EDEXCEL GCSE Geography Unit 3 Tourism Revision


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EDEXCEL GCSE Geography Unit 3 Tourism Revision

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EDEXCEL GCSE Geography Unit 3 Tourism Revision

  1. 1. Tourism Unit 3 – June 6th 2014
  2. 2. Tourist A person who stays for more than a day in place that is not his or her usual environment for any purpose Tourism Tourism means all the activities that tourists take part in, and the services that support them. Domestic tourist People who go on holiday in their own country. International tourist People who go to another country for their holiday Leisure use of free time for enjoyment
  3. 3. Types of Tourism • Holiday – annual leave, short break • Sporting event e.g. Brazil World Cup • Festival e.g. Glastonbury • Pilgrimage • Staying with friends and family • Business meeting • Conference • Educational Trip • Medical treatment
  4. 4. Lack of Data • Assessing the amount of each type of tourism is difficult • Travel agents and credit card companies keep records however many people book their own not only for holidays but also sporting events and festivals • There is even less information available about visits to friends and relatives because of their informal and impromptu nature • Even international tourism is sometimes hard to measure • Many border crossings within the EU (European Union) are no longer controlled so people crossing from Germany to France for example will not be recorded
  5. 5. Growth of tourism in the past 50 years Growth of Tourism Economic More disposable income Communication Mass media Greater awareness Transport Faster Cheaper Political Easy border control Social Paid leave More leisure time
  6. 6. Tourist Attractions - Environmental Climate – plenty of sunshine, good snow conditions Beaches – clean sand, safe swimming, good surf Protected areas – national parks, nature reserves Scenery – attractive, spectacular Wildlife – game animals, birds, whales
  7. 7. Tourist Attractions - Human Cultural heritage – museums, galleries, temples and archaeological sites Local cuisine – special food, good restaurants Conference centres – meeting halls, accommodation for business Access – quality of transport connections, ease of local travel Low crime rate Recreational facilities e.g. golf courses
  8. 8. The Butler Tourist Resort Life Cycle Model
  9. 9. Exploration •Very few tourists or facilities •Undeveloped •Adventure tourism •Lots of interaction with locals
  10. 10. Involvement •Tourist numbers increase •Local people start to become involved in tourism
  11. 11. Development •Numbers of tourists increase rapidly •Large hotel chains build up to date facilities •Locals go out of business •Package holiday
  12. 12. Consolidation •Maximum number of tourists •Facilities now starting to look out of date •Package holiday
  13. 13. Stagnation •Resort loses popularity •Tourist numbers decrease •Some hotels and shops go out of business
  14. 14. Rejuvenation •Investment in new attractions and facilities •Resort might change focus towards business tourism
  15. 15. Decline •No new attractions provided •Much of the property is up for sale •Hotels converted into old peoples homes •Day trips or weekends only
  16. 16. Blackpool on the Butler Model • 1800 = exploration. Only wealthy people • 1846 = involvement. New railway means many people now able to visit • 1870 = development. Workers get annual holiday. The tower, promenade, piers, amusement arcades, theatres and music halls built. • 1918 – 1939 = consolidation. Popularity continued, one of Europe’s leading resorts • 1960 = decline. Package holidays to Spain now more popular, few new attractions
  17. 17. Benidorm on the Butler Model • 1954 = exploration. Small fishing village but new major has a plan for development. • 1960 = involvement. Suddenly became very popular with British tourists because of guaranteed sunshine • 1960’s – 70’s = development. Large hotel chains arrive, skyscrapers, theme parks, pubs, clubs and restaurants • 1990’s onwards – consolidation. Benidorm remains as popular as ever. Still attracts maximum numbers of tourists.
  18. 18. Attitudes to Tourism • Tourist – obviously pro tourism but attitude could change depending on whether the holiday is good or not • Local - might be ‘anti’ tourism because of noise and congestion or pro because of job opportunities • Hotel owner – pro tourism because he can maximise profits • Travel agent – clearly pro tourism to maximise holiday sales and profits • Government – mainly pro tourism because it generates foreign investment and creates jobs
  19. 19. Impacts of Tourism Social – people and culture Economic – money and jobs Environmental - nature • Demand for locally produced souvenirs • Drunk people fight in the street at night • Discos and bars open til tale and very noisy all night • Farmland is lost, some farmers lose their jobs. • Food supplies reduced • People in national parks forced to leave their homes • Tourists eat and drink the local food • Teach people traditional crafts and life skills • Local people are observed in their native habitat • Jobs in hotels and bars • House prices increase too fast • Low paid seasonal holiday jobs only • Money for hospitals and schools • Builders get a lot of work • Cost of building rises • Infrastructure (water and power supplies) improve • Cost of living for local people rises • Foreigners get jobs instead of locals • Foreign investment • Poorly paid service jobs • Money from tourism goes to other countries not to local people • Wildlife has died • Litter on beaches • Habitat destroyed • Birdlife has flown off • Animals get put off feeding, drinking and mating because of disturbances • Pollution of beaches and sheltered bays • Lots of minibuses on the dirt tracks creates dust and soil erosion • Hot air balloon gas burners made a lot of noise • Vegetation cleared for new hotels • Endanger the survival of rare plants and animals
  20. 20. The Multiplier Affect Tourism Spare cash Demand for luxury items More tour operators Gov gets more money Hotels Good image Infrastructure Area becomes more attractive Tourists spend more money
  21. 21. Impacts of Tourism in Nepal (LIC) Social • Young men have left the village to become porters or guides • Not enough men left to work the farms. Women take over • Tourists bring western foods, diet and health improves • Electricity supplies in more homes • Schools built, education improves Economic • Men have set up businesses in the capital • Wages are good enough for people to be able to build or improve houses • Basic food prices rise Environmental • Forested areas are being cleared as more wood for fuel is needed
  22. 22. Ecotourism – The Galapagos Islands Ecotourism – The Galapagos Islands • The islands are famous because there are animals there that are not found anywhere else in the world. Enabled Charles Darwin to form his theory of evolution. How Tourism is Managed? • They only visit on small boats of 10-16 people which are owned by locals • Only allowed to visit certain places on the islands • Have to pay a £25 fee that goes towards conservation of the islands • Visitors are educated in how to protect and conserve island life while they are there • Cost is very expensive so puts off mass tourism Benefits • Ecotourism offers jobs for the locals without damaging the environment. • Local people run small hotels and provide for the needs of tourists not hotel chains • Companies run by locals to provide boat trips around island • Money earned stays with the locals rather than going to large hotel chains • Improves locals quality of life