Tourism: a 2500 year old phenomenon


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50 slides for the history of tourism

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Tourism: a 2500 year old phenomenon

  1. Tourism from A to Ω Tourism: a 2500 year old phenomenon
  2. Timeline Ancient Greece Ancient Rome, Alexandria Olympia Delphi Middle Ages (5-15 th ) Renaissance (14 th -17 th ) 20 th century 19 th century 21 st century Grand Tour Elite 776 BC Changes in Europe Cities and Places Travel writers Industrial Revolution The TOUR Travel goes Global Tourism 2.0 Modern history Ancient history mass
  3. 1. Travel in Ancient Times From ancient Greece to 7 wonders
  4. Travel incentives in ancient Greece <ul><li>Greek Festivals </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Games (776 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Spas and health tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge trips to the known world </li></ul>Source: / wikipedia
  5. Festivals in Ancient Greece <ul><li>Panhellenic Festivals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympic Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pythian Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isthmian Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nemean Games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Festivals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asclepieia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnopaidiai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heraea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daidala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eleutheria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyycaea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyancinthia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Athenian -Attic </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals/month </li></ul><ul><li>Hekatombaion </li></ul><ul><li>12 – Kronia </li></ul><ul><li>16 – Synoikia </li></ul><ul><li>28 – Panathenea </li></ul><ul><li>Metageitnion </li></ul><ul><li>15,16,17,18 – </li></ul><ul><li>Eleusina </li></ul><ul><li>Boedromion </li></ul><ul><li>5 – Genesia </li></ul><ul><li>12 Democratia </li></ul><ul><li>17 or 18 Epidauria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthesterion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11,12,13 – Anthesteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23 - Diasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elaphebolion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10,-17 Great Dionysia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>17 - Pandia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mounichion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 – Munichia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 - Olympeia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thargelion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 – Thargelia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 – Bendideia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>24 – Callynteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25 - Plynteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skirophorion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 – Arrephoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 – Scira </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 - Bouphonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyanopsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 – Proerosia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7 – Pyanopsia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 – Theseia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 – Oschophoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9 – Stenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11,12,13 Thesmophoria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19,20,21 or 26,27,28 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apaturia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 – Apaturia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maimakterion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>? – Pompaia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poseideon ( Ποσῐδηϊών) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 - Posidea ( Ποσῐδεῖα) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26 – Haloa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamelion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12,13,14,15 – Lenea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>27 – Theogamia </li></ul></ul>Source:
  6. Greece and philoxenia <ul><li>Xenios in Ancient Greek was an epithet of Zeus, describing him as presiding over the laws of hospitality, and protecting strangers. The feminine Xenia Athena means the same for Athena . Crete is called the land of Xenios Zeus . </li></ul>Source:
  7. Travel writers in ancient Greece <ul><li>Herodotus (480-421 BC) History contains plenty of information after his travels </li></ul><ul><li>Pausanias (150 BC)writes books about Greece </li></ul>Source: wikipedia
  8. The Olympic Games 776 BC- 39 3 AD <ul><li>Games took place in ancient Olympia, Greece every 4 years </li></ul><ul><li>Games were organized for 1000 years </li></ul><ul><li>Games United all Greeks from all over the world in their cultural capital </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Peace, the “Olympic Truce” </li></ul>Source:
  9. Ancient Greece’s Spas <ul><li>According to Mikkel Aaland in Sweat , Homer and other Greek writers tell us the Greeks favored a variety of baths as early as 500 BC, from hot water tubs to hot-air baths, or laconica . From the small Greek laconica grew the Roman balneum and finally the extravagant Roman thermae (Greek word for “heat”). </li></ul><ul><li>Before Emperor Agrippa designed and created the first thermae in 25 BC, the smaller, more numerous balneum had been enjoyed by Roman citizens for more than 200 years. </li></ul>Source:
  10. Alexander the Great & Alexandria, Egypt <ul><li>Need for accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>During the rule of Alexander the Great, 700,000 tourists visited what is now a  part of Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>First cities that have “global” fame-Alexandria </li></ul><ul><li>Inheriting the trade of ruined  Tyre  and becoming the centre of the new commerce between Europe and the  Arabian  and Indian East, the city grew in less than a generation to be larger than  Carthage . In a century, Alexandria had become the largest city in the world and for some centuries more, was second only to Rome. It became the main Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary mix of  Greeks  from many cities and backgrounds. </li></ul>Source: wikipedia,
  11. Spas- Thermae in Ancient Rome <ul><li>The terms balnea (from Greek βαλανείον ) or thermae (from Greek thermos ) were the words the ancient Romans used for the buildings housing their public baths . </li></ul><ul><li>The Diocletian bath could hold 6,000 bathers. They were built all over the Roman Empire from Africa to England. </li></ul>Source: wikipedia
  12. Antipater of Sidon and the 7 wonders <ul><li>Olympia, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes, Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Cairo, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Babylon, Iraq </li></ul><ul><li>Ephesus, Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandria, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Halicarnassus, Turkey </li></ul>Source:
  13. 2. The Middle Ages From Marco Polo to Pyrard de Laval
  14. Increase of need to travel in Europe <ul><li>Invasion of Arabs in Europe- Creation of Granada- Seville- Cordoba </li></ul><ul><li>Educational visits among Universities (Oxford, Montpelier, Paris, Cambridge) </li></ul><ul><li>Marco Polo (1254-1324)- silk road </li></ul><ul><li>Church initiatives to “promote” religious tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and Switzerland create an image for their hotels </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Writers: Jehan de Mandeville (14 th century) </li></ul>Source: wikipedia
  15. Marco Polo (1254-1324) <ul><li>Marco Polo (1254-1324), is probably the most famous Westerner traveled on the Silk Road. He excelled all the other travelers in his determination, his writing, and his influence. His journey through Asia lasted 24 years. He reached further than any of his predecessors, beyond Mongolia to China. He became a confidant of Kublai Khan (1214-1294). He traveled the whole of China and returned to tell the tale, which became the greatest travelogue. </li></ul>Source:
  16. Jehan de Mandeville <ul><li>&quot; Jehan de Mandeville &quot;, translated as &quot; Sir John Mandeville &quot;, is the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of supposed travels, written in  Anglo-Norman French , and published between 1357 and 1371. </li></ul>Source:
  17. 3. Renaissance Travel Writers: From Montaigne to Gibbon
  18. Renaissance Travel writers <ul><li>Michel Eyquem de Montaigne </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Hakluyt </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrard de Laval </li></ul><ul><li>Clément Jannequin </li></ul><ul><li>Étienne de Flacourt </li></ul>Source:
  19. 4. Travel in the 19 th century The start of tour and the role of industrial revolution in tour-ism
  20. Beginning of “ Tour ism” <ul><li>Theobald (1994) suggested that etymologically, the word &quot;tour&quot; is derived from the  Latin  'tornare' and the Greek 'tornos,' meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis.' This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn. </li></ul><ul><li>One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey that is a round trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist. </li></ul><ul><li>Petit tour </li></ul><ul><li>Grand tour </li></ul>Source:
  21. Tourists: travellers of Grand Tour <ul><li>The term Grand Tour was introduced by Richard Lassels in his 1670 book  Voyage to Italy . </li></ul><ul><li>Young English elites of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries often spent two to four years traveling around Europe in an effort to broaden their horizons and learn about language, architecture, geography, and culture in an experience known as the Grand Tour. The Grand Tour began in the sixteenth century and gained popularity during the seventeenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon their return to England, Tourists were supposedly ready to being the responsibilities of an aristocrat. </li></ul>Source:
  22. Revue des Deux Mondes <ul><li>On August 1st, 1829 François Buloz created the Revue des Deux Mondes. It was the first &quot;modern&quot; publication of the 19th century. Since 1830 it has welcomed ideas related to France and the world emanating from other European countries. </li></ul>Source:
  23. Travel by Rail <ul><li>1822 Stephenson &quot;Father of Railway” creates railway in Newcastle </li></ul><ul><li>1830 Manchester- Liverpool route with La Fusee , with a speed of 26 km’s </li></ul><ul><li>1848 -5000 railway miles in UK </li></ul><ul><li>1850 -5800 railway miles in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1900 -40000 railway miles in Russia </li></ul>Source:
  24. Travel by Sea <ul><li>1807 creation of Clermont, from Robert Fulton </li></ul><ul><li>1838 Great Western </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Western of 1838, was the initial unit of the Great Western Steamship Company and the first purpose-built Atlantic steamship . </li></ul><ul><li>The Role of “Paquebots“ </li></ul>Source:
  25. London Town Hotel History <ul><li>In 1837 there was 396 inns, hotels and taverns in total (but not including pubs that allowed overnight accommodation for their customers). Private guest houses numbered 34. Hotels that were deemed to be of a high standard were called 'Palace Inns' numbered around 30. </li></ul><ul><li>They were all located around the area we know of today as the West End. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples that existed at that time were: </li></ul><ul><li>Cavendish Hotel Durrants Hotel Browns Hotel Mivarts (later to become Claridge's) Mivarts at 48 Davies Street (to become part of Claridge's in 1894) Warrens Hotel on Waterloo Place (Lower Regent Street) Fenton's in St James's Street Limmer's on the corner of George Street W1 and Conduit Street Clarendon Hotel on New Bond Street Clarendon Hotel on Albemarle Street The Burlington on Old Burlington Street Wrights Hotel on Dover Street </li></ul>Source:
  26. 19 th century Travel books <ul><li>1837 Didot publishes a France guide </li></ul><ul><li>1839 Beadeker publishes the “ Un Voyage sure le Rhin ” by Coblence </li></ul><ul><li>John Murray published a guide for Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Belle Epoque in France </li></ul><ul><li>1893- 1899 Charles Ritz sets Grand Hotel in Rome, Ritz in Paris and Carlton in London </li></ul>Source:
  27. 5. Thomas Cook Creation of the “group tour”
  28. Thomas Cook <ul><li>July 1841: first 70 passengers travel from Loughborough to Leicester (35 kms) </li></ul><ul><li>First use of tourism ads </li></ul><ul><li>Midland Railways asks for cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>1845: first travel office in Leicester </li></ul><ul><li>The excursionist </li></ul><ul><li>1850: first supply for trip to Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>1856: trips to Strasburg, Paris </li></ul><ul><li>1860: coupon usage </li></ul><ul><li>1865: first organized cruise </li></ul><ul><li>1866: first group tour in the USA </li></ul>Source:
  29. Thomas Cook (2) <ul><li>1871: first world round trip </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of credit and vouchers </li></ul><ul><li>Travelers checkers </li></ul><ul><li>1972: John Cook goes global cruise with Oceanis ship </li></ul><ul><li>1887: Cook builds a hotel at Luxor, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>1890: monopoly in Nile river cruises </li></ul><ul><li>1892: Thomas Cook death </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Cook and Son has 1700 employees in 85 offices globally </li></ul>Source:
  30. Thomas Cook (3) <ul><li>1921: Thomas Cook represents 21 airline companies </li></ul><ul><li>1927: first organized air-tour Chicago- New York </li></ul><ul><li>First Elite Class Air tickets from London-Nice and London- Cannes </li></ul><ul><li>1920: Thomas Cook cannot control its development </li></ul><ul><li>1928: cooperates with Comagnie Internationale des Wagons Lits et du Turism </li></ul><ul><li>1972: sold to a consortium with Midland Bank, Trust house Forte and tourism organizations </li></ul><ul><li>1973: 870 selling points, 22000 employees in 137 countries </li></ul>Source:
  31. First Tourism Agencies in Europe <ul><li>1878- Milan, Italy Massimiliano Chiari- Sommariva SPA </li></ul><ul><li>1878 –Lyon, France Alphonse LUbin </li></ul><ul><li>1919 Federation Internationale des Agences de Voyages </li></ul>Source: Varvaressos book, in Greek
  32. 6. The 20 th century The 1905-1935 period & mass tourism
  33. 1905-1935 <ul><li>The 1905-1914 period </li></ul><ul><li>1914-1918 Great War –end or elite tourism and “rentiers” </li></ul><ul><li>What followed </li></ul><ul><li>Development of Saint Moritz in Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Growth in Mediterranean Sea, Greece, Spain, Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Distinction of Winter-summer=seasonality </li></ul><ul><li>1929 economic crisis </li></ul>Source: wikipedia, up Kythnos Island GR, down St. Moritz lake CH
  34. After WWI: Creation of passport <ul><li>In the later part of the 19 th century and up to  World War I , passports were not required, on the whole, for travel within Europe, and crossing a border was straightforward. </li></ul><ul><li>During  World War I , European governments introduced border passport requirements for security reasons (to keep out spies) and to control the emigration of citizens with useful skills, retaining potential manpower. British tourists of the 1920s complained, especially about attached photographs and physical descriptions, which they considered led to a &quot;nasty dehumanisation “ . </li></ul><ul><li>In 1920, the  League of Nations  held a conference on passports and through tickets. The United Nations held a travel conference in 1963, but passport guidelines did not result from it. Passport standardisation came about in 1980, under the auspices of the  International Civil Aviation Organisation  (ICAO). </li></ul>Source:
  35. Progress during the 20 th century <ul><li>3 factors that promoted tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Publications </li></ul><ul><li>1960 Let's Go Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism organizations </li></ul><ul><li>1968 creation of TUI (Touristik Union International) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism law </li></ul><ul><li>1936 Businesses accept work with holidays =more free time </li></ul><ul><li>Legal acts that European states accept holidays </li></ul><ul><li>1925- Italy </li></ul><ul><li>1922- Russia </li></ul><ul><li>1936- France </li></ul><ul><li>1910- Austria </li></ul>Source: wikipedia
  36. Growth in the Airline industry <ul><li>Pan American World Airways , commonly known as  Pan Am , was the principal  US  international  air carrier from the late 1920s until its collapse on December 4, 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>The overall trend of demand has been consistently increasing. In the 1950s and 1960s, annual growth rates of 15% or more were common. Annual growth of 5-6% persisted through the 1980s and 1990s.  </li></ul><ul><li>As in many mature industries, consolidation is a trend. Airline groupings may consist of limited bilateral partnerships, long-term, multi-faceted alliances between carriers, equity arrangements,  mergers , or  takeovers . </li></ul>Source:
  37. Factors that affected travel <ul><li>Income increase to industrial areas </li></ul><ul><li>More of free time </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of the Auto industry </li></ul><ul><li>Charter flights </li></ul><ul><li>ICT role </li></ul><ul><li>More tourism products- more incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Demand role in accommodation- hotels </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of tour operators </li></ul><ul><li>Peace in Europe </li></ul>Source: Varvaressos, in Greek, pic from Santorini
  38. 7. Traveling in the web era CRS Systems and the 2.0 revolution
  39. Sabre -Travelocity <ul><li>Travel suppliers provide information that is retrieved from the  Sabre®  GDS by over 55,000 travel agency locations, travel websites, corporations, and government agencies, who are responsible for tens of millions of bookings around the world each year. </li></ul><ul><li>1960  The  Sabre®  system is created by  American Airlines , marking the first real-time business application of computer technology. </li></ul><ul><li>1985   Sabre  establishes its first European presence. </li></ul><ul><li>2005  Launch of dynamic packaging in North America ( CustomTrip ). </li></ul><ul><li>2006   Expedia  and  Priceline  choose  Sabre  as a major partner. </li></ul><ul><li>2007  Sabre   Rate Assured ™ hotel program is launched. </li></ul><ul><li>Travelocity  is an online  travel agency  and wholly owned  subsidiary  of  Sabre Holdings  Corporation, which was a publicly traded company until taken  private by  Silver Lake Partners  and  Texas Pacific Group  in March 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Travelocity was launched on March 12, 1996 by Sabre Interactive, a division of AMR Corporation, which at the time owned the Sabre Reservations System and American Airlines. </li></ul>Source:
  40. Galileo –Amadeus- Worldspan <ul><li>Certainly travel technology was born on the coat-tails of the airline industry's use of automation and their need to extend this out to the  travel agency partners. It should be kept in mind that there was an online world before the advent of the  world wide web  in the form of private and commercial online services, via  packet switched network  using  X.25 . Travel technology played a significant role in the so-called  dot-com boom  and bust, circa 1997-2001. </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo  is a  computer reservations system  (CRS) owned by  Travelport . As of 2002, it had a 26.4% share of worldwide CRS airline bookings. Galileo was founded in 1971 by  United Airlines  under the name Apollo Reservation System. </li></ul><ul><li>More systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amadeus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldspan </li></ul></ul>Source:
  41. e-ticket Source: wikipedia Travel 2.0 , was used as early as December 2003 on a posting on the Planeta Web 2.0 Discussion Forum and is an offshoot of the  Web 2.0  phenomenon. Like many other industries, the online  travel industry  is currently in transition, adapting to new technologies and trends available on the  Internet . An  electronic ticket  or  e-ticket  is used to represent the purchase of a seat on a passenger  airline , usually through a  website  or  by telephone  although purchase through airline ticket offices or travel agencies can also get you an e-ticket.
  42. 8. Today (or just yesterday…) e-, Mass, Social, Global but differentiated 
  43. Global events <ul><li>Originally, the  ancient Olympic Games were held in  Olympia ,  Greece , from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD. Baron  Pierre de Coubertin  founded the  International Olympic Committee  (IOC) in 1894. The IOC has since become the governing body of the Olympic Movement, whose structure and actions are defined by the  Olympic Charter . </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Games after 1896 are a global event. They also unite athletes from all over the world. </li></ul>Source:
  44. E-management & e-decisions for destinations & travelers Source: google
  45. Cruise ships travel everywhere Source: google
  46. Unlimited travel options by air Source: google
  47. Travel goes social and mobile Source: google
  48. Some Conclusions <ul><li>Modern tourism industry was developed after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Main destinations are still in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>It is absolutely sure that internet will change mass tourism demand and supply </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism products and services are really difficult to manage, and also predict trends </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability is what destinations now need </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing role in web era is crucial </li></ul><ul><li>Rentiers are still out there </li></ul>
  49. And then what? <ul><li>Modern “rentiers” travel to private islands and space </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Demand will continue to increase BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Supply will have to be more targeted </li></ul><ul><li>The need for differentiation gets bigger </li></ul><ul><li>The need for quality in tourism service will be a prerequisite for those who want to have a sustainable product </li></ul><ul><li>Role of education in tourism NOW is a must </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons and need to travel remain the same for 2500 years  </li></ul>
  50. That’s it! So, WHERE will YOU travel next? Slideshow inspired, created and edited by Themis Papadimopoulos