Natural Selection Struggle for Existence Survival of the Fittest Descent with Modification Results of Natural Selection
Natural Selection Struggle for Existence – members of each species compete regularly to obtain food, living space, and other necessities of life From Malthus’ work, Darwin concluded that high birth rates and a shortage of life’s basic needs would force competition for resources.
Natural Selection Survival of the Fittest – Adaptation – any inherited some individuals are better suited characteristic that increases an for their environment than organism’s chance of survival others; those best suited will Could be anatomical, behavioral, survive physiological Evolutionary adaptation – any genetically controlled Fitness – ability of an individual physiological, anatomical, or to survive and reproduce in its behavioral trait that increases an specific environment individual’s ability to pass along its Result of adaptations genes Evolutionary Fitness – organism’s success in passing genes to the next generation Where fitness varies, natural selection can act.
Natural Selection Descent with Modification – every Implies that all living species has descended, with changes, living organisms are from other species over time related to one another Principle of Common Descent – all species (living and extinct) were derived from common ancestors Allows for a single “tree of life” that links all living things
Result of Natural Selection… …changes in the inherited characteristics of a population These changes increase a species’ fitness in its environment. Acts on populations, not individuals. It is populations that evolve over time.
Summary of Darwin’s Theory ofEvolution Individual organisms differ (variations exist in a population). Some of this variation is heritable. In nature, there is a tendency for overpopulation. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. There is a high death rate. Only the organisms with the variations that are suitable to the environment survive. Organisms must compete for limited resources. Each unique organism has unique advantages and disadvantages in the struggle for existence. The organisms that survive get to reproduce and pass on their genes. The process of Natural Selection causes species to change over time. It is the population that changes to match the environment – not individuals. Species alive today are descended with modification from ancestral species.
Evidence of Evolution Fossil Record Any preserved remains of ancient organisms Darwin Proposed that the earth was millions of years old and from looking at the fossil records in older rocks and fossils from younger rocks scienists could document that life on earth had changes over time.
Evidence (continued) Geographic Distribution Different species living in the same region/environment have similar body structures and behaviors Homologous Body Structures Structures that have different mature forms but develop from the same embryonic tissue; look the same but used differently Strong evidence that all four-limbed vertebrates have descended, with modification from common ancestors.
Evidence (continued) Vestigial organs Organs that are so reduced in size that they are just traces of homologous organs in other species. Example: Whale hips Human appendix
Evidence (continued) Comparative Genetics DNA from different organisms works the same Early development is similar