Social impact assessment principles of infrastructure projects
Social Impact Assessment (SIA) Tools and Techniques in SIA for Infrastructure Development Projects
SIA: Setting the Scene• SIA emerged as a field of social science during 1960s –realized EIA inadequate for addressing social issue.• Since 1970s adopted SIA for addressing social impacts.• For resettlement projects, SIA has evolved basically- – To identify project-affected people – To find measures to mitigate negative impacts, and – To compensate irreversible losses following a participatory process
SIA Activities• Identify affected parties,• Facilitate and Coordinate participation of stakeholders,• Collect baseline data,• Provide an in depth review of the local cultural contexts,• Predicts likely impacts and how stakeholders will respond,• Assist in evaluating alternatives,• Assist in site selection,
Cont…• Recommend mitigation measures• Develop coping strategies to deal with non- mitigatable impacts,• Advise on appropriate institutional and coordination arrangements for all parties, and• Assist in devising an d implementing monitoring and management programs.
What is SIA? SIA is a process of identifying:• Intended and unintended Social impacts(+ & -) of Planned interventions,• Social change processes invoked by those interventions, and• In an infrastructure projects, SIA determines whether a RESETTLEMENT ACTION PLAN is required.
Means/Process of SIA• Social Screening,• Consultation Meeting with stakeholders,• Cadastral Survey
Categories of Social Impacts• Household Assets (land, house, trees & animals),• Access to common property resources,• Livelihood (way of subsistence, culture and relations),• Local economy
Conti…• Cultural Resources (tangible and intangible),• Social Capital (mutual help, institutions),• Vulnerability (Exclusion).
Type of ImpactsDirect Resettlement and livelihood restoratioonIndirect Induce Mitigation and change in local economy/ecosystem,Permanent Land acquisition and Discipline,Temporary Noise during project constructionsPhysical Housing & land lossEconomic Jobs: business.
Timing of Impacts• Project Designing• Project Construction• Project Operations
SIA Building Blocks• Baseline,• Alternative Analysis for Site,• Define ZOI• Consultation Process• Identify Cultural Resources• Identification of Vulnerable People/Groups• Identification of PAPs and SPAPs• Socio-economic Profile of SPAPS• Stakeholders Identification
1. Baselines• Define the Pre-project situation• Each project will require different information (baseline), depending on expected impacts,• Number of beneficiary population (district, VDC, Project area)
Baseline Cont…• Possible positive and negative impacts of the project,• Other related information.
2. Social Screening (SS)• Project preview (short note)• Number of beneficiary population (ZoI),• Number of affected people (direct and indirect)• Identification of SPAP and PAP
SS cont…• Identification of legal owners, squatters or encroachers, and other category of land tenure arrangements,• Key economic indicators on local economy and HHs,• Severity of impacts on land, structures and common property
3. Cadastral Survey• Identification of actual land donors (title holders),• Identification of non-title holders,• Initiation of land ownership transfer process
The 5 Ws of SIA• Why?: Manage Risks & Mitigate Impacts• Where?: Project area of influence• When?: As early as possible.• Who?: Directly affected people & other stakeholders, and• What?: Negative Impacts and opportunities.
Activities of SIA• Identify affected people/parties• Facilitate & coordinate participation of stakeholders• Collect baseline data• Provide an in depth review of local cultural contexts.
Activities of SIA Cont…• Recommend appropriate mitigation measures,• Assist in site selection,• Assist in evaluating alternatives• Predicts likely impacts and how stakeholders respond,
Activities of SIA Cont…• Develop coping strategies to deal with non-mitigatable impacts• Recommend appropriate institutional and coordinate arrangements for all parties,• Assist in developing & implementing monitoring and management programs.
Alternative Analysis• Compare different options to achieve the same goal• Compare impacts (social, economic and environmental and so on)• It is a key tool to minimize negative impacts and maximize positive impacts.
Definition of Area of Impacts• Identification of project area and ZoI Project •Direct impact area •Indirect impact area
Vulnerable People• Project influence is not equally distributed to all in a given population• Gender, ethnicity, age, economic variables may determine different degree of impacts• Poverty lines may help in determining vulnerable people
SIA Methods• Socio-economic survey,• Land tenure surveys & mapping exercise,• Focus groups discussions,• Key informants interviews, and• Analysis of secondary information
Socio-Economic Profile• Profile of livelihood losers,• Profile (hh) of SPAPs, and• Other related information as require by the project.
Cultural Resources• Physical cultural resources Burial places Worshiping places and Sacred forest and locations.
Cultural Resource Cont…• Intangible cultural resources Customs, Ritual Practices Sense of attachment to place
Structure of SIA Report• Executive summary,• Background• Description of the project• Methodology• Stakeholders analysis & cunsultations• Analysis of Impacts (direct & indirect)• Alternative analysis• Socio-economic profile of ZoI• Other related data, maps, documents and so on.