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Lecture 2 impacts of tourism global dist


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Lecture 2 impacts of tourism global dist

  1. 1. TDM 458Ara PachmayerGlobal Distribution of Tourism
  2. 2. Global Regional Tourism Now• Middle East (-8%) and North Africa (-9%) were the onlysub-regions to record declines in arrivals in 2011. Why?• Europe was the fastest growing region in 2011• 2000-2010– Middle East Growth at 9.6% a year (declining in 2011)– Central America at 6.2% a year– Asia at about 6.3% a year– Africa at 6.4% a year (declining in 2011)– N. America, Caribbean, Western Europe, Oceania allstagnation over decade.
  3. 3. World’s Top Tourism Destinations (2010)
  4. 4. World’s Top Tourism Destinations (2011)
  5. 5. World’s Top Tourism Earners (2010)
  6. 6. World’s Top Tourism Earners (2011)
  7. 7. World’s Top Tourism Spenders (2010)
  8. 8. World’s Top Tourism Spenders (2011)
  9. 9. Travel by Type of Tourism (2010)
  10. 10. Travel by Type of Tourism (2011)
  11. 11. Travel by Means of Transport (2010)
  12. 12. Travel by Means of Transport (2011)
  13. 13. Inbound Tourism
  14. 14. Growth of International Tourism• 1950 25 million• 1960 69 million• 1970 166 million• 1980 277 million• 1990 457 million• 2000 698 million• 2006 842 million• 2007 903 million• 2008 922 million• 2009 880 million• 2010 940 million• 2011 983 million
  15. 15. Current Trends In International Tourism• In 1950, the top 15 destinations absorbed98% of all international tourist arrivals• In 1970, the proportion was 75%• In 2007, this fell to 57%
  16. 16. International Tourist Arrivals, 1950-2030
  17. 17. International Tourist Arrivals by region (2010)
  18. 18. Negative Growth in 2009• Global economic crisis had a major impact ontourism in 2009• Tourism started to rebound in 2010 more so indeveloping countries• Trends?– 2011– 2015 and beyond?
  19. 19. Current Global Issues??• What global issues is the world facing today?• How do these impact tourism?
  20. 20. Current issues in Global Tourism• Safety and Security• Political Stability• Health• Swine Flu/Other outbreaks• Economic Recession• Pro-Poor Development/Equity• Ecological Sustainability
  21. 21. Current Issues in Global Tourism• New Markets and Products• New and Emerging Destinations• Education and Training• Cross-Border Cooperation - EU• Sovereignty• Migration• Climate Change• Technology and E-tourism
  22. 22. International Travel• Passports• Visas• Restrictions• Embassies and Consulates• International Relations
  23. 23. What are regions?• Areas that are linked together by somesocio-spatial, physical, or economicvariables
  24. 24. A Regional Approach
  25. 25. Lesson on Geography•
  26. 26. Tourism ImpactsTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
  27. 27. Impacts of Tourism• Benefits and Disadvantages– Economic– Social– Cultural– Environment
  28. 28. Benefits of Tourism - Economic• Provides employment opportunities• Generates foreign exchange• Increases personal income & GNP• Can be built on existing infrastructure• Develops new infrastructure that will also stimulatelocal commerce and industry
  29. 29. Benefits of Tourism - Economic• Can be developed with local products and resources• Diversifies the economy– So economies are less vulnerable to recessions, etc.• Tends to be compatible with other economic activities• Spreads development• High multiplier impact• Increases governmental revenues– Hotel taxes– Bed taxes– which typically only the tourist will pay
  30. 30. Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic• Results in high “leakage” – money leaving the economy• Creates difficulties of seasonality– Many destinations have off season where businesses close, etc.• Causes inflation– Prices may increase for residents• Can result in unbalanced economic development• Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes
  31. 31. Benefits of Tourism - Social• Broadens educational and cultural horizons• Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improvedstandards of living• Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may beused by a local population
  32. 32. Disadvantages of Tourism - Social• Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts– Popener – image of the Pope on a bottle opener below• Creates conflicts/misunderstandings in/with the hostsociety• Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, andtransportation problems• Day-to-day activities– Increased pace of life– Congestion and crowding– Competition for leisure resources– (beaches, restaurants)
  33. 33. All Cultures are Dynamic• Cultures change and evolve due to:– Internal forces– External forces• Acculturation Culture
  34. 34. Benefits of Tourism - Cultural• Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition• Visitor interest in local culture provides employment forartists, musicians and other performing artists enhancingcultural heritage• Breaks down language barriers, socio-cultural barriers,class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, andreligious barriers• Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination• Promotes a global community• Promotes international understanding and peace• Generate cultural understanding and awareness
  35. 35. Disadvantages of Tourism - CulturalMorality and social norms• Change sexual norms and behavior• Kissing in Public, prostitution, crime, shift indress and behavior to imitate tourists• Weaken family structures and shifts in familybehaviors• Divorce rate• Shift in importance of traditional religiouspractices• Which may become tourist attractions
  36. 36. • Justification for conservation and environmentalprotection– Tourism promotes conservation activities by convincingpoliticians, government officials and the general publicabout the importance of natural areas for generatingincome from tourism.• Direct economic support for conservation (some amountof revenue is directly spent on conservation)- User FeesBenefits of Tourism - Environmental
  37. 37. Disadvantages of Tourism - Environmental• Degrades the natural environment and creates pollution– Cars, buses, recreation vehicles• Energy (Energy consumption by tourists is four timeshigher than locals)• Flora– Alien seeds carried by tourists– Illegal collection of plants by tourists– Tramping by tourists– Tourism related erosion problems• Fauna– Wildlife dependency on tourists– Photographing by tourists– Chasing animals by tourists– Vehicular traffic disturbance
  38. 38. Disadvantages of Tourism - EnvironmentalBuying souvenirs(endangered plants andanimals products)
  39. 39. Disadvantages of Tourism - EnvironmentalLittering• NonbiodegradablewastesCollected trash from Mt EverestYear Oxygen Bottles Used Batteries Empty Fuel Canisters1995 140 200 1001998 157 520 216
  40. 40. Other impacts• Noise pollution• Landscape• Visual pollution (eg. graffiti)