Dl141 chapt01 lecture

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Chapter 1 - The Human Organism Review

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  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display
  • Dl141 chapt01 lecture

    1. 1. Chapter 1 The Human Organism 1-
    2. 2. Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Anatomy : scientific discipline that investigates the body’s structure </li></ul><ul><li>Physiology : scientific investigation of the processes or functions of living things </li></ul>1-
    3. 3. Topics of Anatomy <ul><li>Gross or macroscopic : structures examined without a microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional : studied area by area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic : studied system by system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface : external form and relation to deeper structures as x-ray in anatomic imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microscopic : structures seen with the microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytology : cellular anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Histology : study of tissues </li></ul></ul>1-
    4. 4. Topics of Physiology <ul><li>Reveals dynamic nature of living things </li></ul><ul><li>Considers operations of specific organ systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell physiology : examines processes in cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurophysiology : focuses on the nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular : the heart and blood vessels </li></ul></ul>1- Subjects That Encompass Both Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Pathology : structural and functional changes caused by disease </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise Physiology : changes in structure and function caused by exercise </li></ul>
    5. 5. Structural and Functional Organizations <ul><li>Chemical : interaction of atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Cell : structural and functional unit of living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue : group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them </li></ul>1- Organ- one or more tissues functioning together Organ System - group of organs functioning together Organism - any living thing
    6. 6. Eleven Organ Systems of the Body <ul><li>“ RUN MRS. LIDEC” (mnemonic device) </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory – breathing, O2, CO2 exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary – removes waste </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous – regulatory, electrical impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular – movement </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive – continues the species </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal – support/protection </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic – immune/disease protection </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary – protection </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive – mechanical/chemical processing, nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine – regulatory, hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular – transport – nutrients, wastes, hormones </li></ul>
    7. 7. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    8. 8. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    9. 9. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    10. 10. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    11. 11. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    12. 12. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    13. 13. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    14. 14. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    15. 15. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C’
    16. 16. Organ Systems of the Body (cont.) 1- ‘ R U N M R S L I D E C ’
    17. 17. Knowledge of the structure of body parts helps us to understand their function. Which of the following is an accurate example of that principle?  A. The basic structural unit of the body is the cell. B. The internal environment of the body is maintained in a relatively stable condition. C. Moveable joints allow us to bend our fingers to perform many different actions. D. Each tissue type is composed of cells that have a similar structure and function. E. Negative feedback is not homeostatic. C. Moveable joints allow us to bend our fingers to perform many different actions.
    18. 18. Which of the following systems carries necessary compounds like oxygen and nutrients throughout the body?  A. nervous B. cardiovascular C. urinary D. lymphatic E. respiratory B. cardiovascular The integumentary system   A. regulates body temperature. B. breaks down food into small particles for absorption. C. controls intellectual functions. D. produces body movements. E. coordinates and integrates body function. A. regulates body temperature.
    19. 19. Characteristics of Life <ul><li>1. Organization : condition in which there are specific relationships and functions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Metabolism : all chemical reactions of the body </li></ul><ul><li>3. Responsiveness : ability to sense changes and adjust </li></ul><ul><li>4. Growth : increase in size and/or number of cells </li></ul><ul><li>5. Development : changes in an organism over time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiation : change from general to specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphogenesis : change in shape of tissues, organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>6. Reproduction : new cells or new organisms </li></ul>1-
    20. 20. 1.5 Homeostasis <ul><li>Values of variables fluctuate </li></ul><ul><li>around the set point to establish a normal range of values. </li></ul><ul><li>Set point : the ideal normal value of a variable. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the set point for body temperature? </li></ul>1-
    21. 21. Feedback Systems <ul><li>Two types: negative and positive </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptor : monitors the value of some variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control center : establishes the set point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effector : can change the value of the variable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulus : deviation from the set point; detected by the receptor </li></ul><ul><li>Response : produced by the effector </li></ul>1-
    22. 22. Negative Feedback 1-
    23. 23. Example of Negative Feedback 1-
    24. 24. Changes in B.P. During Exercise 1-
    25. 25. Positive Feedback <ul><li>When a deviation occurs, the response is to make the deviation greater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual in normal, healthy individuals, leads away from homeostasis and can result in death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of normal positive feedback : childbirth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example of harmful positive feedback: after hemorrhage, blood pressure drops and the heart’s ability to pump blood decreases </li></ul></ul>1-
    26. 26. 1- Please study the following slides to prepare you for lab. However, comprehensive recall of anatomical terms will be presented on your review quiz and lecture exam.
    27. 27. Terminology and Body Plan <ul><li>Anatomical Position </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body erect, face forward, feet together, palms face forward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Body Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supine : lying face upward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone : lying face downward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directional Terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior (Cephalic) vs. Inferior (Caudal) toward or away from the head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial vs. Lateral relative to the midline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal vs. Distal used to describe linear structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial vs. Deep relative to the surface of the body </li></ul></ul>1-
    28. 28. Terminology and Body Plan (cont.) <ul><li>Directional Terms (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior (Ventral) vs. Posterior (Dorsal). Anterior is forward; posterior is toward the back. </li></ul></ul>1-
    29. 29. 1-
    30. 30. Body Parts and Regions 1-
    31. 31. Body Parts and Regions 1-
    32. 32. Abdominal Subdivisions 1-
    33. 33. Planes <ul><li>Median (through the midline) and Sagittal (same plane, but to the left or right of median </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal or Coronal divides body into anterior and posterior sections </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse / Cross divides body into superior and inferior sections </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique : Other than at a right angle </li></ul>1-
    34. 34. Planes Through an Organ <ul><li>Longitudinal : cut along the length of an organ </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse/Cross : cut at right angle to length of the organ </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique : cut at any but a right angle </li></ul>1-
    35. 35. Body Cavities <ul><li>Diaphragm : divides body cavity into thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. </li></ul><ul><li>Mediastinum : contains all structures of the thoracic cavity except the lungs </li></ul>1-
    36. 36. Serous Membranes <ul><li>Cover the organs of trunk cavities and line the cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Fist represents an organ </li></ul><ul><li>Inner balloon wall represents visceral serous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Outer balloon wall represents parietal serous membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Cavity between two membranes filled with lubricating serous fluid that is produced by the membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation of the serous membranes </li></ul>1-
    37. 37. Serous Membranes: Named for Their Specific Cavities and Organs <ul><ul><li>Pericardium refers to heart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleura refers to lungs and thoracic cavity </li></ul></ul>1- <ul><ul><li>Peritoneum refers to abdominopelvic cavity </li></ul></ul>

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