INTRODUCTIONThe waste produced in the course of health-care activitiescarries a higher potential for infection and injury than anyother type of waste. Therefore, it is essential to have safeand reliable method for handling. Inadequate andinappropriate handling of health-care waste may haveserious public health consequences and a significant impacton the environment…Thus the appropriate management of health-care waste isthus crucial component of environmental health protection,and it should thus become an integral feature of health-careservices.
“Any solid, fluid or liquid waste, including its container & any intermediate product, which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immuzation of human beings or animals, inresearch pertaining there or in the production or testing of biological & the animal waste from slaughter houses or any other like establishments”
The institutions mainly involved in generation of Bio-Medicalwastes include:~Government hospitals~Nursing home~Physicians office/clinics.~Dentists office/clinics~Dispensaries.~Medical and research training center~Mortuaries.~Blood banks and Collection centers~Slaughter houses~Laboratories~Bio-technology institutes and production units.~Research organizations.All these Health care establishments generate wastes and are thereforecovered under Bio-Medical wastes[BMW].
The table shows us the classification of healthy care wastes & their examples:Waste category Description and examplesInfectious waste Waste suspected to contain pathogens .eg : laboratory cultures; waste from isolation wards; tissues(swabs)’materials or equipments which have been in contact with infected patients ; excretaAthalogical wastes Human tissues or fluid e.g. body parts ;blood and other body fluids; fetuses.Pharmaceutical wastes Waste containing pharmaceuticals; include waste, expired or no longer needed medicines and also bottles and boxes
Waste category Description and examplesGenotoxic wastes Wastes containing substances with genotoxic properties e.g. waste containing cytostatic drugs(often used in cancer treatments);genotoxic chemicals.Chemicals wastes Waste containing chemical substances e.g. laboratory regents, film developers, disinfectants that are of no use or expired, solventsWastes with high content of Batteries, brokenheavy metals thermometer, blood pressure gauges etc.
The table below gives us the brief idea about the categories of Bio-Medical Wastes types of wastes &treatment &disposable options under Rule 1998 Option Waste categories Treatment/ deep burialCategory No. Humans Anatomical Wastes (human Incineration/ deep burial1 Tissues, Organs, body parts)Category No. Animal Wastes (animal tissues, Incineration/ deep burial2 organs, body parts, bleeding parts, fluids & experimental animals used in research)Category No. Microbiology & Biotechnological Local autoclaving/ microwaving/ Incineration3 wastes (wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimens of microorganism, dishes, human & animal cell culture used in research works etc.)Category No. Waste sharps Disinfection(chemical4 (niddles, scalpels, blades, glasses’ treatment/autoclaving/Microwaving & syringes etc that may cause punctures mutilation & shredding. cuts. This include both used and unused sharps)
Category No. 5 Discarded medicines & Incineration, chemical treatment cytotoxic drugs. destruction and drug disposal in (waste comparing of secured land fills. outdated, contaminated or discarded medicinesCategory No. 6 Solid wastes Incineration , autoclaving / (items contaminated with Microwaving , mutilation blood, and fluid including shredding. cotton, dressing, beddings, other materials contaminated with blood)Category No. 7 Solid wastes Microwaving multiwaving (wastes generated from mutilation shredding, disinfection disposal items other than by chemical treatment sharps such as tubing, catheres , intravenous sets etc.)
• Came into force on 28th July, 1998.• Prescribed by ministry of environment & forests,under the Environment Protection Act of India.• This rule applies to those who generate, collect,receive, store, dispose, treat or handle bio medicalwaste in any manner.
The Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) like the Pune Municipal Corporation has outsourced theorganic and non-organic bio-medical waste to passco Environmental Solutions Private Limited.. Yashwant Rao Chavan Memorable hospital & D .Y . Patil hospital and research centre have registered them withthe Pimpri-Chinchwad Municipal Corporation and have been availing the common bio-medical waste treatmentfacility on a daily basis .Segregation is done at the source of generation by the users . Each patient area, whether in-patient department (IPD) and out-patient department (OPD), has been provided with bio-medical waste issystematically added to the respective colour- coded bags .Whereas YCMH is considered to be the collection centre ofthese wastes. All the labs, nursing homes, biotechnology institutes, research labs, blood banks, dispensaries etc,collect their and submit it to hospital waste management yard in YCMH where the collection of these wastes aredone on daily basis by a private company named Passco Environmental Solutions Private Limited. According toPassco there are 297 hospitals and nearly 1500 dispensaries and clinics under the jurisdiction of PCMC, which havebeen generating a large quantity of bio-medical waste everyday . The registered hospitals and clinics in PimpriChinchwad Generate 700 to 750 kgs bio-medical waste daily. Two mini-trucks from the company visit the hospitalsand clinics which are registered with the company every day and collect the bio-medical waste and transport it to theincinerator at the Yashwantrao Chavan Memorial Hospital in Pimpri for disposal
Every day it collects, segregates & disposes a massive 2,850skg bio-medical waste at 370 points, “Bio-medical wastedisposal facilities at both the places are equipped withincinerators & pollution-controlling wet venture scrubber,waste autoclave, waste shredder, gas monitoring device,effluent treatment plant & computerization.”“The company is very particular about processing this bio-medical waste within 48 hours of its collection. Since theyhave taken ISO certification, they have to maintain thenorms & standards. Even the ash left behind afterincinerating the waste in dumped safely at theRanjangaon.The steel surgical parts that cannot be burnt,too are dumped safely at the Ranjangaon bio-medicaldumping site.”
• Other patients attending the health care facilities.•Medical & paramedical person providing health care.• Persons involved in collecting & disposing the wastematerial.• Those involved in clearing the instruments, floorsurfaces &washing of glass wares & linen.• If potentially waste gets mixed with solid waste fromother activities the entire chain of workers/personsinvolved in solid disposal.