Physiology CH 1 Lecture Notes

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Physiology CH 1 Lecture Notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
  2. 2. Anatomy - science of naming body parts Physiology - the functioning of body parts
  3. 3. Levels of Organization
  4. 4. Needs of Organisms 1. Water - chemical processes need water - transports substances - regulates body temperature 2. Food - provides energy - provides building materials - regulates chemical reactions
  5. 5. 3. Oxygen - releases energy from food - needed to drive metabolic processes 4. Heat - increased temp increases the speed of chemical reactions 5. Pressure - to breathe - for blood circulation
  6. 6. Metabolism – the sum total of all the chemical reactions in the body that break substances down and build them up - enables us to acquire and use energy to fuel processes
  7. 7. Homeostasis – the ability to maintain a constant internal environment
  8. 8. Negative Feedback - the deviation from the set point is corrected by reducing the action of the effectors
  9. 9. 3 Components of a Homeostatic Mechanism 1. Receptor - provides information about the stimulus 2. a set point - tells what a particular value should be 3. Effector - causes a response to alter conditions
  10. 10. Body Cavities Ventral thoracic abdominal pelvic abdominopelvic cranial vertebral Dorsal
  11. 13. Organ Systems 1. Integumentary - skin - covering for the body 2. Skeletal - bones - support 3. Muscular - muscles - movement - source of body heat
  12. 14. 4. Nervous - detects changes - senses - causes movement 5. Endocrine - glands that secrete hormones - alters metabolism 6. Digestive - breaks down food 7. Respiratory - exchange of O 2 & CO 2
  13. 15. 8. Cardiovascular - transportation of essential molecules throughout the body 9. Lymphatic - defend against disease 10. Urinary - removes waste from the blood 11. Reproductive - the process of producing offspring
  14. 16. Body Sections
  15. 17. Anatomical Terminology The Anatomical Position - person standing, facing forward, arms outstretched, palms outward Superior - above or closer to the head Inferior - below or farther from the head Anterior - front Posterior - back Medial - toward the middle Lateral - toward the side
  16. 18. Proximal - closer to the point of attachment Distal - further from the point of attachment Superficial (peripheral) - near the surface Deep - more internal
  17. 19. Some Medical & Applied Sciences Cardiology – deals with heart & heart disease Dermatology – study of skin & its diseases Endocrinology – study of hormones, their glands and its diseases Gastroenterology – study of stomach, intestines & its diseases Geriatrics – deals with the elderly and their medical problems
  18. 20. Gynecology – study of female reproductive system and its diseases Hematology – study of blood & its diseases Immunology – study of the body’s resistance to disease Neonatology – study of newborns & the treatment of their disorders Neurology – study of the nervous system & its disorders
  19. 21. Obstetrics – Branch of medicine dealing with with pregnancy & childbirth Oncology – study of cancers Ophthalmology – study of the eye & its diseases Orthopedics – branch of medicine dealing with the skeletal & muscular systems Pediatrics – branch of medicine dealing with children & their diseases
  20. 22. Pharmacology – study of drugs & their uses in treatment of disease Podiatry – study of the care & treatment of feet Psychiatry – branch of medicine dealing with the mind & its disorders Radiology – study of X-rays & their uses in treatment of diseases Urology – branch of medicine dealing with the urinary system, the male reproductive syste, & their diseases

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