Lecture 3 political context of international tourism
Political Context ofInternational TourismTDM 458Ara Pachmayer
GeopoliticsGeographic and Political factorsinfluencing a nation or regionAlso demography, economics, history
Pre-requisites forinternational tourism Diplomatic recognition, reciprocal relations Negotiate agreements ontrade, visas, commerce, transportation, consular rights Exchange consular and ambassadorialofficials Establish facilities and procedures for issuingpassports and visas
Types of DiplomaticRecognitionde jure - highest level, given to agovernment with legal franchise ormandate from its citizensde facto - lesser recognition, may betemporaryNo recognition - complete absence ofdiplomatic relationship (North Korea)
Consulates and Embassies In the US this falls under the Department ofState (DOS) US has embassies in major capitals of theworld Consulates are representative offices insmaller or secondary cities - MexicanEmbassy in DC but Mexican Consulate inPhoenix
Role of US Consular Offices Protect US citizens abroad Provide services for distressed US citizensabroad Promote US interests abroad Report accidents involving US civil aircraftabroad Report disasters involving US vessels Aircrafts Ships
Role of US Consular Officescont. Provide documentation for non-immigrants(tourists) visiting the US on a temporarybasis - issuing visas for visitors who needthem Work with other federal agencies such asDHS, DOT, DOA, FBI, INTERPOL, CIA, CDC,et.
Visa Agreements US visa policy is mostly an extension of itsimmigration policy Visa Agreements are negotiations between countries For example - Visa Waiver programsEstablished to promote inbound tourism to theUS in 1988 between US, UK and JapanTravel for 90 days or less for business orpleasure without a visa but with a validpassportExpanded to 22 countries in 1993More than 30 million had used the program by1995
Warning: Influence of Non-tourismPolicies/rules Customs and immigration policy – can facilitate orhinder international visitation Currency / exchange rate policies – directly affectsdestination cost competitiveness Foreign investment policy – can affect availability ofinvestment capital Taxation – affects costs and thus profitability Environmental policy – limits growth and access toattractive but sensitive areas Local zoning policy – can restrict or encourage specifictypes of tourism facility development
US Foreign PolicyCurrent Travel Warningshttp://travel.state.gov/
Mexico after DOS travelwarninghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kOTgtbDfnfQ&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzpsGaSxFNU&feature=relatedhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=voNbCP3I3oI
CIA World Factbookhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/provides information on the history,people, government, economy,geography, communications,transportation, military, and transnationalissues for 267 international localesInformation
Centers for Disease ControlTraveler’s Healthhttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/Health Information of over 200international destinationsCan impact tourism arrivals to adestination
World Tourism Organization(WTO) www.world-tourism.org Most widely recognized organization in tourism Established: 1925 Goals: Working to support the UN Millennium DevelopmentGoals Serves as a global forum Transfers tourism know-how Produces statistics and market research Developed tourism human resources Works to facilitate travel- pp, visa. Promotes sustainability (Culture, Environment) Regional offices-liaison with the government Special Projects Members:145 countries, seven territories and >350 Affiliate Membersrepresenting local government, tourism associations,educational institutions, private sector companies,including airlines, hotel groups and tour operators.
Tourism and the MillenniumDevelopment Goals End Poverty and Hunger * Universal Education Gender Equality * Child Health Maternal Health Combat HIV/AIDS Environmental Sustainability * Global Partnership *