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Physiology ch 7 lecture notes

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Physiology ch 7 lecture notes

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7: SKELETAL SYSTEM
  2. 2. diaphysis epiphysis epiphysis articular cartilage spongy bone compact bone medullary cavity red bone marrow yellow bone marrow periosteum
  3. 5. Types of Bones 1. Long bones - femur & humerus 2. Short bones - carpals & tarsals 3. Flat bones - cranial bones & ribs 4. Irregular bones - vertebrae & facial bones 5. Sesamoid bones - develop in tendons under high stress - patella
  4. 6. Functions of the Skeleton 1. Support & protection - legs, pelvis, and backbone support the body’s weight - protects vital organs such as the brain, spinal cord, heart, lungs 2. Body Movement - skeletal muscles pull on bone causing motion
  5. 7. 3. Storage of Inorganic Salts - primarily store calcium phosphate - maintains mineral balance of the blood 4. Blood Cell Formation - red bone marrow functions in the production of blood cells 5. Fat Storage - yellow bone marrow stores fat
  6. 8. Bone Cells 4 Types of Cells 1. Osteogenic Cells - unspecialized stem cell - develops into osteoblasts 2. Osteoblast - bone-forming cells - deposit a bony matrix around themselves and then become osteocytes
  7. 9. 3. Osteocyte - a bone cell 4. Osteoclast - bone-destroying cell that is made from monocytes
  8. 10. Bone Formation  ossification 2 Types 1. Intramembraneous Ossification - formation of broad, flat bones - osteoblasts deposits the bone matrix - osteocytes develop from the osteoblasts - outside area develop compact bone, inside area develop spongy bone
  9. 12. 2. Endochondrial Ossification - most bones formed this way - begins with a mass of hyaline cartilage - osteoblasts invade disintegrating cartilage - spongy bone is made - osteoblasts develop around primary ossification center - secondary ossification center appears - the epiphyseal plate is left between the 2 ossification centers
  10. 15. Bone Growth Growth in Length - occurs at the epiphyseal plate - cartilage cells divide, grow, die, then ossification occurs - bone gets longer - growing stops between ages of 18 - 25 - epiphyseal line is then seen
  11. 16. Growth in Thickness - ossification begins at the periosteum - endosteum folds around blood vessels to make tunnels - bone grows outward Bone growth movie
  12. 17. Bone Remodeling - osteoclasts are constantly carving out tunnels in old bones - osteoblasts rebuild the area of destruction - increased stress on bone increases remodeling (ie. exercising) - bone remodeling increases calcium intake making bones stronger
  13. 18. Factors affecting bone development, growth, & repair 1. Nutritional – Vit. D is needed for calcium absorption 2. Hormonal – Growth Hormone (GH) is needed for bones to grow in length & sex hormones stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates 3. Exercise – putting stress on bones stimulates bone tissue to thicken and strengthen
  14. 19. Osteoporosis - bones to become brittle and weak - cause is unknown, but bone remodeling is disrupted - the more bone you have by the age of 30, the less likely you will suffer from osteoporosis
  15. 20. Joints  place where 2 or more bones meet 3 Types a) immoveable - bones separated by thin connective tissue - ie. sutures in the skull
  16. 21. b) Slightly moveable - connected by fibrocartilage or ligaments - ie. vertebrae c) Synovial (freely moveable) - held together by a tube-like capsule composed of ligaments and synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid
  17. 22. 6 Types 1. Ball & Socket - widest range of motion - ie. shoulder and hip 2. Condyloid - ie. between metacarpals & phalanges
  18. 23. 3. Gliding - bones slide past each other - ie. wrist and ankles 4. Hinge - ie. elbow & fingers
  19. 24. 5. Pivot - rotational motion - ie. radius & ulna 6. Saddle - ie. thumb
  20. 25. Types of Motion 1. Flexion - ie. bending an arm 2. Extension - ie. extending an arm 3. Rotation - ie. turning your head 4. Abduction - ie. drawing away from the body 5. Adduction - ie. drawing toward the body
  21. 26. Types of Bone Fractures 1. Greenstick Fracture - an incomplete break on the convex bend of a bone 2. Fissured Fracture - an incomplete longitudinal break
  22. 27. 3. Comminuted Fracture - a complete break with fragments of bone 4. Transverse Fracture - a complete break at a right angle to the bone’s axis
  23. 28. 5. Oblique Fracture - a break with a curved or sloped pattern 6. Spiral Fracture - caused by a twisting of a bone

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