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Dr. PRAVEEN KUMAR
DODDAMANI
ASST. PROFESSOR
DEPT. OF MICROBIOLOGY
MEDICITI INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL
SCIENCES, Medchal , R.R.dist
Contents
Introduction
Definition
WHO statistics
Components
Hazards
Rules and penalties BMW 1998
Management
conclusion
INTRODUCTION
• Medical care – vital in our life and health.
• BMW -emerged as issue of concern world over.
• BMW real problem for
MAN, COMMUNITY,& ENVIRONMENT
• Safe scientific cost effective methods BMW
management – need of hour.
WASTES
Wastes
Solid waste
Liquid
Waste
Gaseous
Waste
• Household waste
• Industrial waste
• Biomedical waste or hospital waste
What is Bio-medical waste ??
Definition
Waste generated during the
diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or
production of biological products for
humans or animals (WHO)
• WHO estimates
85% of hospital waste is non-hazardous
10% is infectious
5% is non-infectious.
Non-Infectious
waste, 80%
Pathological
and Infectious
waste, 15%
Chemical and
Pharmaceutical
waste, 3%
Sharps, 1%
Radioactive,
Cytotoxic and
heavy
metals, 1%
Bio-Medical Wastes
WHO has estimated that
In year 2000
• injections with contaminated syringes caused:
• 21 million hepatitis B virus (HBV)
infections (32% of all new infections);
• Two million hepatitis C virus (HCV)
infections (40% of all new infections);
• 260 000 HIV infections (5% of all new)
Developed Countries- 1-5 kg/bed/day, with variations
among countries.
In India-
1-2 kg/bed/day with variation among
Govt. and Private establishments.
Approximately 506.74 tons/ day wastes generated
Out of which only 57% waste undergoes proper disposal
Biomedical waste Statistics
Sources of Bio-Medical Waste
Major Sources
Hospitals
Labs
Research centers
Animal research
Blood banks
Nursing homes
Mortuaries
Autopsy centers
Minor sources
 Clinics
 Dental clinics
 Home care
 Cosmetic clinics
 Paramedics
 Funeral services
 Institutions
WHO IS AT RISK??
Sanitation
workers
Medical &
Paramedical
staff
Patients &
attenders
7/28/2013 Biomedical Waste (BMW) Management 13
Public
Need of BMW Management in Hospitals???
Small amount of infectious waste generated during patient care
can make non-infectious to infectious
Hazardous health care
waste can result in
1. Infection
2. Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity
3. Chemical toxicity
4. Radioactivity hazards.
5. Physical injuries
6. Public sensitivity.
Infection
The infectious agents enter into the body
through
 Puncture
 Abrasion
 Cut in the skin
 Through mucous membranes
 By inhalation and ingestion.
Most Common Infections
1. Gastro enteric through faeces and/or vomit
e.g. Salmonella, Vibrio Cholera, Helminthes
Hepatitis A
2. Respiratory through inhaled secretions
e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Measles virus;
Streptococcus pneumoniae
3.Ocular infections through eye secretions
e.g. Herpes virus,
4. Skin infection through pus
e.g. Streptococcus spp ,
5. Meningitis through Cerebrospinal fluid
e.g. Neisseria meningitides
Most Common Infection Cont.
6. Blood borne diseases
• AIDS
• Septicaemia and bacteraemia
• Viral Hepatitis B & C
7. Hemorrhagic fevers through body fluids
• Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses
PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMW
ORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM
VIRUSES
HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A,C,
Arboviruses, Enteroviruses
AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis,
Infectious Hepatitis,
Dengue, Japanese
encephalitis, tick-borne
fevers, etc.
Infected needles, body
Fluids, Human excreta, soiled
linen, Blood, body fluids.
BACTERIA
Salmonella typhi,
Vibrio cholerae,
Clostridium Tetani,
Pseudomonas, Streptococcus
Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus
Wound infections,
septicemia, rheumatic
fever, endocarditis, skin
and soft tissue infections
Human excreta and
body fluid in landfills and
hospital wards, Sharps such as
needles, surgical blades in
hospital waste.
PARASITES
Wucheraria Bancrofti,
Plasmodium
Cutaneous leishmaniasis,
Kala Azar, Malaria
Human excreta, blood and
body fluids in poorly
managed sewage system of
hospitals.
Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity
• Irritant to skin and eyes
E.g. alkylating agent, intercalating agent
• Carcinogenic and Mutagenic
e.g. Secondary neoplasia due to chemotherapy
Chemical Toxicity
• Many drugs are hazardous
• May cause intoxication , burns, poisoning on
exposure
Radioactivity Hazards
Radioactive waste exposure may cause
headache, dizziness, vomiting, genotoxicity and tissue damage
Visual impact of the anatomical waste, recognizable body parts
Physical injuries
• Sharps
• Chemicals
• Explosive agents
Waste with high content
of heavy metals
Blood pressure guages 26
Gas cartridges
Gas cylinders
Aerosol
PRESSURISED
CONTAINERS
27
Waste Sharps eg: Needles
Human anatomical waste
Discarded medicines
Solid waste eg: cotton swabs
Blood bags found in the municipal waste stream in violation of rules for
such waste.
Hospital waste disposal
29
How did BMW come into Existence
• In the late 1980’s
– Items such as used syringes washed up on several East Coast
beaches USA
– Concern about HIV and HBV virus infection
– Lead to development of Biomedical Waste Management Law
in USA.
• However in India the seriousness about the management
came into lime light only after 1990’s.
LEGISLATION
• Recognizing the deadliest nature of the Bio-Medical
Waste, the Government and Pollution Control
Boards under the guidelines of Ministry of
Environment and Forests(MOEF).
• MOEF have promptly designed and issued
guidelines to the hospitals to ensure a proper and
safe disposal of bio-medical waste
• “BIO-MEDICAL WASTE Management & Handling
RULE 1998 came into effect.
• Provides uniform guidelines and code of practice for
Bio-medical waste management.
Biomedical Waste
Management and Handling Rules, 1998
[Amended in 2000]
• These rules apply to all persons who generate,
collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose
or handle bio-medical waste in any form. All
Institutions generating BMW must take all steps
to ensure that such waste is handled without any
adverse effect to human health and the
environment
PENALTIES AS PER RULES
• The PENALTIES are as specified in
Environment (Protection) Act 1986.
• Imprisonment for upto five years with fine
upto one lakh rupees, or both.
• In case the failure additional fine upto five
thousand rupees for every day.
Bio-Medical Waste Disposal Cycle
Common Facility
(Transportation, Treatment
And Disposal)
Legislation
(BMW Rule)
Implement ting Authority
Waste Generator
(Hospitals)
Bio-Medical Waste Flow Chart
In House Segregation
(Collection, Segregation Packing
in Color Coded Poly Bags)
Common Storage Point
At
Hospitals
Transportation
(Approved Special Vehicle)
Unloading and Temp
Storage at CBWTF
Treatment
(Incineration, Autoclaving
and Shredding)
Disposal
( Recycling & Landfill)
Waste Water
to ETP
Re Use
Generator
(HOSPITALS)
36
WASTE
CATEGORY
TYPE OF WASTE
TREATMENT AND
DISPOSAL OPTION
Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste (Human tissues, organs, body parts)
Incineration@ / deep
burial*
Category No. 2
Animal Waste
(Animal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, bleeding parts,
fluid, blood and experimental animals used in research, waste
generated by veterinary hospitals and colleges, discharge from
hospitals, animal houses)
Incineration@ / deep
burial*
Category No. 3
Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (Wastes from laboratory
cultures, stocks or specimen of live micro organisms or
attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell cultures used in
research and infectious agents from research and industrial
laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins and
devices used for transfer of cultures)
Local autoclaving/
microwaving /
incineration@
Categories of Biomedical Waste Schedule
as per WHO Standard
37
Category No. 4
Waste Sharps (Needles, syringes, scalpels,
blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and
cuts. This includes both used and unused
sharps)
Disinfecting (chemical
treatment@@ / autoclaving /
microwaving and mutilation /
shredding
Category No. 5
Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs
(Wastes comprising of outdated, contaminated
and discarded medicines)
Incineration@ / destruction and
drugs disposal in secured
landfills
Category No. 6
Soiled Waste (Items contaminated with body
fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster
casts, lines, bedding and other materials
contaminated with blood.)
Incineration@ / autoclaving /
microwaving
Category No. 7
Solid Waste (Waste generated from disposable
items other than the waste sharps such as
tubing, catheters, intravenous sets, etc.)
Disinfecting by chemical
treatment@@ / autoclaving /
microwaving and mutilation /
shredding# #
Categories of Biomedical Waste Schedule
as per WHO standards Cont….
38
Category No. 8
Liquid Waste (Waste generated from the
laboratory and washing, cleaning, house
keeping and disinfecting activities)
Disinfecting by chemical
treatment@@ and discharge
into drains
Category No. 9
Incineration Ash (Ash from incineration of
any biomedical waste)
Disposal in municipal landfill
Category No.10
Chemical Waste (Chemicals used in
production of biologicals, chemicals used
in disinfecting, as insecticides, etc.)
Chemical treatment @@ and
discharge into drains for liquids
and secured landfill for solids.
Categories of Biomedical Waste Schedule
as per WHO standards cont….
COLOR WASTE TREAT
Yellow Human & Animal anatomical waste / Micro-
biology waste and soiled
cotton/dressings/linen/beddings etc.
Incineration/DB/
Red Tubings, Catheters, IV sets. Autocl/microwav
/chemical
treatment
Blue /
White
Waste sharps
( Needles, Syringes, Scalpels, blades etc. )
Autocl/microwav
/chemical
treatment/destr
uction/shredding
Black Discarded medicines/cytotoxic drugs,
Incineration ash, Chemical waste.
Disposal in land
fields
2011
Awareness of BMW Management and treatment among HCW
Study subjects Total Aware (%)
Doctors 56 43 (76.8)
Interns 65 25(38.5)
Nurses 83 68(81.9)
Technicians 44 12(27.3)
Attenders 78 23(29.5)
House keeping staff 57 11(19.3)
Source:International Journal for Basic Medical Science
1. Survey of waste generated
2. reduction at source .
3. Segregation of hospital waste.
4. Collection & Categorization of waste.
5. Storage of waste.
6. Transportation of waste.
7. Treatment of waste.
If you are not measuring
it, you are not
managing it.
Source Reduction
• Source Reduction - ways to lessen the amount
of material
– Segregation - keeping noninfectious waste out of
the infectious waste stream
– Minimization - reduce or eliminate waste at the
source
– Engineering controls - methods to reduce quantity
of waste(smaller containers)
Steps to Manage Hazardous Wastes
before Disposal
1. Know what hazards
you have.
2. Purchase smallest
quantity needed, and
don’t purchase
hazardous materials if
safe alternative exists
**Use mercury-free thermometers
Steps to Manage Hazardous Wastes (cont..)
3. Limit use and access
to trained persons
with personal
protective gear
4. Use Engineering Controls such as
Ventilation, Hoods for Select Hazards
5. Get Rid of Unnecessary Stuff
• Don’t accumulate unneeded products
• Don’t let peroxides and oxidising agents turn
into bombs
5: Managing Medical Waste Slide 48
6. Label of Hazard Warnings
toxic
biohazard
inflammable
corrosiveRadiation
Gas bottle explosive
Health danger
7. Communicate about Work -place
Hazards
• Job description
• Posters on doors
• Labels on hazards
• Give feedback on use of PPE
and disposal in evaluation
• Role model safe use and
disposal
• Contact point who is
responsible
5: Managing Medical Waste Slide 50
LABEL FOR BIO-MEDICAL WASTE
CONTAINERS/BAGS
8. Recycle Products When Possible
5: Managing Medical Waste
Segregation of waste
At the point of generation
In a color coded leak-proof container
Container should bear 'Biohazard' symbol and
appropriate wording
Container should never be completely filled
Segregation of waste should be
observed strictly
To avoid mixing of general (non-infectious) waste
into infectious waste. Once mixed, becomes
infectious and should not be removed.
To reduce infectious waste
To decrease expenditure on disposal of infectious
waste
COLOR WASTE
Yellow Human & Animal anatomical waste / Micro-biology
waste and soiled cotton/dressings/linen/beddings etc.
Red Tubings, Catheters, IV sets.
Blue /
White
Waste sharps
( Needles, Syringes, Scalpels, blades etc. )
Black Discarded medicines/cytotoxic drugs,
Incineration ash, Chemical waste.
Microbiological waste
Autoclaving
Final disposal as a general waste- Black Bag
Wastes requiring pretreatment before disposal
WASTE
•Tubes used for serum separation, centrifugation of
samples, preparation of dilutions etc.
sample cups ,Tips , Caps.
Any other contaminated plastic wares
Sodium hypochlorite
Method: Chemical Disinfection
Pretreatment before disposal Cont…
Final Disposal- Blue bag
-Frequency of changing of Na hypochlorite solution-Daily
Who prepares the solution?
-Technical person. A trained housekeeping person can do
preparation under observation.
Disposal of liquid and solid
-Liquid: Pour into drain with running tap
- Solid: Blue bag
Yellow bag
Contaminated gloves; latex & plastic(Uncontaminated – general
waste)
Contaminated tissue /blotting papers
Contaminated cotton
Human tissue/organs
White sharp disposal container
Broken glass, pipettes, broken test tubes,
 Needles, razor blade, scalpel
Waste disposed without pretreatment
Attention !!
Do not allow the containers to overfill
Arrange containers near the operation area at accessible
distance
Ensure that the disposed item is inside the container and
not hanging at the edge
PACKAGING & LABELING:
• Bags 3/4th filled should be tied,
• be supervised Name of Ward,
• Date of Packaging,
• Destination (Treatment Site)
• Bio Hazard/Cytotoxic Symbol
• Weighing & Recording
• Separate Register and Weighing Machine
• Daily recording is mandatory
Bad Practice -Storage:
Collection, transportation, storage (within
the hospital)
• Waste collected and stored in thick non-corrosive disposable
plastic bags or containers of specific colour code.
• The waste in bags or containers should be stored in a
separate area, room, or building of a size appropriate to the
quantities of waste produced and the frequency of
collection.
• Health care waste should be transported within the hospital
or other facility by means of hand cart wheeled trolley .
LABEL FOR TRANSPORT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE
CONTAINERS/BAGS
• Date of generation ...................
• Waste category No ........
• Waste class……………
• Waste description………….
• Sender's Name & Address………..
Contact Person…………..
• Receiver's Name & Address………
Contact Person…………..
• In case of emergency please contact,
Name & address……….
Label shall be non-washable and prominently visible.
TRANSPORTATION
• Transportation of BMW can be divided into
internal and external transportation.
• INTERNAL: it is for yellow ,red ,blue and white
bags.
• EXTERNAL: it is for the general waste collected in
the black coloured plastic bags.
Safe Transportation
REGISTERED, AUTHORIZED, BMW TRANSPORTERS
Do you have a bio-spill kit?
 Container of undiluted household bleach
 Several pairs of gloves
 Safety glasses
 Absorbent material
 Biohazardous waste (autoclave) bags
 Dust pan & scoop or tongs for broken glass
Place in a labeled bag or bucket and keep in areas where
biohazards are used
DISPOSAL METHODS OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTES
• Incineration
• Chemical disinfection
• Inertisation
• Autoclave
• Encapsulation
• Microwave
• Shredder
• Plasma pyrolysis
• Deep burial
• G.J multiclave Ltd is external agency managing final
disposal in this zone.
BMW RULES 2011 v/s 1998
2011 1998
Every occupier generating BMW,
irrespective of the quantum of wastes
comes under the BMW Rules and
requires to obtain authorisation
Occupiers with more than 1000 beds
required to obtain authorisation
Duties of the operator listed Operator duties absent
Categories of Biomedical Waste
reduced to Eight
Biomedical waste divided in ten
categories
Treatment and disposal of BMW
made mandatory for all the HCEs
Rules restricted to HCEs with more
than 1000 beds
A format for annual report appended
with the Rules
No format for Annual Report
ACCIDENT REPORTING
• 1. Date and time of accident:
• 2. Sequence of events leading to accident
• 3. The waste involved in accident :
• 4. Assessment of the effects of the
accidents on human health and the
environment,.
• 5. Emergency measures taken
• 6. Steps taken to alleviate the effects of
accidents
• 7. Steps taken to prevent the recurrence of
such an accident
ANNUAL REPORT
• To be submitted to the prescribed authority by 31
January every year
• Name of the occupier with Address
• Categories of waste generated and Quantity
[monthly average] basis:
• Name of treatment facility with Address
• Category-wise quantity of waste treated
• Mode of treatment with details:
• Any other information
STAFF SAFETY
• Proper training
• Personal protective clothing and equipment
• Immunization
• Post-exposure prophylaxis
• Medical surveillance
• Personal hygiene
Responsibility
Infection control is everyone's business.
You are not only protecting yourself, but
also those around you
Conclusion
 Thus refuse disposal cannot be solved without public
education.
 Individual participation is required.
 Municipality and government should pay importance to
disposal of waste economically.
 Thus educating and motivating oneself first is important
and then preach others about it.
 PPE does not replace proper procedures and techniques,
consider all as hazard.
Our’s is a
Beautiful Planet…Let us save together…
Lets Make This World A Better Place to Live in.
THANK YOU
• References:
• MOEF guidelines INDIA
• BMW(management & handling) RULES 1998
• WHO guidelines & CDC guidelines
• Current world environment journal-Need for
BMW management system vol 7,2012.

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Biomedical waste management dr.praveen doddamani

  • 1. Dr. PRAVEEN KUMAR DODDAMANI ASST. PROFESSOR DEPT. OF MICROBIOLOGY MEDICITI INSTITUTE OF MEDICAL SCIENCES, Medchal , R.R.dist
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Medical care – vital in our life and health. • BMW -emerged as issue of concern world over. • BMW real problem for MAN, COMMUNITY,& ENVIRONMENT • Safe scientific cost effective methods BMW management – need of hour.
  • 4. WASTES Wastes Solid waste Liquid Waste Gaseous Waste • Household waste • Industrial waste • Biomedical waste or hospital waste
  • 5. What is Bio-medical waste ?? Definition Waste generated during the diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or production of biological products for humans or animals (WHO)
  • 6.
  • 7. • WHO estimates 85% of hospital waste is non-hazardous 10% is infectious 5% is non-infectious.
  • 8. Non-Infectious waste, 80% Pathological and Infectious waste, 15% Chemical and Pharmaceutical waste, 3% Sharps, 1% Radioactive, Cytotoxic and heavy metals, 1% Bio-Medical Wastes
  • 9. WHO has estimated that In year 2000 • injections with contaminated syringes caused: • 21 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (32% of all new infections); • Two million hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (40% of all new infections); • 260 000 HIV infections (5% of all new)
  • 10. Developed Countries- 1-5 kg/bed/day, with variations among countries. In India- 1-2 kg/bed/day with variation among Govt. and Private establishments. Approximately 506.74 tons/ day wastes generated Out of which only 57% waste undergoes proper disposal Biomedical waste Statistics
  • 11. Sources of Bio-Medical Waste Major Sources Hospitals Labs Research centers Animal research Blood banks Nursing homes Mortuaries Autopsy centers Minor sources  Clinics  Dental clinics  Home care  Cosmetic clinics  Paramedics  Funeral services  Institutions
  • 12.
  • 13. WHO IS AT RISK?? Sanitation workers Medical & Paramedical staff Patients & attenders 7/28/2013 Biomedical Waste (BMW) Management 13 Public
  • 14. Need of BMW Management in Hospitals???
  • 15. Small amount of infectious waste generated during patient care can make non-infectious to infectious
  • 16.
  • 17. Hazardous health care waste can result in 1. Infection 2. Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity 3. Chemical toxicity 4. Radioactivity hazards. 5. Physical injuries 6. Public sensitivity.
  • 18. Infection The infectious agents enter into the body through  Puncture  Abrasion  Cut in the skin  Through mucous membranes  By inhalation and ingestion.
  • 19. Most Common Infections 1. Gastro enteric through faeces and/or vomit e.g. Salmonella, Vibrio Cholera, Helminthes Hepatitis A 2. Respiratory through inhaled secretions e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Measles virus; Streptococcus pneumoniae 3.Ocular infections through eye secretions e.g. Herpes virus, 4. Skin infection through pus e.g. Streptococcus spp , 5. Meningitis through Cerebrospinal fluid e.g. Neisseria meningitides
  • 20. Most Common Infection Cont. 6. Blood borne diseases • AIDS • Septicaemia and bacteraemia • Viral Hepatitis B & C 7. Hemorrhagic fevers through body fluids • Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses
  • 21. PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMW ORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM VIRUSES HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A,C, Arboviruses, Enteroviruses AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis, Infectious Hepatitis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne fevers, etc. Infected needles, body Fluids, Human excreta, soiled linen, Blood, body fluids. BACTERIA Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium Tetani, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus Wound infections, septicemia, rheumatic fever, endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections Human excreta and body fluid in landfills and hospital wards, Sharps such as needles, surgical blades in hospital waste. PARASITES Wucheraria Bancrofti, Plasmodium Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Kala Azar, Malaria Human excreta, blood and body fluids in poorly managed sewage system of hospitals.
  • 22. Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity • Irritant to skin and eyes E.g. alkylating agent, intercalating agent • Carcinogenic and Mutagenic e.g. Secondary neoplasia due to chemotherapy
  • 23. Chemical Toxicity • Many drugs are hazardous • May cause intoxication , burns, poisoning on exposure
  • 24. Radioactivity Hazards Radioactive waste exposure may cause headache, dizziness, vomiting, genotoxicity and tissue damage Visual impact of the anatomical waste, recognizable body parts
  • 25. Physical injuries • Sharps • Chemicals • Explosive agents
  • 26. Waste with high content of heavy metals Blood pressure guages 26
  • 28. Waste Sharps eg: Needles Human anatomical waste Discarded medicines Solid waste eg: cotton swabs
  • 29. Blood bags found in the municipal waste stream in violation of rules for such waste. Hospital waste disposal 29
  • 30. How did BMW come into Existence • In the late 1980’s – Items such as used syringes washed up on several East Coast beaches USA – Concern about HIV and HBV virus infection – Lead to development of Biomedical Waste Management Law in USA. • However in India the seriousness about the management came into lime light only after 1990’s.
  • 31. LEGISLATION • Recognizing the deadliest nature of the Bio-Medical Waste, the Government and Pollution Control Boards under the guidelines of Ministry of Environment and Forests(MOEF). • MOEF have promptly designed and issued guidelines to the hospitals to ensure a proper and safe disposal of bio-medical waste • “BIO-MEDICAL WASTE Management & Handling RULE 1998 came into effect. • Provides uniform guidelines and code of practice for Bio-medical waste management.
  • 32. Biomedical Waste Management and Handling Rules, 1998 [Amended in 2000] • These rules apply to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose or handle bio-medical waste in any form. All Institutions generating BMW must take all steps to ensure that such waste is handled without any adverse effect to human health and the environment
  • 33. PENALTIES AS PER RULES • The PENALTIES are as specified in Environment (Protection) Act 1986. • Imprisonment for upto five years with fine upto one lakh rupees, or both. • In case the failure additional fine upto five thousand rupees for every day.
  • 34. Bio-Medical Waste Disposal Cycle Common Facility (Transportation, Treatment And Disposal) Legislation (BMW Rule) Implement ting Authority Waste Generator (Hospitals)
  • 35. Bio-Medical Waste Flow Chart In House Segregation (Collection, Segregation Packing in Color Coded Poly Bags) Common Storage Point At Hospitals Transportation (Approved Special Vehicle) Unloading and Temp Storage at CBWTF Treatment (Incineration, Autoclaving and Shredding) Disposal ( Recycling & Landfill) Waste Water to ETP Re Use Generator (HOSPITALS)
  • 36. 36 WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OPTION Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste (Human tissues, organs, body parts) Incineration@ / deep burial* Category No. 2 Animal Waste (Animal tissues, organs, body parts, carcasses, bleeding parts, fluid, blood and experimental animals used in research, waste generated by veterinary hospitals and colleges, discharge from hospitals, animal houses) Incineration@ / deep burial* Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste (Wastes from laboratory cultures, stocks or specimen of live micro organisms or attenuated vaccines, human and animal cell cultures used in research and infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories, wastes from production of biologicals, toxins and devices used for transfer of cultures) Local autoclaving/ microwaving / incineration@ Categories of Biomedical Waste Schedule as per WHO Standard
  • 37. 37 Category No. 4 Waste Sharps (Needles, syringes, scalpels, blades, glass, etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. This includes both used and unused sharps) Disinfecting (chemical treatment@@ / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding Category No. 5 Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic drugs (Wastes comprising of outdated, contaminated and discarded medicines) Incineration@ / destruction and drugs disposal in secured landfills Category No. 6 Soiled Waste (Items contaminated with body fluids including cotton, dressings, soiled plaster casts, lines, bedding and other materials contaminated with blood.) Incineration@ / autoclaving / microwaving Category No. 7 Solid Waste (Waste generated from disposable items other than the waste sharps such as tubing, catheters, intravenous sets, etc.) Disinfecting by chemical treatment@@ / autoclaving / microwaving and mutilation / shredding# # Categories of Biomedical Waste Schedule as per WHO standards Cont….
  • 38. 38 Category No. 8 Liquid Waste (Waste generated from the laboratory and washing, cleaning, house keeping and disinfecting activities) Disinfecting by chemical treatment@@ and discharge into drains Category No. 9 Incineration Ash (Ash from incineration of any biomedical waste) Disposal in municipal landfill Category No.10 Chemical Waste (Chemicals used in production of biologicals, chemicals used in disinfecting, as insecticides, etc.) Chemical treatment @@ and discharge into drains for liquids and secured landfill for solids. Categories of Biomedical Waste Schedule as per WHO standards cont….
  • 39. COLOR WASTE TREAT Yellow Human & Animal anatomical waste / Micro- biology waste and soiled cotton/dressings/linen/beddings etc. Incineration/DB/ Red Tubings, Catheters, IV sets. Autocl/microwav /chemical treatment Blue / White Waste sharps ( Needles, Syringes, Scalpels, blades etc. ) Autocl/microwav /chemical treatment/destr uction/shredding Black Discarded medicines/cytotoxic drugs, Incineration ash, Chemical waste. Disposal in land fields
  • 40. 2011
  • 41. Awareness of BMW Management and treatment among HCW Study subjects Total Aware (%) Doctors 56 43 (76.8) Interns 65 25(38.5) Nurses 83 68(81.9) Technicians 44 12(27.3) Attenders 78 23(29.5) House keeping staff 57 11(19.3) Source:International Journal for Basic Medical Science
  • 42. 1. Survey of waste generated 2. reduction at source . 3. Segregation of hospital waste. 4. Collection & Categorization of waste. 5. Storage of waste. 6. Transportation of waste. 7. Treatment of waste.
  • 43. If you are not measuring it, you are not managing it.
  • 44. Source Reduction • Source Reduction - ways to lessen the amount of material – Segregation - keeping noninfectious waste out of the infectious waste stream – Minimization - reduce or eliminate waste at the source – Engineering controls - methods to reduce quantity of waste(smaller containers)
  • 45. Steps to Manage Hazardous Wastes before Disposal 1. Know what hazards you have. 2. Purchase smallest quantity needed, and don’t purchase hazardous materials if safe alternative exists **Use mercury-free thermometers
  • 46. Steps to Manage Hazardous Wastes (cont..) 3. Limit use and access to trained persons with personal protective gear
  • 47. 4. Use Engineering Controls such as Ventilation, Hoods for Select Hazards
  • 48. 5. Get Rid of Unnecessary Stuff • Don’t accumulate unneeded products • Don’t let peroxides and oxidising agents turn into bombs 5: Managing Medical Waste Slide 48
  • 49. 6. Label of Hazard Warnings toxic biohazard inflammable corrosiveRadiation Gas bottle explosive Health danger
  • 50. 7. Communicate about Work -place Hazards • Job description • Posters on doors • Labels on hazards • Give feedback on use of PPE and disposal in evaluation • Role model safe use and disposal • Contact point who is responsible 5: Managing Medical Waste Slide 50
  • 51. LABEL FOR BIO-MEDICAL WASTE CONTAINERS/BAGS
  • 52. 8. Recycle Products When Possible 5: Managing Medical Waste
  • 53. Segregation of waste At the point of generation In a color coded leak-proof container Container should bear 'Biohazard' symbol and appropriate wording Container should never be completely filled
  • 54. Segregation of waste should be observed strictly To avoid mixing of general (non-infectious) waste into infectious waste. Once mixed, becomes infectious and should not be removed. To reduce infectious waste To decrease expenditure on disposal of infectious waste
  • 55. COLOR WASTE Yellow Human & Animal anatomical waste / Micro-biology waste and soiled cotton/dressings/linen/beddings etc. Red Tubings, Catheters, IV sets. Blue / White Waste sharps ( Needles, Syringes, Scalpels, blades etc. ) Black Discarded medicines/cytotoxic drugs, Incineration ash, Chemical waste.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58. Microbiological waste Autoclaving Final disposal as a general waste- Black Bag Wastes requiring pretreatment before disposal
  • 59. WASTE •Tubes used for serum separation, centrifugation of samples, preparation of dilutions etc. sample cups ,Tips , Caps. Any other contaminated plastic wares Sodium hypochlorite Method: Chemical Disinfection Pretreatment before disposal Cont… Final Disposal- Blue bag
  • 60. -Frequency of changing of Na hypochlorite solution-Daily Who prepares the solution? -Technical person. A trained housekeeping person can do preparation under observation. Disposal of liquid and solid -Liquid: Pour into drain with running tap - Solid: Blue bag
  • 61. Yellow bag Contaminated gloves; latex & plastic(Uncontaminated – general waste) Contaminated tissue /blotting papers Contaminated cotton Human tissue/organs White sharp disposal container Broken glass, pipettes, broken test tubes,  Needles, razor blade, scalpel Waste disposed without pretreatment
  • 62. Attention !! Do not allow the containers to overfill Arrange containers near the operation area at accessible distance Ensure that the disposed item is inside the container and not hanging at the edge
  • 63. PACKAGING & LABELING: • Bags 3/4th filled should be tied, • be supervised Name of Ward, • Date of Packaging, • Destination (Treatment Site) • Bio Hazard/Cytotoxic Symbol • Weighing & Recording • Separate Register and Weighing Machine • Daily recording is mandatory
  • 64.
  • 66. Collection, transportation, storage (within the hospital) • Waste collected and stored in thick non-corrosive disposable plastic bags or containers of specific colour code. • The waste in bags or containers should be stored in a separate area, room, or building of a size appropriate to the quantities of waste produced and the frequency of collection. • Health care waste should be transported within the hospital or other facility by means of hand cart wheeled trolley .
  • 67. LABEL FOR TRANSPORT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE CONTAINERS/BAGS • Date of generation ................... • Waste category No ........ • Waste class…………… • Waste description…………. • Sender's Name & Address……….. Contact Person………….. • Receiver's Name & Address……… Contact Person………….. • In case of emergency please contact, Name & address………. Label shall be non-washable and prominently visible.
  • 68. TRANSPORTATION • Transportation of BMW can be divided into internal and external transportation. • INTERNAL: it is for yellow ,red ,blue and white bags. • EXTERNAL: it is for the general waste collected in the black coloured plastic bags.
  • 69.
  • 71. Do you have a bio-spill kit?  Container of undiluted household bleach  Several pairs of gloves  Safety glasses  Absorbent material  Biohazardous waste (autoclave) bags  Dust pan & scoop or tongs for broken glass Place in a labeled bag or bucket and keep in areas where biohazards are used
  • 72. DISPOSAL METHODS OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTES • Incineration • Chemical disinfection • Inertisation • Autoclave • Encapsulation • Microwave • Shredder • Plasma pyrolysis • Deep burial • G.J multiclave Ltd is external agency managing final disposal in this zone.
  • 73. BMW RULES 2011 v/s 1998 2011 1998 Every occupier generating BMW, irrespective of the quantum of wastes comes under the BMW Rules and requires to obtain authorisation Occupiers with more than 1000 beds required to obtain authorisation Duties of the operator listed Operator duties absent Categories of Biomedical Waste reduced to Eight Biomedical waste divided in ten categories Treatment and disposal of BMW made mandatory for all the HCEs Rules restricted to HCEs with more than 1000 beds A format for annual report appended with the Rules No format for Annual Report
  • 74. ACCIDENT REPORTING • 1. Date and time of accident: • 2. Sequence of events leading to accident • 3. The waste involved in accident : • 4. Assessment of the effects of the accidents on human health and the environment,. • 5. Emergency measures taken • 6. Steps taken to alleviate the effects of accidents • 7. Steps taken to prevent the recurrence of such an accident
  • 75. ANNUAL REPORT • To be submitted to the prescribed authority by 31 January every year • Name of the occupier with Address • Categories of waste generated and Quantity [monthly average] basis: • Name of treatment facility with Address • Category-wise quantity of waste treated • Mode of treatment with details: • Any other information
  • 76. STAFF SAFETY • Proper training • Personal protective clothing and equipment • Immunization • Post-exposure prophylaxis • Medical surveillance • Personal hygiene
  • 77. Responsibility Infection control is everyone's business. You are not only protecting yourself, but also those around you
  • 78. Conclusion  Thus refuse disposal cannot be solved without public education.  Individual participation is required.  Municipality and government should pay importance to disposal of waste economically.  Thus educating and motivating oneself first is important and then preach others about it.  PPE does not replace proper procedures and techniques, consider all as hazard.
  • 79.
  • 80. Our’s is a Beautiful Planet…Let us save together… Lets Make This World A Better Place to Live in.
  • 81. THANK YOU • References: • MOEF guidelines INDIA • BMW(management & handling) RULES 1998 • WHO guidelines & CDC guidelines • Current world environment journal-Need for BMW management system vol 7,2012.

Editor's Notes

  1. Adequate medical supplies are already a problem for many developing countries like India, but disposal of biomedical waste is another, more serious matter
  2. Inadequate waste management thus will cause environmental pollution, unpleasant smell, growth and multiplication of vectors like insects, rodents and worms and may lead to the transmission of diseases like typhoid, cholera, hepatitis and AIDS through injuries from syringes and needles contaminated with human. Although there are no exhaustive documented studies on health hazards associated with poor hospital waste management, some indicators like progressive increase in hospital infection rate, increasing resistance to wide variety of antibiotics are the pointers to the way in which poor hospital waste management can contribute to the ill health plaguing the health care institutions.   In addition to health risks associated with the poor management of bio-medical waste, due consideration must be given to the impact on environment, especially to the risks of pollution of water, air and soil. Hence, collection and disposal of waste in the proper manner is of great importance as it can decrease directly and indirectly health risk to people, and damage to flora, fauna and the environment 
  3. Commonest infections, which can result from mishandling of hospital/health care waste, are gastro enteric through faeces and/or vomit (Salmonella, Shigella spp., Vibrio Cholera, Helminthes; Hepatitis A), Respiratory through inhaled secretions; saliva (Mycobacterium tuberculosis; measles virus; streptococcus pneumonae), Ocular infections through eye secretions (Herpes virus), Genital infections (Neisseria gonnorrhoeae; herpes virus), Skin infection through pus (Streptococcus spp.), meningitis through Cerebrospinal fluid (neisseria meningitides), AIDS through blood and sexual secretions (HIV), Haemorrhagic fevers through body fluids (Junin, Lassa, Ebola and Marburg viruses), Septicaemia and  bacteraemia through blood (staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, enterobacter, klebsiella and streptococcus) and Viral Hepatitis B & C through blood and body fluids (hepatitis B and C viruses).