC. PUBLIC 37,161 4,915 PRIVATE 4,788 3,372 SCHOOL DISTRICT (2,364**) Organizational Chart OVERVIEW OF THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM As of Dec. 2007
  4. 4. To have a vivid picture of the modern trend in school administration and supervision, it is necessary to discuss briefly its traditional concept. MODERN TRADITIONAL
  5. 5. Teachers are expected to listen to administrators and supervisors, and to carry their directives without questions. TRADITIONAL The traditional concept of administration and supervision is based on the philosophy that the teacher is the center of administration and supervisory activities.
  6. 6. TRADITIONAL The traditional concept puts more emphasis upon imposed improvement of the teachers through teacher- training and rigid supervision.
  7. 7. TRADITIONAL Traditional administration and supervision place more emphasis upon techniques and the use of subjective devices and autocratic procedures.
  8. 8. TRADITIONAL The traditional concept of school administration and supervision practices leadership through compulsion, coercion and imposition or through pressure in the use of ready- made solutions or procedures.
  9. 9. TRADITIONAL Traditional administrators and supervisors consider themselves as experts and work outside of the group under their control and supervision. They also regard classroom visitation as isolated from other school activities and projects.
  10. 10. TRADITIONAL Early in the history of school administration and supervision, operations were largely on a personal and practical basis. Men were selected, not because of their special technical training, but rather because of their success in dealing with the public, the teachers and the students.
  11. 11. TRADITIONAL The conception of administration and supervision during those times reflected the existing practices in business and industry whereby the manager, with the approval of the board of directors, determined the policy and directed the operation of the company and the work of its employees.
  12. 12. MODERN The modern concept of school administration and supervision on the other hand, recognizes the child and his growth and development as the center of administrative and supervisory activities. In other words, the concept of administration and supervision has gradually moved from the improvement of instruction to the improvement of the learning process.
  13. 13. MODERN Modern administration and supervision promote the growth of the child and the teacher through stimulation, direction, and guidance.
  14. 14. MODERN Modern administration and supervision see education as a whole. All factors are evaluated in terms of administrative and supervisory principles rather than techniques in improving the teaching learning situation. Facts and information are secured through the use of scientific and objective devices. Subjective judgment became less emphasized and importance was just attached to objective and scientific evidence.
  15. 15. MODERN Interdependence and cooperation are the essential characteristics of modern administration and supervision. All school activities are integrated or correlated with community projects which affect teaching and learning process. Integration of school ad community activities calls for democratic leadership which functions in a group situation through cooperative action.
  16. 16. MODERN The modern concept of school administration is more than mere inspection of the work of the teachers; it is a friendly help and counsel – a clearing house of the best ideas acquired in the field. Integration of school ad community activities calls for democratic leadership which functions in a group situation through cooperative action.
  17. 17. MODERN It can also be said that modern administration and supervision are considerably broader in their scope and functions than were encompassed in their earlier concepts and practices. These functions include many of the conditions and influences affecting teaching, as well as the learning and growing of the pupils and the improvement of the health, physical, economic, and social conditions of the community.
  18. 18. The traditional and modern concepts of school administration and supervision can be summarized as follows: MODERN TRADITIONAL
  19. 19. based on the philosophy that the teacher is the center of administrative and supervisory activities recognizes the child and it growth
  20. 20. subjective based on facts and utilize scientific and modern devices and procedures
  21. 21. individualistic and regimented socialistic and cooperative
  22. 22. puts more emphasis on techniques based on principles
  23. 23. practices leadership through compulsion, coercion and imposition practices democratic leadership through stimulation, direction, and guidance
  24. 24. regards classroom visitation as an isolated activity from other projects covers the whole teaching- learning factors which are resident in the pupils, in the teachers, in the administrators and supervisors and in the school
  25. 25. Case Mr. Santos was a school administrator. One day he was talking to the meeting about management. He said, among other things: “One does not have to have good qualities as a leader but he has to appear to have them. Maintain a social distance from employees, so they can judge you from a distance rather than from a close range.”
  26. 26. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IN ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE PHILIPPINES
  27. 27. In the early days, administration and supervision were inspectorial in character, and the methods used were dictatorial and coercive. They inspected the buildings and grounds and equipment. They even check the attendance and enrolment of the pupils.
  28. 28. Later on, emphasis was placed on the improvement of the curriculum and the improvement of instruction through the training and guidance of the teachers. The introduction of new subjects like music, manual arts, adult education and home economics in the elementary and secondary school curriculum led to the development of special supervisors.
  29. 29. At present, administration and supervision are considered as an “expert technical service primarily concerned with studying, improving, and evaluating teaching-learning situations , and the conditions that affect them. It becomes synonymous with democratic leadership which stresses the dignity and worth of the individual, promotes the general welfare, and proceeds though the method of intelligence through cooperative action.
  30. 30. In our system: The division superintendent and district supervisor – administrative function Division and subject supervisor— supervisory function Principal –both supervisory and administrative function
  31. 31. Case A district supervisor used to get some of his teachers together to play mahjong on Sunday afternoons or evenings. When asked by another district supervisor why he did this, he said that these teachers like other human beings need recreation.
  32. 32. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IN ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE PHILIPPINES Concepts of Administration and Supervision Period of influence Parties doing administration and supervision Nature of Administrative and supervisory programs Inspection of school grounds and classroom 1901-1924 Administrators and special supervisors Inspection for the sake of control. Emphasis upon regulations and standards set up by the Bureau of Education Improvement of the curriculum, instruction, and improvement of teachers in service 1925-1941 Administrators, general, division, district, and special supervisors Centralization of control and inspection of instruction through observation, demonstration with attention focused on weakness of the teachers
  33. 33. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTS IN ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN THE PHILIPPINES Concepts of Administration and Supervision Period of influence Parties doing administration and supervision Nature of Administrative and supervisory programs Improvement of the total teaching-learning situation and the conditions that affect them thru cooperative leadership From 1949 to the present Responsibility of the administrators, supervisors and classroom teachers with the help of the experts or consultants Program control in the cooperative study enterprise such as curriculum development, in-service training course, etc., toward improvement of teaching- learning situations
  34. 34. Thank You

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