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KB ZOPP charts-r1


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KB ZOPP charts-r1

  1. 1. Wieke Irawati Kodri 1 ZOPP Charts Planning Guidance Presentation preparation by : Kawi Boedisetio Source: - GTZ, ZOPP in Brief - GTZ ZOPP (Introduction to to the Method)
  2. 2. 2 List of Charts • ZOPP approach • ZOPP objectives • ZOPP application • 3 features of ZOPP • Main steps of ZOPP • Participation analysis • Items for detailed participation analysis • Problem analysis • Problem analysis : how to do it • Problem analysis : notes • Problem analysis : bus example • Objectives analysis • Objectives analysis : how to do it • Objectives analysis : bus example
  3. 3. 3 List of Charts • Alternatives analysis • Alternatives analysis : how to do it • Project planning matrix • Project planning matrix : summary • Project planning matrix : vertical and horizontal logic • Assumptions • Assessment of Assumption • Objectively Veriable Indicators • Objectively Veriable Indicators: Steps • Means of Verification
  4. 4. 4 ZOPP APPROACH • Z iel = objectives • O rientierte = oriented • P rojekt = project • P lanung = planning
  5. 5. 5 ZOPP APPROACH • ZOPP is set of PROCEDURES and INSTRUMENTS for objectives-oriented project planning ZOPP planning technique is the GTZ’s official project planning system
  6. 6. 6 ZOPP Objectives • ZOPP was introduced in the GTZ: To define realistic and definite objectives which can be sustained in the long-term To improve communication and cooperation between project, head office and counterpart organization by means of joint planning and clear documentation/definitions
  7. 7. 7 ZOPP Objectives To clarify the scope of responsibility of project teams To provide indicators as a basis for monitoring and evaluation
  8. 8. 8 ZOPP Application • ZOPP is one workable system • ZOPP is an open system • ZOPP is as good the planning team • ZOPP generates a consensus of different opinions through the planning process • ZOPP needs realistic application
  9. 9. 9 3 Features of ZOPP • Gradual procedure through a sequence of successive planning steps • Permanent visualization and documentation of all planning steps • Team approach
  10. 10. 10 Main Steps of ZOPP 1 Steps of analysis Participation analysis Problem analysis Objectives analysis Alternatives analysis 2 Project planning matrix Objectives / activities Important assumptions Objectively verifiable indicators Mean of verification
  11. 11. 11 Participation Analysis • Gives an overview of all persons, groups, organizations and institutions connected with the project in any way • Incorporates the interest and expectations of person and groups significant to the project
  12. 12. 12 Participation Analysis • How To Do It: Write down all persons and groups connected with or influenced by the project Categorize them ( e.g. Beneficiaries, target- groups, actors etc.) Characterize and analyze Identify consequences for the project work (e.g. Reactions of project )
  13. 13. 13 Detailed Participation Analysis c 1. Characteristics of the group Social characteristics (members, social background, religion, cultural aspects) Status of the group (formal, informal or other) Structure (organization, leaders, etc.) Situation and problem -group’s point of view
  14. 14. 14 Detailed Participation Analysis c 2. Interests. Motives, attitudes Needs and wishes Interests (openly expressed, hidden, vested) Motives (hopes, expectations, fears) Attitudes (friendly/neutral/hostile attitude towards implementing agencies and other groups)
  15. 15. 15 Detailed Participation Analysis c 3. Potentials Strengths of the group (resources, right, monopolies etc.) Weaknesses and shortcomings What could the group contribute to or withhold from the project
  16. 16. 16 Detailed Participation Analysis d Implications for the project planning In which way should the group be considered? Which actions should be taken (in regard to the group)? How should the project react towards the group?
  17. 17. 17 Problem Analysis • Is a set of techniques to : Analyze the existing situation surrounding a given problem condition Identify the major problem in the context Define the core problem of the a situation Visualize the cause-effect relationships in a diagram (problem tree)
  18. 18. 18 How To Do The Problem Tree Step 1 Identify major problems existing within the stated problem situation (brain-storming) Step 2 Write up short statement of the core problem Step 3 Write up the cause of the core problem
  19. 19. 19 How To Do The Problem Tree Step 4 Write up the effects caused by the core problem Step 5 Form a diagram showing the cause and effect relationship in the form of a problem tree Step 6 Review diagram as a whole and verify its validity and completeness
  20. 20. 20 Problem Analysis Note: 1 Word problem as negative conditions. 2 One problem per card 3 Identify existing problems, not possible, imagined or future ones. 4 A problem is not the absence of solution, but an existing negative state. 5 The position on the problem tree does not indicate the importance of a problem
  21. 21. 21 Problem Analysis No pesticides available Harvest is infested by pests WRONG RIGHT
  22. 22. 22 Problem Analysis: Bus Example Loss of confidence in bus company Passenger hurt or killed People are late Frequent bus accident Drivers are not careful enough Bad conditions of vehicle Bad road condition Vehicles too old no ongoing maintenance Effects Core problem Causes
  23. 23. 23 Objectives Analysis • Is a set of techniques to : Describe the future situation that will be achieved by solving the problems Identify potential alternatives for the project
  24. 24. 24 How To Do The Objectives Tree Step 1 Restate all negative conditions of the problem tree into positive conditions that are : - Desirable and - Realistically achievable Step 2 Examine the “means-ends” relationships thus derived to assure validity and completeness of your diagram
  25. 25. 25 How To Do The Objectives Tree Step 3 • Revise statement • add new objectives if these appear to be relevant and necesasry to achieve the stated objective at the next higher level • delete objectives which do not seem to be expedient or necessary (if necessary)
  26. 26. 26 Objectives Analysis: Bus Example Costumers have a better image of the bus company Less passenger hurt Passengers arrive at scheduled time Frequency of bus accidents considerably reduced Drivers drive carefully and responsibly vehicles kept in good condition road conditions improved Old vehicles are regularly replaced Vehicles regularly maintained and checked Effects Core problem Causes
  27. 27. 27 Alternatives Analysis • Is a set of techniques to: Identify alternative solutions which could be project strategies Select one or more potential project strategy Decide upon one strategy to be adopted by the project
  28. 28. 28 How To Do The Analysis of Alternatives Step 1 identify objectives you do not want to pursue (not desirable or achievable) assess which alternative in your opinion (criteria) represent an optimal project strategy by using criteria such as: identify differing “means and ends” ladders, as possible alternative project strategies or project components •Resources available •probability of achieving objectives •political feasibility •cost-benefit ratio •Social risk •time horizon •sustainability etc. Step 2 Step 3
  29. 29. 29 Project Planning Matrix (PPM) WHY WHAT HOW WHICH HOW WHERE WHAT A project is carried out We will find the data required to assess the success of the project The project is expected to achieve The project is going to achieve these result External factor are crucial for the success of the project We can assess the success of the project The project will cost The PPM provides a one-page summary:
  30. 30. 30 Project Planning Matrix Summary of Objectives/ Activities Overall Goal Project Purpose Results/ Outputs Activities Objectively verifiable indicator Means of verification Important assumption
  31. 31. 31 PPM: Vertical and Horizontal Logic Overall Goal Activities Project Purpose Result/ Outputs Assumption Assumption Assumption Assumption Vertical logic
  32. 32. 32 PPM: Vertical and Horizontal Logic Horizontal logic Overall Goal Activities Project Purpose Result/ Outputs indicator Means of Verification Means of verification Means of verification indicator indicator Specification of inputs/costs
  33. 33. 33 Assumptions • Definition: Conditions that must exist if the project is to succeed but which are not under the direct control of the project:
  34. 34. 34 Assumptions • How to word the assumptions: Assumptions can be derived from the objective tree Assumptions will be worded as a positive condition (c.f. Objectives) Assumptions will be weighted according to importance and probability Example : Enough jobs available for graduates
  35. 35. 35 Assessment of Assumptions 1st Question: “Is the assumption important?” yes no Don’t include this one 2nd Question: “How likely will it occur?”
  36. 36. 36 Assessment of Assumptions Almost certain Quite likely Not likely 2nd Question: “How likely will it occur?” Don’t include this one either Put this assumption into your project planning matrix Project management must - monitor it - If possible influence it
  37. 37. 37 Assessment of Assumptions 3rd Question: “Can the project strategy be (re-) designed to make this assumption superfluous?” no Killer assumption! Warn decision makers! Stop! yes Redesign project! Plan activities to influence assumptions or make them superfluous
  38. 38. 38 Objectively Veriable Indicators (OVI’s) • Objectively verifiable indicators define the performance standard to be reached in order to achieve the objective
  39. 39. 39 Objectively Veriable Indicators (OVI’s) • They specify what evidence will tell you if an overall goal, project purpose or result/output is reached in terms of Quantity how much? Quality how well? Time by when? Location/area where?
  40. 40. 40 Objectively Veriable Indicators (OVI’s) • They focus on important characteristics of an objectives to be achieved • They provide a basis for monitoring and evaluation
  41. 41. 41 OVI’s - Steps • Objective: Agricultural production increased
  42. 42. 42 OVI’s - Steps Step 1 Identify indicator: e.g Smallholders increase rice yield Step 2 Quantify: 10,000 smallholders (owing 3 acres or less) increase productions by 50% Step 3 Set quality: While maintaining same quality of harvest as 1983 crops
  43. 43. 43 OVI’s - Steps Step 4 Specify time frame: Between October 1984 and October 1985 Step 5 Set province: Umbia province
  44. 44. 44 OVI’s - Steps • Combine: 10,000 SMALLHOLDERS IN Umbia province (owing 3 acres or less) increase their rice yield by 50% between october 1984 and october 1985, maintaining the same quality of harvest as 1983 crops
  45. 45. 45 Means of Verification (MoV) • Tell us: Where we get the evidence that the objectives have been met Where we can find the data necessary to verify the indicator
  46. 46. 46 Means of Verification (MoV) • Some important questions: Are the MoV’s available from normal sources? (Statistics, observation, records) How reliable are the sources? Is special data gathering required? If so, what will it cost? Has a new source to be created If we cannot find an MoV, the indicator has to be changed!
  47. 47. 47 Mulai dibuat 12/02/1998 Fonts tambahan Arial Rounded MT Bold Jumlah halaman 48
  48. 48. 48 Kawi Boedisetio +62 817 219 755