Lecture 6 tourism in sub-saharan africa


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  • While compared to the rest of the world international arrivals from countries of Africa are quite small, Africa is growing as a source market for international tourism. Meaning that citizens travelling internationally (outside of their home country) is growing.
  • Lecture 6 tourism in sub-saharan africa

    2. 2. Africa: A Continent waiting to berediscovered What comes to mind when you think ofAfrica?
    3. 3. Geography, History, PoliticsOverview
    4. 4. Africa Facts The continent of Africa comprised of 54countries with a population of over 900 millionpeople The continent covers 6% of the Earth‟s totalsurface area – very low populations density Second largest continent after Asia Each country is varied in itsresources, culture, historical legacies, andeconomic, social, and political structures
    5. 5. Africa: Historical Overview Prehistoric Times Origins of Man; Olduvai Gorge - Tanzania 5000 BC - 1500 AD Existence of several indigenous African civilizationsand Empires – Potential for Cultural Tourism Nubia: Nile region 5,000 B.C. Egyptian: 3000-2000 B.C. Kushite/Meroe (Sudan): 500 B.C-320A.D. Axum (Replaced Kushite): 320 A. D. Ghana: 800 A.D. Zimbabwe: 850 A.D. Mali: 1240 A.D. Songhai Empire (Western Africa): 1495 A.D.
    6. 6. Africa: Historical Overview Late 1400‟s to late 1800‟s European exploration, adventurism, exploitation ofnatural and human resources and political subjagation Countries involved in African “adventurism” Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden These countries have influenced, altered andeven distorted the geographical, social andcultural landscapes of Africa
    7. 7. Africa: Historical Overview 1884: The Berlin Conference Political Partitioning of Africa Drawing of today‟s political boundaries; mostlyarbitrary lines without social and ethnicconsiderations of local communities Laid the foundations of contemporary landdisputes, civil wars and political conflicts
    8. 8. Historical Overview - 1884 -1950 Colonial administration and governanceprimarily by Belgium, England, France andPortugal Exploitation of economic resources Globalization - export of raw “material” andimportation of manufactured goods Europeanization through educationalsystem, language, religion, lifestyle, civiladministration, etc.
    9. 9.  Political Independence, de-colonizationtransition Period of political instability due to liberationwars, civil wars, coups d‟etat etc. Attempts at regional and continental unification Economic marginalizationHistorical Overview – 1950 –1970‟s
    10. 10.  Completion of de-colonization process Increased emphasis of democratization Greater acceptance of privatization, freeenterprise models of economic development External imposition of structural adjustmentpolicies IMF, World Bank etc. forced implementation of„free market‟ programs(Privatization, Deregulation) Natural and man-made disasters Continuing political and military conflictsHistorical Overview – 1980‟s -Today
    11. 11.  Huge impact on tourism today Languages, religions, culturalsimilarities, VFR, familiarity Source market of tourists $ for infrastructure International companies transportation linksEx. British-India connectionEx. French-Lao connectionEx. Spanish-Latin America connectionImpact of Colonialism on Modern Tourism
    12. 12. Impact of Colonialism on Modern Tourism Transportation AirlinesBritish Airways: London-Accra, CapeTown, Johannesburg, Nairobi, Lagos, AbujaAir France: Paris-Nouakchott, Dakar, Bamako, Conakry, Abidjan, Niamey, N‟DjamenaYaoundé, Bangui, LibrevilleTAP Portugal: Luanda, Maputo, Bissau, Not just Africa, but remnants of colonialism areworldwide
    13. 13. Tourism Today
    14. 14. Tourism Statistics and Trends International Tourism arrivals in Sub-SaharanAfrica - 33 million International Tourism Expenditures of $23billion Grew by about 7% South Africa Share of arrivals and exp. 25% of arrivals 41% of expenditures Trends and Projections2020 – 55 million arrivals2030 – 88 million arrivals
    15. 15. Regional Distribution of Tourist Arrivals (2010) Region Arrivals Southern Africa 12.6 million East Africa 12.1million West & Central Africa 6.8 million
    16. 16. Africa as a Source Market
    17. 17. Setting for Tourism inSub-Saharan Africa Sheer size of the region is an asset as well as ahindrance to developing a tourism industry Most of the continent is sparselypopulated, offering wide-open spaces, analmost unique wealth of wildlife, spectacularscenery, and tribal cultures that have fascinatedtravelers for centuries
    18. 18.  There are considerable variations in the scale of tourismdevelopment in Africa from most developed ones toleast developed ones Countries such as Kenya, Mauritius and The Seychellesin the Indian Ocean, Morocco and Tunisia in thenorth, South Africa, and Zimbabwe in the south aresuccessful tourism destinations Countries such as Nigeria, Cameroon, Angola, andZambia have limited leisure tourism potential Limited infrastructure Security and safety issues Political instabilitySetting for Tourism inSub-Saharan Africa
    19. 19. Positives and Potentials forSub-Saharan Africa Tourism Cultural understanding-South African Township tours Cultural diversity - Historical cultures and currentcultures Volunteer Tourism Community-Based tourism Conservation of gorillas, elephants, etc Adventure Tourism Natural wonders of the world- Victoria falls, NileRiver, Congo River, Great Rift Valley…etc Beach Tourism-largely untouched coastal areas withlittle development Diaspora Tourism
    20. 20. Barriers to TourismDevelopment
    21. 21.  AIDS - Botswana‟s work force future Highly educated, young, politically stable Huge AIDS rate (40% or more) Poverty and need to fill basic human needs offood, clean water, healthcare, education are of primaryimportance Infrastructure Roads, Airports, Ferries, Rail etc. Zimbabwe- Inflation and harsh totalitarian government Expiration dates on money, limits on cash, Mugabe - White farmers, current violenceProblems & Challenges
    22. 22. Problems & Challenges Comparative costs, value, quality servicedelivery Communication network: telephone, faxes, e-mails for travel arrangements Limited marketing budget, lack of awareness ofkey international markets Absence of skilled human resources for tourismplanning, development, promotion andmanagement Difficult to provide the type of experience tourists areexpecting
    23. 23.  Low income, limited savings of citizens Weak source for domestic or regional tourism(people from the region don‟t travel much) Africa tourism is Euro-dependent More than 2/3 of African tourists originate from Europeand North America Sparse domestic investment capital Reliance on foreign investment Reliance on multi-national corporationsProblems & Challenges
    24. 24. Multi - national Corporations:Benefit or Liability? Tourism industry in Africa has traditionally beendominated by multi - national corporations , primarilyWestern, making this a questionable area of economicdevelopment Transport of tourists to Africa is predominantly carriedout by Western airlines. (increasing connections fromUS) Accommodation is often provided in hotel chains ownedand managed by multi-national corporations Senior management of tourist facilities tends to beexpatriate Food consumed by tourists is specially imported forthem
    25. 25. Problems & Challenges Liberation wars: e.g.Angola, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe Civil Wars: e.g. DRC, Angola, Liberia, SierraLeone, IvoryCoast, Sudan, Somalia, Rwanda, Burundi Coups d‟etat: Sudden forceful overthrow oflegitimate government by army and/or police
    26. 26. Problems & Challenges forTravelers Health: Entry requirements - vaccinations Endemic conditions threats: air-borne, water-borne and food-borne diseases Facilitation: Visa requirements, information andprocessing Transportation: long-haul, cost, frequency, reliability, safety withnational airlines Poor road, rail and water transportation
    27. 27. Specific Destinations
    28. 28. Kenya & Tanzania Nature based, safari tourism General, photo, hunting, walking, hot airballoon, camel/desert, underwater Eco-systems - Serengeti, MasaiArea, Ngorongoro Conservation Area Archaeological, Heritage Tourism - OlduvaiGorge Cultural Tourism - The Masai Trbe
    29. 29. Community based tourism Kampi Ya Kanzi http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJ7iAcrWGfk Can fast forward to around 2:39 of the video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0e-s0Kq-60&feature=plcp Longer video which explains the role of the trust 10 reasons http://www.maasai.com/10-reasons-to-come/ Gives a detailed overview of why tourists should visit andhow their visit helps the local community
    30. 30. Gorilla Tourism Uganda http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ezz-sbdPpEw&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5VXzsZO44VE&feature=related (about 17 minutes long but very interesting and goodexplanation of how tourism is changing the country)