CHAPTER 14: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
Lymphatic Pathways 1. Lymphatic capillaries <ul><li>small closed-ended tubes </li></ul><ul><li>1 cell layer thick </li></u...
2. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>similar to veins – have valves </li></ul><ul><li>lead to lymph nodes & lymph trunks </li></ul>
3. Lymphatic Trunks <ul><li>collects lymph from lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><li>lead to collecting ducts </li></ul><ul...
 
 
Tissue Fluid & Lymph <ul><li>Lymph is tissue fluid that has entered </li></ul><ul><li>the lymphatic capillaries </li></ul>...
Movement of Lymph <ul><li>controlled by muscular activity </li></ul><ul><li>squeezing action of skeletal muscles </li></ul...
Lymph Node <ul><li>contains many lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>important against invasion by  </li></ul><ul><li>microorgan...
 
Functions of Lymph Nodes - mature lymphocytes - contain phagocytic cells (macrophages)      eat foreign  substances
 
Thymus - divided up into smaller lobules <ul><li>contain lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>   mature ones (T-lymphocytes or T...
Spleen <ul><li>largest lymphatic organ </li></ul><ul><li>acts like a large lymph node only filled </li></ul><ul><li>with b...
Body Defenses Against Infection Antigen  – any foreign substance in the   body Pathogen  – any foreign substance that    c...
Nonspecific Resistance 1. Species Resistance - a species may be naturally resistant   to a disease that may affect other  ...
3. Chemical Barriers - enzymes that destroy pathogens - ex. pepsin in stomach  lysozyme in tears and mucous -  interferon ...
4. Natural Killer (NK) Cells - defend against viruses and cancer    cells by secreting  perforins  that splits   those cel...
6. Phagocytosis - mostly carried out by  neutrophils  and    monocytes    develop into macrophages 7. Fever - elevated bo...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Specific Resistance – Immunity    resistance to specific foreign agents Origin of Lymphocytes - originate in red bone mar...
Functions of Lymphocytes - T-cells can attach to antigens directly    called  cell-mediated immunity - T-cells provide de...
 
Types of Antibodies Immunoglobulins    secreted by B-cells 5 TYPES 1. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) - can digest cell membranes ...
3. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - found in blood plasma - responds to antigens in foods - responds to bacteria - anti-A and anti...
Types of Immunity 1. Naturally Acquired Active Immunity - immune because of having the disease 2. Artificially Acquired Ac...
Allergic Reactions 1. Delayed Reaction Allergy - results from repeated exposure to skin due to chemical contact - T-cells ...
2. Immediate Reaction Allergy - involves activation of B-cells - antigens are called  allergens - IgE causes basophils to ...
Transplantation & Tissue Rejection - a transplanted organ is from someone else - body recognizes it as a non-self substanc...
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  • Hookworm
  • Babeosis – microscopic parasite infecting red blood cells Asymtomatic to lethal
  • Physiology CH 14 lecture notes

    1. 1. CHAPTER 14: LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    2. 2. Lymphatic Pathways 1. Lymphatic capillaries <ul><li>small closed-ended tubes </li></ul><ul><li>1 cell layer thick </li></ul><ul><li>fluid inside is called lymph </li></ul>
    3. 3. 2. Lymphatic Vessels <ul><li>similar to veins – have valves </li></ul><ul><li>lead to lymph nodes & lymph trunks </li></ul>
    4. 4. 3. Lymphatic Trunks <ul><li>collects lymph from lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><li>lead to collecting ducts </li></ul><ul><li>2 Ducts </li></ul><ul><li>thoracic duct </li></ul><ul><li>rt. lymphatic duct </li></ul><ul><li>lymph re-enters to bloodstream at </li></ul><ul><li>the ducts </li></ul>
    5. 7. Tissue Fluid & Lymph <ul><li>Lymph is tissue fluid that has entered </li></ul><ul><li>the lymphatic capillaries </li></ul>Lymph Formation Functions - returns protein molecules to blood - transports foreign particles to lymph nodes
    6. 8. Movement of Lymph <ul><li>controlled by muscular activity </li></ul><ul><li>squeezing action of skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>breathing movements </li></ul>
    7. 9. Lymph Node <ul><li>contains many lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li>important against invasion by </li></ul><ul><li>microorganisms </li></ul>
    8. 11. Functions of Lymph Nodes - mature lymphocytes - contain phagocytic cells (macrophages)  eat foreign substances
    9. 13. Thymus - divided up into smaller lobules <ul><li>contain lymphocytes </li></ul><ul><li> mature ones (T-lymphocytes or T-cells) </li></ul><ul><li>are important in immunity </li></ul>
    10. 14. Spleen <ul><li>largest lymphatic organ </li></ul><ul><li>acts like a large lymph node only filled </li></ul><ul><li>with blood </li></ul><ul><li>functions as a blood reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>contains many macrophages </li></ul><ul><li>filter foreign particles and damaged RBC’s </li></ul>
    11. 15. Body Defenses Against Infection Antigen – any foreign substance in the body Pathogen – any foreign substance that causes a disease Types of Defense Mechanisms 1. Nonspecific - can kill many pathogens 2. Specific - kills only one type of pathogen - also called immunity
    12. 16. Nonspecific Resistance 1. Species Resistance - a species may be naturally resistant to a disease that may affect other species 2. Mechanical Barriers - pathogens unable to penetrate through - ex. skin and mucus membrane
    13. 17. 3. Chemical Barriers - enzymes that destroy pathogens - ex. pepsin in stomach lysozyme in tears and mucous - interferon – responds to viruses and tumor cells to interfere with their reproduction
    14. 18. 4. Natural Killer (NK) Cells - defend against viruses and cancer cells by secreting perforins that splits those cells open 5. Inflammation - localized redness and swelling - help control pathogens by phagocytosis - body fluid & WBC’s collects here, begins to clot, prevents the spread of pathogens to nearby tissues
    15. 19. 6. Phagocytosis - mostly carried out by neutrophils and monocytes  develop into macrophages 7. Fever - elevated body temperature - causes the liver & spleen to absorb iron, thereby reducing the iron needed by the bacteria for reproduction
    16. 38. Specific Resistance – Immunity  resistance to specific foreign agents Origin of Lymphocytes - originate in red bone marrow and released into blood - ~½ reach thymus - become differentiated - called T-lymphocytes or T-cells - other half differentiate elsewhere - called B-lymphocytes or B-cells
    17. 39. Functions of Lymphocytes - T-cells can attach to antigens directly  called cell-mediated immunity - T-cells provide defense against viral infections by destroying the cells a virus is in - B-cells produce antibodies which will attach to and deactivate specific antigens  antibody-mediated immunity
    18. 41. Types of Antibodies Immunoglobulins  secreted by B-cells 5 TYPES 1. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) - can digest cell membranes or alter the cell membrane for phagocytosis 2. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) - helps control respiratory viruses and digestive disturbances
    19. 42. 3. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) - found in blood plasma - responds to antigens in foods - responds to bacteria - anti-A and anti-B are this type 4. Immunoglobulin D (IgD) - important in activating B-cells 5. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) - associated with allergic reactions
    20. 43. Types of Immunity 1. Naturally Acquired Active Immunity - immune because of having the disease 2. Artificially Acquired Active Immunity - a vaccination that contains a dead or weakened virus 3. Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity - receive an injection of artificially made antibodies 4. Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity - antibodies passed from mother to child through placenta or breast milk
    21. 44. Allergic Reactions 1. Delayed Reaction Allergy - results from repeated exposure to skin due to chemical contact - T-cells become activated and collect at the skin - causes inflammation of the skin
    22. 45. 2. Immediate Reaction Allergy - involves activation of B-cells - antigens are called allergens - IgE causes basophils to release histamine and serotonin - causes the dilation of blood vessels, swelling of tissues, contraction of smooth muscles - usually T-suppresser cells suppress a severe response - in some people, they do not function properly, can cause death
    23. 46. Transplantation & Tissue Rejection - a transplanted organ is from someone else - body recognizes it as a non-self substance - body begins to reject it - rejection can be reduced by matching donor and recipient and administering imminosuppressant drugs

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