Lecture 5 tourism in latin america


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Lecture 5 tourism in latin america

  1. 1. Latin America (North & SouthAmerica)TDM 458Ara Pachmayer
  2. 2. Amazon River Basin Cruise
  3. 3. Andes Mountains
  4. 4. Introduction Region has 21 countriesColonized by Spain & Portugal (IberianCountries)Large, diverse populations490 million people75% of the people live in citiesSeveral megacities (10 million people+)Indigenous, African, European andAsian presence and small numbers ofother groups as well
  5. 5. Geopolitical FrameworkPast and PresentLate 1400 - 1500’sIberian Conquest and Territorial Division1494 Treaty of Tordesillas divided newlydiscovered lands outside Europe betweenSpain and Portugal
  6. 6. Geopolitical FrameworkPast and Present Indigenous PopulationsMultiple complex civilizations before Europeans(Incas, Mayans, Aztecs, others)Population estimates1500: 20 - 47 million; by 1650: 5 millionCauses: disease, warfare, forced labor, famine Indigenous Survival TodayLargest populations of Indigenous people today:Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, and BoliviaIndians trying to secure recognized territory intheir countries where they have political andresource control
  7. 7. Geopolitical FrameworkPast and Present Revolution and Independence Elites born in the Americas ledrevolutions, resulting in the creation of newcountries Trend Toward Democracy Long independence, but political stability is aproblem Democratic elections since the 1980’s Most countries are free-market economies
  8. 8. Economic and Social Development Latin America in the Global Economy Dependency theoryExpansion of European capitalism created LatinAmerican condition of underdevelopmentCreates prosperous cores and dependent, poorperipheriesIncreased economic integration within LatinAmerica and dominance of U.S. market Neoliberalism Policies (market approach)Stress privatization, export production, and fewrestrictions on importsNegative is that it can/has increased gap betweenwealthy and poor
  9. 9.  Latin America in the Global Economy DollarizationProcess in which a country adopts (in whole or in part)the U.S. dollar as its official currencyFull dollarization – U.S. dollar becomes onlycurrencyUntil 2000, Panama was the only fully dollarizedLatin American countryEcuador and El Salvador also became fullydollarized in the last decadeLimited dollarization more common strategyU.S. dollars circulate with country’s nationalcurrency - MexicoTends to reduce inflation, eliminate fears of currencydevaluation, and reduce costs of tradeEconomic and Social Development
  10. 10. Tourism in Latin America Relatively recent entry into tourism (exceptMexico); Lots of growth growth between 1995 (14.3Million) and 2011 (30 million) Key Source Markets: regional, North America andEurope (Dependence Theory – region is stilldependent on colonizers for tourist arrivals) Originally, mostly backpacker/adventure, lowbudget tourism (1960s-1980’s) following the MayanTrail from Mexico to Honduras; or Inca Trail throughPeru
  11. 11. Regional Organizations Organizations to foster internal markets andreduce trade barriers Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) Central American Common Market (CACM) Andean Group NAFTA Mercosurhttp://en.mercopress.com/2011/04/27/mercosur-supports-tourism-industry-with-improved-data-and-investment-promotion
  12. 12. Types of Tourism Eco- Natural Resource Tourism Rainforests, wildlife viewing, eco-lodges, mountaintourism, Plantation tourism, wineries, ranches, diving Cultural Tourism Indian cultures, village stays, Amazon cruises Historical Tourism Mayan and Aztec ruins (Central America), Inca inSouth America Spanish Colonial Sights – major colonial cities Language schools – Central America and Ecuador Beach and Resort tourism, surfing tourism Adventure Tourism: Trekking, skiing, rafting, iceclimbing, etc. Cruise Tourism
  13. 13. South America Tourism Growth Relatively recent entry into tourism; 45% growthbetween 1995 and 2006Average of 4.4% per year 2000-2010 South America arrivals grew by 9% in 2011 Brazil fast growing source market for tourism All hit pretty hard by Economic Crisis of 2008 …Recovering, some better than othersUruguay 22% growthPeru 13% growth
  14. 14. Central American Tourism Growth Most significant growth in recent timesCentral America recorded 16.7% growth(1995-2006)…slowed recently (2000-10 anaverage of 6.6% a year) Central America arrivals grew by 5% in 2011Panama 11%All other countries in the region reportedpositive growth
  15. 15. MexicoOne of the world’s major holidaydestinations, especially for Americansand CanadiansProblems of crime, drugs, violence,pollution and anti-American sentimentUS State Department Travel WarningLeading resorts are Cancun, PuertoVallarta and Acapulco
  16. 16. Brazil Large size, 2,500 miles from north to south Largest country in South America Vast Amazon Tropical Rain forest Expanding international tourism from charterflights (Role of National airline) Beach holidays are expanding at Salvador deBahia, Recife and Natal Rio de Janeiro’s attractions includeCorcodova Mountain, Ipanema andCopacabana beaches
  17. 17. Peru Expanding adventure / eco-tourism Dramatic mountain jungles, and Incacommunities, such as Machu Picchu Country experienced largest increase intourist arrivals between 2000 and 2008 of18% Large growth in recent years as result ofpublicity of Machu Pichu 7NW Surf Volunteertourism -http://www.wavesfordevelopment.org/surf-voluntourism/
  18. 18. High mountains and alpine sceneryWell preserved colonial citiesChilean wines (wine country is big!)Key gateway to South America throughSantiago (major center of commerce)Easter IslandChile
  19. 19. Problems, Issues and Barriersto Tourism Development
  20. 20. Economic Issues Link to the dollar, dependence on US marketfor many destinations So if the US economy falters, the region becomesvulnerable Huge economic leakages (DependencyTheory) Multi-nationals – companies owned by non-localsso money goes out Lesser developed economies It is difficult for most countries in Latin Americato amass the capital needed to improve theirtourism infrastructure, so they need foreigninvestment
  21. 21. Safety and Security Issues Insurgencies and Drug Traffickers Guerrilla groups have controlled large portionsColombia through violence and intimidationFARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia);Colombia had highest murder rate in the world Drug cartels: powerful and wealthy organized crimesyndicatesCurrently having a negative affect on tourismin Mexico Violent, street crime in some major cities Anti-American sentiments at some destinations,especially Latin America Political influence of the US is seen as meddling by some whichhas resulted in strong anti-American sentiments in some countries
  22. 22.  Relatively large land area and lowpopulation density has minimizedenvironmental degradation Latin America has the opportunity to avoidmistakes that other regions have made asthey are relatively new to the mass tourismmarket. They can learn from others! Brazil and Costa Rica have conservationmovements However . . .Coral Reef Destruction in Central AmericaWaste dumping by cruise linesEnvironmental Issues
  23. 23. Environmental Issues Destruction of Tropical Rainforests - #1 problemDeforestation is the most common environmentalproblem in Latin AmericaAffected regions: Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil andPacific forests of Central AmericaCauses: agriculture, settlement, and ranchingGrassification: conversion of tropical forest to pasturefor grazing and agricultural production Concerns: loss of biological diversityTropical rainforests: 6% of Earth’s landmass but 50% ofspeciesThe rainforest is also a tremendous tourism resourcesfor the region
  24. 24. Other IssuesLooting of Mayan and Inca treasuresConflicts between governments andIndigenous Populations Garifuna Honduras http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzAik-3tmLI&feature=channel_page
  25. 25. Nicaragua volunteer tourismhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cgHFYY6bq6o