While compared to the rest of the world international arrivals from countries of Africa are quite small, Africa is growing as a source market for international tourism. Meaning that citizens travelling internationally (outside of their home country) is growing.
Africa Facts The continent of Africa comprised of 54countries with a population of over 900 millionpeople The continent covers 6% of the Earth‟s totalsurface area – very low populations density Second largest continent after Asia Each country is varied in itsresources, culture, historical legacies, andeconomic, social, and political structures
Africa: Historical Overview Prehistoric Times Origins of Man; Olduvai Gorge - Tanzania 5000 BC - 1500 AD Existence of several indigenous African civilizationsand Empires – Potential for Cultural Tourism Nubia: Nile region 5,000 B.C. Egyptian: 3000-2000 B.C. Kushite/Meroe (Sudan): 500 B.C-320A.D. Axum (Replaced Kushite): 320 A. D. Ghana: 800 A.D. Zimbabwe: 850 A.D. Mali: 1240 A.D. Songhai Empire (Western Africa): 1495 A.D.
Africa: Historical Overview Late 1400‟s to late 1800‟s European exploration, adventurism, exploitation ofnatural and human resources and political subjagation Countries involved in African “adventurism” Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden These countries have influenced, altered andeven distorted the geographical, social andcultural landscapes of Africa
Africa: Historical Overview 1884: The Berlin Conference Political Partitioning of Africa Drawing of today‟s political boundaries; mostlyarbitrary lines without social and ethnicconsiderations of local communities Laid the foundations of contemporary landdisputes, civil wars and political conflicts
Historical Overview - 1884 -1950 Colonial administration and governanceprimarily by Belgium, England, France andPortugal Exploitation of economic resources Globalization - export of raw “material” andimportation of manufactured goods Europeanization through educationalsystem, language, religion, lifestyle, civiladministration, etc.
Political Independence, de-colonizationtransition Period of political instability due to liberationwars, civil wars, coups d‟etat etc. Attempts at regional and continental unification Economic marginalizationHistorical Overview – 1950 –1970‟s
Completion of de-colonization process Increased emphasis of democratization Greater acceptance of privatization, freeenterprise models of economic development External imposition of structural adjustmentpolicies IMF, World Bank etc. forced implementation of„free market‟ programs(Privatization, Deregulation) Natural and man-made disasters Continuing political and military conflictsHistorical Overview – 1980‟s -Today
Huge impact on tourism today Languages, religions, culturalsimilarities, VFR, familiarity Source market of tourists $ for infrastructure International companies transportation linksEx. British-India connectionEx. French-Lao connectionEx. Spanish-Latin America connectionImpact of Colonialism on Modern Tourism
Impact of Colonialism on Modern Tourism Transportation AirlinesBritish Airways: London-Accra, CapeTown, Johannesburg, Nairobi, Lagos, AbujaAir France: Paris-Nouakchott, Dakar, Bamako, Conakry, Abidjan, Niamey, N‟DjamenaYaoundé, Bangui, LibrevilleTAP Portugal: Luanda, Maputo, Bissau, Not just Africa, but remnants of colonialism areworldwide
Tourism Statistics and Trends International Tourism arrivals in Sub-SaharanAfrica - 33 million International Tourism Expenditures of $23billion Grew by about 7% South Africa Share of arrivals and exp. 25% of arrivals 41% of expenditures Trends and Projections2020 – 55 million arrivals2030 – 88 million arrivals
Regional Distribution of Tourist Arrivals (2010) Region Arrivals Southern Africa 12.6 million East Africa 12.1million West & Central Africa 6.8 million
Setting for Tourism inSub-Saharan Africa Sheer size of the region is an asset as well as ahindrance to developing a tourism industry Most of the continent is sparselypopulated, offering wide-open spaces, analmost unique wealth of wildlife, spectacularscenery, and tribal cultures that have fascinatedtravelers for centuries
There are considerable variations in the scale of tourismdevelopment in Africa from most developed ones toleast developed ones Countries such as Kenya, Mauritius and The Seychellesin the Indian Ocean, Morocco and Tunisia in thenorth, South Africa, and Zimbabwe in the south aresuccessful tourism destinations Countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, andZambia have limited leisure tourism potential Limited infrastructure Security and safety issues Political instabilitySetting for Tourism inSub-Saharan Africa
Positives and Potentials forSub-Saharan Africa Tourism Cultural understanding-South African Township tours Cultural diversity - Historical cultures and currentcultures Volunteer Tourism Community-Based tourism Conservation of gorillas, elephants, etc Adventure Tourism Natural wonders of the world- Victoria falls, NileRiver, Congo River, Great Rift Valley…etc Beach Tourism-largely untouched coastal areas withlittle development Diaspora Tourism
AIDS - Botswana‟s work force future Highly educated, young, politically stable Huge AIDS rate (40% or more) Poverty and need to fill basic human needs offood, clean water, healthcare, education are of primaryimportance Infrastructure Roads, Airports, Ferries, Rail etc. Zimbabwe- Inflation and harsh totalitarian government Expiration dates on money, limits on cash, Mugabe - White farmers, current violenceProblems & Challenges
Problems & Challenges Comparative costs, value, quality servicedelivery Communication network: telephone, faxes, e-mails for travel arrangements Limited marketing budget, lack of awareness ofkey international markets Absence of skilled human resources for tourismplanning, development, promotion andmanagement Difficult to provide the type of experience tourists areexpecting
Low income, limited savings of citizens Weak source for domestic or regional tourism(people from the region don‟t travel much) Africa tourism is Euro-dependent More than 2/3 of African tourists originate from Europeand North America Sparse domestic investment capital Reliance on foreign investment Reliance on multi-national corporationsProblems & Challenges
Multi - national Corporations:Benefit or Liability? Tourism industry in Africa has traditionally beendominated by multi - national corporations , primarilyWestern, making this a questionable area of economicdevelopment Transport of tourists to Africa is predominantly carriedout by Western airlines. (increasing connections fromUS) Accommodation is often provided in hotel chains ownedand managed by multi-national corporations Senior management of tourist facilities tends to beexpatriate Food consumed by tourists is specially imported forthem
Problems & Challenges Liberation wars: e.g.Angola, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe Civil Wars: e.g. DRC, Angola, Liberia, SierraLeone, IvoryCoast, Sudan, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi Coups d‟etat: Sudden forceful overthrow oflegitimate government by army and/or police
Problems & Challenges forTravelers Health: Entry requirements - vaccinations Endemic conditions threats: air-borne, water-borne and food-borne diseases Facilitation: Visa requirements, information andprocessing Transportation: long-haul, cost, frequency, reliability, safety withnational airlines Poor road, rail and water transportation
Kenya & Tanzania Nature based, safari tourism General, photo, hunting, walking, hot airballoon, camel/desert, underwater Eco-systems - Serengeti, MasaiArea, Ngorongoro Conservation Area Archaeological, Heritage Tourism - OlduvaiGorge Cultural Tourism - The Masai Trbe
Community based tourism Kampi Ya Kanzi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJ7iAcrWGfk Can fast forward to around 2:39 of the video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0e-s0Kq-60&feature=plcp Longer video which explains the role of the trust 10 reasons http://www.maasai.com/10-reasons-to-come/ Gives a detailed overview of why tourists should visit andhow their visit helps the local community
Gorilla Tourism Uganda http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezz-sbdPpEw&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VXzsZO44VE&feature=related (about 17 minutes long but very interesting and goodexplanation of how tourism is changing the country)