Lecture 2 impacts of tourism global dist


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  • This is posted in Learning Module 1 under additional readings. We will refer to this throughout the semester so download and read it now! This is an annual publication and represents statistics from 2011 While it is mostly facts and figures which can sometime be boring, look closer! It provides a mirror of economic health for individuals and communities. So many people travel and we all are essentially purchasing the same product when we travel.
  • -Malaysia is a new entry to the list in 2010
  • In 2011 the top 5 destinations remain the same, just switch order a bit. Turkey and the UK switch. We might see the UK higher next year because . . . (remember the statistics are from the prior year) of the 2012 Olympics! -Mexico is still hanging on to their spot even with the impacts of cartel violence and swine flu on tourism Malaysia was a new entry in 2012 and remains in the top 10 but growth slowed quite a bit From 09 – 10 gained 1 million visitors From 10 – 11 gained only about 100,000 visitors
  • Some things to note . . Hong Kong shows up on the list even though it is a part of China. It is measured separately since it has a large tourism impact Australia - when using the US$ above there is an 18.6% change in tourism receipts but when you use local currency the change is much lower as the US$ is worth less.
  • Top 5 remain the same and earnings grew in all the top 5 for the 1 st time since 2008 Macao which is also a part of China edges out Turkey
  • In 2010 Germans spend the most overall! But Australians spend the most per capita. Why do you think this is? Some reasons might be Takes longer for Australians to get anywhere in the world so they may stay longer and therefore spend more. What others can you think of?
  • Stats are fairly the same for 2011, just the order and amounts change. Expenditures up for all countries except Japan – most likely from decrease in travel by Japanese due to earthquake and tsunami Again Australia still spends the most per capita
  • In 2010, just over half of all international tourist arrivals were motivated by leisure, recreation and holidays (51%) – a total of 458 million. Business travel accounted for some 15% (138 million), and 27% represented travel for other purposes, such as visiting friends and relatives (VFR), religious reasons/pilgrimages, health treatment, etc. (240 million). The purpose of visit for the remaining 7% of arrivals was not specified.
  • 2011 it’s the same! % are the same though the actual amounts change
  • Slightly more than half of arrivals travelled by air transport (51%) in 2010, while the remainder arrived in their destinations by surface transport (49%) – whether by road (41%), rail (2%) or over water (6%) (cruise, yachts, ferries, etc). Over time, the trend has been for air transport to grow at a faster pace than surface transport, so the share of air transport is gradually increasing. Though rail is becoming more popular due in part to rising fuel costs and increased concern for the environment
  • Again in 2011 it’s the same
  • 1990 – 400 million traveling internationally 2010 – Now more than double that and people are spending more too We can clearly see the dip related to the 200 recession too
  • This represents the number of people traveling Despite occasional shocks, international tourist arrivals have shown virtually uninterrupted growth – from 277 million in 1980 to 457 million in 1995, and 983 million in 2011. UNWTO announced that the world had seen the 1 billionth tourist recently
  • In 1950, the top 15 destinations absorbed 98% of all international tourist arrivals. These destinations were primarily the US, Caribbean and Western Europe In 1970, the proportion was 75% In 2007, this fell to 57% Another interesting trend has to do with emerging economies. In the past, emerging economy destinations have grown faster than advanced economy destinations, and this trend is set to continue in the future. Between 2010 and 2030, arrivals to emerging economies are expected to increase at double the pace of those to advanced economies. As a result, the market share of emerging economies has increased from 30% in 1980 to 47% in 2011, and is expected to reach 57% by 2030, equivalent to over one billion international tourist arrivals. So we continue to expand beyond traditional destionations
  • Future By 2030 estimated to be 1.8 billions people traveling internationally In the Middle East and Africa in particular massive amounts of growth are anticipated Their share is still smaller than Europe. However if the political situation in the Middle East were to stabilize that region could easily overtake arrivals in other countries due to the vast amount of tourism resources in the region
  • Long Haul travel is expected to increase due to better air transportation for one reason
  • For the first half of 2009, all regions, except Africa, experienced a decline in arrivals over the previous year. In the past, there has been a fairly steady annual growth of 4-6%. In 2008, however, there was only a 1.9% growth overall. Trends - depend on many factors and external influences Global Economic Crisis Instability and change in the Middle East and elsewhere For example process of democratic reforms in a place like Libya could lead to more travel in the future (once their infrastructure can support it). Also may lead to a decline in fuel prices which would have a global impact on travel.
  • We will spend a lot of time in course discussing global issues and how they are related to tourism. Look at the list here and the next page and try to come up with some examples of each!
  • Some things to note New markets China! More arrivals into China but also more Chinese traveling and they tend to be large spenders Niche tourism Adventure tourism Alternative or smaller scale tourism Sovereignty The Polar regions are a good example of this. Several countries make claims to the polar regions. These regions are becoming increasingly popular with tourists and sovereignty claims will impact the way tourism is developed, promoted and managed in this very fragile area. So there has to be agreement on how to manage and development tourism Migration – Why is this an issue? For VFR tourism (visiting friends and relatives). If people migrate to another country their family and friends might visit as tourists Climate Change – Maybe airplane flights will be less accessible and more regulated due to the large carbon footprint of airplanes which may impact climate change
  • These things also impact travel and tourism We will discuss more when we talk about the Political aspects of international tourism in a later lesson
  • We will approach this semester from a geo-political framework and consider regions of the world. Boundaries you see on maps don ’t always mean anything but a demarcation that was made ignoring, physical geography, culture, language, etc. So while we will look at individual countries throughout the semester we will take a regional approach exploring the world in sections.
  • Tourism is one of the largest industries in the world and accounts for a significant share of the world ’ s economy. The study of the impacts of tourism has been an area of research for many years, for good reason. The way in which tourism is developed and the actual act of tourism by the traveler can leave a significant impact on a destination and its people. The impacts of tourism are multi-dimensional and can be classified into economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts.
  • Bullet Point 4 – What does this mean? Typically infrastructure which supports tourism may already exist at a destination. Like an airport, or historical attractions or resources for residents (like Tempe Town Lake which attracts tourists but is for the use of residents.)
  • Bullet point 3 – so a public resource may be developed for tourists and it ends up being used by the local population too
  • Strangers in a community bring some impacts it could be both positive and negative Social contacts between two groups of people More people means more demand, longer lines at the store, more traffic on the road, and larger crowds at recreation and tourism facilities, more consumption of gas and water. Host, providers, and guest have interactions walking on the streets, stores, recreation facilities etc. Meeting different kind of people generates changes within people. This is called as social impacts These impacts could be simple to complex. Short-term (piercing) to long-term (family structure). Cultural impacts are the results of interaction between the tourists and the host or providers. It is change is the arts, artifacts, customs, rituals, and architecture.
  • Tourists walking with only Bikinis. Body exposure is considered as immoral, and offensive Kissing in public is not socially accepted When tourists kiss in public they will be embraced (turn around) Sex for money (Thailand) Money more important than religion (Lack of lama in the monasteries) Buddhists Lack of meaning of festivals.
  • - Tourism promotes conservation activities by convincing politicians, government officials and the general public about the importance of natural areas for generating income from tourism. Environmental awareness- For example, why should the tiger be protected. It kills people, kills livestock, scary to walk around and through the forest) Every year 5 people are killed by tigers. Many animals are killed. if environment is protected that will bring more tourists. Justification of protecting animals. If the tiger is protected, many tourists come to visit the tiger and this will generate local business and employment. Improve waste management-through providing money to keep the environment clean.
  • Adverse effects of tourism of tourism on environment Water contamination Untreated water released from tourists accommodations Oil spills Air Cars, buses, recreation vehicles Flora Alien seeds carried by tourists Illegal collection of plants by tourists Tramping by tourists Tourism related erosion problems Forest Destruction Energy (Energy consumption by tourists is four times higher than locals) Construction tourists facilities (timber used in a hotel is enough for 5 local houses) Careless use of fire (campfire, cigarettes…) Trees for anchoring boats Fauna Wildlife viewing tourists Photographing by tourists Chasing animals by tourists birds nests, babies Vehicular traffic disturbance Souvenirs of wildlife products Coastlines/Shorelines Constructing marinas, vacation homes, or related tourist facilities Removing shells or life-forms from the water
  • Adverse effects of tourism of tourism on environment Water contamination Untreated water released from tourists accommodations Oil spills Air Cars, buses, recreation vehicles Flora Alien seeds carried by tourists Illegal collection of plants by tourists Tramping by tourists Tourism related erosion problems Forest Destruction Energy (Energy consumption by tourists is four times higher than locals) Construction tourists facilities (timber used in a hotel is enough for 5 local houses) Careless use of fire (campfire, cigarettes…) Trees for anchoring boats Fauna Wildlife viewing tourists Photographing by tourists Chasing animals by tourists birds nests, babies Vehicular traffic disturbance Souvenirs of wildlife products Coastlines/Shorelines Constructing marinas, vacation homes, or related tourist facilities Removing shells or life-forms from the water
  • Lecture 2 impacts of tourism global dist

    1. 1. TDM 458Ara PachmayerGlobal Distribution of Tourism
    2. 2. Global Regional Tourism Now• Middle East (-8%) and North Africa (-9%) were the onlysub-regions to record declines in arrivals in 2011. Why?• Europe was the fastest growing region in 2011• 2000-2010– Middle East Growth at 9.6% a year (declining in 2011)– Central America at 6.2% a year– Asia at about 6.3% a year– Africa at 6.4% a year (declining in 2011)– N. America, Caribbean, Western Europe, Oceania allstagnation over decade.
    3. 3. World’s Top Tourism Destinations (2010)
    4. 4. World’s Top Tourism Destinations (2011)
    5. 5. World’s Top Tourism Earners (2010)
    6. 6. World’s Top Tourism Earners (2011)
    7. 7. World’s Top Tourism Spenders (2010)
    8. 8. World’s Top Tourism Spenders (2011)
    9. 9. Travel by Type of Tourism (2010)
    10. 10. Travel by Type of Tourism (2011)
    11. 11. Travel by Means of Transport (2010)
    12. 12. Travel by Means of Transport (2011)
    13. 13. Inbound Tourism
    14. 14. Growth of International Tourism• 1950 25 million• 1960 69 million• 1970 166 million• 1980 277 million• 1990 457 million• 2000 698 million• 2006 842 million• 2007 903 million• 2008 922 million• 2009 880 million• 2010 940 million• 2011 983 million
    15. 15. Current Trends In International Tourism• In 1950, the top 15 destinations absorbed98% of all international tourist arrivals• In 1970, the proportion was 75%• In 2007, this fell to 57%
    16. 16. International Tourist Arrivals, 1950-2030
    17. 17. International Tourist Arrivals by region (2010)
    18. 18. Negative Growth in 2009• Global economic crisis had a major impact ontourism in 2009• Tourism started to rebound in 2010 more so indeveloping countries• Trends?– 2011– 2015 and beyond?
    19. 19. Current Global Issues??• What global issues is the world facing today?• How do these impact tourism?
    20. 20. Current issues in Global Tourism• Safety and Security• Political Stability• Health• Swine Flu/Other outbreaks• Economic Recession• Pro-Poor Development/Equity• Ecological Sustainability
    21. 21. Current Issues in Global Tourism• New Markets and Products• New and Emerging Destinations• Education and Training• Cross-Border Cooperation - EU• Sovereignty• Migration• Climate Change• Technology and E-tourism
    22. 22. International Travel• Passports• Visas• Restrictions• Embassies and Consulates• International Relations
    23. 23. What are regions?• Areas that are linked together by somesocio-spatial, physical, or economicvariables
    24. 24. A Regional Approach
    25. 25. Lesson on Geography• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZ9alkKF3N
    26. 26. Tourism ImpactsTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
    27. 27. Impacts of Tourism• Benefits and Disadvantages– Economic– Social– Cultural– Environment
    28. 28. Benefits of Tourism - Economic• Provides employment opportunities• Generates foreign exchange• Increases personal income & GNP• Can be built on existing infrastructure• Develops new infrastructure that will also stimulatelocal commerce and industry
    29. 29. Benefits of Tourism - Economic• Can be developed with local products and resources• Diversifies the economy– So economies are less vulnerable to recessions, etc.• Tends to be compatible with other economic activities• Spreads development• High multiplier impact• Increases governmental revenues– Hotel taxes– Bed taxes– which typically only the tourist will pay
    30. 30. Disadvantages of Tourism - Economic• Results in high “leakage” – money leaving the economy• Creates difficulties of seasonality– Many destinations have off season where businesses close, etc.• Causes inflation– Prices may increase for residents• Can result in unbalanced economic development• Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes
    31. 31. Benefits of Tourism - Social• Broadens educational and cultural horizons• Improves quality of life - higher incomes and improvedstandards of living• Provides tourist and recreational facilities that may beused by a local population
    32. 32. Disadvantages of Tourism - Social• Commercializes culture, religion, and the arts– Popener – image of the Pope on a bottle opener below• Creates conflicts/misunderstandings in/with the hostsociety• Contributes to disease, economic fluctuation, andtransportation problems• Day-to-day activities– Increased pace of life– Congestion and crowding– Competition for leisure resources– (beaches, restaurants)
    33. 33. All Cultures are Dynamic• Cultures change and evolve due to:– Internal forces– External forces• Acculturation Culture
    34. 34. Benefits of Tourism - Cultural• Reinforces preservation of heritage and tradition• Visitor interest in local culture provides employment forartists, musicians and other performing artists enhancingcultural heritage• Breaks down language barriers, socio-cultural barriers,class barriers, racial barriers, political barriers, andreligious barriers• Creates a favorable worldwide image for a destination• Promotes a global community• Promotes international understanding and peace• Generate cultural understanding and awareness
    35. 35. Disadvantages of Tourism - CulturalMorality and social norms• Change sexual norms and behavior• Kissing in Public, prostitution, crime, shift indress and behavior to imitate tourists• Weaken family structures and shifts in familybehaviors• Divorce rate• Shift in importance of traditional religiouspractices• Which may become tourist attractions
    36. 36. • Justification for conservation and environmentalprotection– Tourism promotes conservation activities by convincingpoliticians, government officials and the general publicabout the importance of natural areas for generatingincome from tourism.• Direct economic support for conservation (some amountof revenue is directly spent on conservation)- User FeesBenefits of Tourism - Environmental
    37. 37. Disadvantages of Tourism - Environmental• Degrades the natural environment and creates pollution– Cars, buses, recreation vehicles• Energy (Energy consumption by tourists is four timeshigher than locals)• Flora– Alien seeds carried by tourists– Illegal collection of plants by tourists– Tramping by tourists– Tourism related erosion problems• Fauna– Wildlife dependency on tourists– Photographing by tourists– Chasing animals by tourists– Vehicular traffic disturbance
    38. 38. Disadvantages of Tourism - EnvironmentalBuying souvenirs(endangered plants andanimals products)
    39. 39. Disadvantages of Tourism - EnvironmentalLittering• NonbiodegradablewastesCollected trash from Mt EverestYear Oxygen Bottles Used Batteries Empty Fuel Canisters1995 140 200 1001998 157 520 216
    40. 40. Other impacts• Noise pollution• Landscape• Visual pollution (eg. graffiti)