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Session 6

  1. 1. Lecture SeriesMonday, 23.01.2011Water in development cooperation and The Water-Energy-FoodRio plus 20 Security Nexus Winter Semester 2011 / 2012Christoph Merdes,BMZBundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeitund Entwicklung (BMZ)
  2. 2. Structure  of  Presenta.on      I     Bonn  2011  Nexus  Conference    II   Water  in  Rio  plus  20    III   German  Development  Coopera=on  in  the     Water  Sector   Discussion     3
  3. 3. Bonn2011    Nexus-­‐Conference      ...  was  an  official  preparatory  conference  for  the   Rio+20  Summit.    Was  special  contribu=on  of  the  German   Government  to  the  Rio  plus  20  Summit  –   announced  by  Chancellor  Merkel      ...  was  a  pioneering  effort  to  bring  together  a  wide   range  of  stakeholders,  leaders  and  experts  from   governments,  businesses,  NGOs,  donors,  and  UN   agencies  to  address  the  nexus  of  water,  energy  and   food  security.    ...  included  strategic  partnerships  with  IFPRI,  World   Economic  Forum  and  World  Wide  Fund  for  Nature   4 for  the  prepara=on  of  the  conference.  
  4. 4. Special Features Conference fully focused on Nexus Perspective – Intersectoral lense on sectoral decisions  Two core dimensions: • dentification of trade-offs between three areas for I informed decision making •  xploitation of synergies between water, energy, and E food This focus determines: •  articipants – fully interesectoral P •  hoice of action fields C •  hoice of hot topics C •  ormulation of outcomes F
  5. 5. What’s  new?   great     accelera=on   Anthropocene   Steffen  et  al   6
  6. 6. Welcome to the Anthropocene
  7. 7. At  the  Tipping  Point   Water Energy Food 900mio without access to safe 2.5bn without access to 1bn suffering from hunger2010 drinking water modern forms of energy 2.6 bn without access to 1.5bn without access to sanitation electricity Population growth, urbanisation, economic growth… + 40% energy demand + 30-50% food demand2030 40%-gap of water ressources (between availability and demand) 8
  8. 8. From inequal access to planetary boundaries IFPRI 2011
  9. 9. Access to Water – Scarcity and Politics •  DWA • DED Besuch BMZ 10Page 10 05.09.2007
  10. 10. Poor people pay more for water Source: PPIAF databaseDr. Ulrike Pokorski da Cunha 1/23/12
  11. 11. From inequal access to planetary boundaries per-capita energy use in low-income countries: 420 kg OE high-income countries: 5300 kg OEWDI 2010WWF Living PlanetRockström et al 2009
  12. 12. At  the  Tipping  Point   Water Energy Food 900mio without access to safe 2.5bn without access to 1bn suffering from hunger2010 drinking water modern forms of energy 2.6 bn without access to 1.5bn without access to sanitation electricity Population growth, urbanisation, economic growth… + 40% energy demand + 30-50% food demand2030 40%-gap of water ressources (between availability and demand) 13
  13. 13. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  -­‐  Profile   16-18 November 2011 14 World Conference Center Bonn
  14. 14. Examples  of  Nexus  Linkages   16-18 November 2011 15 World Conference Center Bonn
  15. 15. The water - energy nexus Water  for  Energy   Energy  for  Water World Energy Council 2010
  16. 16. The  water  -­‐  energy  nexus   photo concentrating gas coal / oil / hydropower biofuels voltaics solar power nuclearm3 /MWh ~0 ~2 ~1 ~2 ~ 60 ~ 180 variable variable Renewable  Energy  can  cause  increasing  water  demand     New  water  can  cause  increasing  energy  demand     surface water ground water reused desalination wastewater
  17. 17. The water - energy nexus Desalina.on   Water  for  Energy   Desalination is 10 times more energy intensive than local freshwater Desalination capacity in MENA is projected to grow by 500% by 2030 Energy  for  Water GWI (2008) IEA (2009)
  18. 18. Globalisierung                Welthandelsvolumen  seit  1972:    420  -­‐>  15000  Mrd.  US$   FDI  –  Auslandsinves==onen  in  Land  (und  Wasser)   Anseeuw  et  al  
  19. 19. Globalisierung   Anseeuw et al 2011Welthandelsvolumen  seit  1972:      420  -­‐>  15000  Mrd.  US$   FDI  –  Auslandsinves==onen    in  Land  (und  Wasser)   Foreign  Direct  Investment       in  Africa  (million  ha)   Driver:  i.a.  Climate  Policy    
  20. 20. Sustainable production & consumption losses in the food chain Charles et al 2009
  21. 21. Sustainable production & consumption „rebound effect“ 140 130 120 110 100 average horsepowers (PS) 90 of cars sold in Germany 80 70 1995 2000 2005 2011
  22. 22. Hot  Topics   Nexus-TopicUrban AgricultureEnding food waste (from field to fork)Sustainable Energy for AllThe Bioenergy, Food and Water NexusThe Urban ChallengeSoils for Sustainable DevelopmentNo Food and Nutrition Security without Water, Sanitation and HygieneMaking Dams Work for the NexusIntegrate or Disintegrate: Tackling Competition for Water and LandOpportunities and Risks in Large Scale Investments in Land and Irrigation SchemesEmerging Country Strategies for Improving Food SecurityManaging the Nexus for Green GrowthThe WEF Security Nexus: Understanding the Risks and Opportunities for PrivateFinanceCorporate Water Stewardship 23
  23. 23. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Outcomes     A  huge  demand  for  dialogue,  exchange  and  mutual  learning   was  apparent  throughout  the  conference     Policy  recommenda.ons  based  on  mul=-­‐stakeholder   consulta=ons  focusing  on  cross-­‐sectoral  approaches  (available   soon  a`er  second  round  of  web  based  consulta=on)     Launch  of  specific  ini.a.ves  (such  as  a  water  stewardship   ini=a=ve  for  Africa)  to  address  the  water,  energy  and  food   security  nexus  in  a  coherent  and  sustainable  way   24
  24. 24. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Key  Messages  Achieving  long-­‐term  Water,  Energy  and  Food  Security  for  all  is  possible.  But  business  as  usual  is  not  an  op.on.      A  nexus  perspec=ve  increases  the  understanding  of  the   interdependencies  across  water,  energy,  food  and  climate   policies.  It  helps  to  understand  and  to  avoid  unintended   consequences  from  our  ac=ons.    
  25. 25. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Key  Messages  Achieving  long-­‐term  Water,  Energy  and  Food  Security  for  all  is  possible.  But  business  as  usual  is  not  an  op.on.      The  nexus  perspec=ve  helps  to  move  beyond  silos  and  ivory   towers  that  preclude  interdisciplinary  solu=ons.  It  opens  the   eyes  for  mutually  beneficial  responses  and  the  of   coopera.on.      
  26. 26. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Key  Messages  Achieving  long-­‐term  Water,  Energy  and  Food  Security  for  all  is  possible.  But  business  as  usual  is  not  an  op.on.    In  sum,  the  nexus  provides  an  informed  and  transparent  framework  for  determining  and  resolving  trade-­‐offs  to  meet  increasing  demand  without  compromising  sustainability.  
  27. 27. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Messages  II   Nexus   Applying  a  nexus  approach  will  create  new  opportuni=es  for   ac=on,  in  par=cular:       Increase  policy  coherence     Accelerate  access     Create  more  with  less     End  waste  and  minimize  losses       Invest  in  natural  infrastructure       Mobilize  consumer  influence   16-18 November 2011 28 World Conference Center Bonn
  28. 28. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Messages  III   Overarching PRINCIPLES:   Pubng  people  and  their  basic  human  rights  at  the  centre  of   the  nexus     Establishing  effec=ve  legisla=ve  frameworks,  promo=ng  good   governance,  elimina=ng  corrup=on,       Involving  local  communi=es,  including  indigenous  and   women’s  groups  fully  and  effec=vely  in  the  planning  and   implementa=on  processes  related  to  water,  energy  and  food   nexus  for  local  ownership  and  commitment     29
  29. 29. Bonn2011  Nexus  Conference  –    Messages  IV   How  to  make  it  work?     The  importance  of  taking  a  nexus  perspec=ve  will  not  result   automa=cally  in  implementa=on.  While  the  opportuni=es   and  their  social,  environmental  and  economic  benefits  are   real,  implementa=on  requires:     1.  Seng  the  right  incen.ves   2.  Mechanisms  for  policy  coherence   3.  Smart  ins.tu.onal  frameworks       4.  Educa.on,  Informa.on,  (Dissemina.on)  and   Empowerment       30
  30. 30. From  Bonn  to  Rio  and  beyond       The  nexus  is  central  to  the  themes  of  Rio2012  and   the  Green  Economy.       The  key  to  success  will  be  to  iden.fy  the  forces  that  are   driving  the  adop=on  of  a  nexus  approach  and  to  build  alliances   with  them.       outcomes  of  Rio  should  adequately  take  into  account  the   interdependencies  between  water,  energy  and  food  as  well  as   the  underlying  natural  resources  water,  land  and  soil.  
  31. 31. Water  in  Rio+20    
  32. 32. Water  in  Rio+20       2010  –  Beginning  of  Discussion;  water  virtually  absent  as  a   topic  of  discussion     Process:         Formal  intergovernmental  nego=a=on       DESA  received  677  submissions,  more  than  5000  pages     On  this  basis  Zero  Dra`  prepared  –  online  since  last  week     Now  nego=a=ons  of  the  text     Three  important  water  dimensions:       1)  Water  chapter     2)  Nexus-­‐perspec=ve     3)  Water  in  Sustainable  Development  Goal  Chapter    
  33. 33. Water  in  Rio+20    
  34. 34. Water  in  Rio+20       Major  Water  Contribu=ons  –  UNSGAB  I   This paper makes the case for a strong focus and decisions on (i)  access to sanitation & drinking water, (ii)  wastewater management, and (iii)  more productive water use in agriculture.
  35. 35. Water  in  Rio+20       Major  Water  Contribu=ons  –  UNSGAB  II   Objective 1 –Access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Ensure universal access to sanitation and safe drinking water through the adoption of plans for accelerated implementation of all dimensions of the human right to water and sanitation: safety, availability, accessibility, acceptability, affordability, non-discrimination, participation and accountability. Objective 2 – Common vision of wastewater management. Governments together decide to strengthen their respective actions on pollution of freshwater by adopting a shared vision of urban, industrial and agricultural wastewater management including collection, treatment and water reuse. Objective 3 – More food with the water available. Adoption of an internationally agreed political objective linking food production and water use through increasing global water productivity of agriculture
  36. 36. Water  in  Rio+20       Major  Water  Contribu=ons  –  UN-­‐Water  I     The highest priority must be given to the ‘bottom billion’ people while addressing inequities in access to water, which are closely linked to energy security as well as food security. Universal coverage of water supply and sanitation services must be a central development goal in the post-2015 period. The framework for achieving the ultimate goal will need to accommodate both development targets and human rights targets at all levels There must also be a commitment to build the foundation for a water resource efficient green economy. Over 70% of freshwater resources are utilized for agricultural production. Therefore, we must help farmers increase water efficiency in agriculture – more nutrition and crop per drop. Similarly, all stakeholders are urged to reduce water losses and waste from field to fork, thus increasing the total food supplychain efficiency. National governments should also commit to increase water efficiency in energy production – more Kilowatts per drop.
  37. 37. Water  in  Rio+20       Major  Water  Contribu=ons  –  Stockholm  Statement   Accordingly, over and above achieving the Millennium Development Goals, we call for a universal provisioning of safe drinking water, adequate sanitation and modern energy services by the year 2030. We call on local, municipal, and national governments and all major groups participating at the Rio+20 Summit to commit to achieving the following intervening targets by 2020: 1.  20% increase in total food supply-chain efficiency; reduce losses and waste from field to fork 2.  20% increase in water efficiency in agriculture; more nutrition and crop per drop 3.  20% increase in water use efficiency in energy production; more kWh per drop 4.  20% increase in the quantity of water reused 5.  20% decrease in water pollution
  38. 38. Water  in  Rio+20    -­‐  What  about  Energy?       The  Sectetary-­‐Generals  Energy  Goals:  Sustainable  Energy  for  All   Ini=a=ve  and  Zero  Dra`       We propose to build on the Sustainable Energy for All initiative launched by the Secretary-General, with the goals of 1.  providing universal access to a basic minimum level of modern energy services for both consumption and production uses by 2030; 2.  improving energy efficiency at all levels with a view to doubling the rate of improvement by 2030; 3.  and doubling the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix by 2030 through promoting the development and use of renewable energy sources and technologies in all countries.
  39. 39. Water  in  Rio+20  –  The  Zero  Drac  
  40. 40. Water  in  Rio+20  –  Zero  Drac       Three  important  water  dimensions:       1)  Water  chapter     2)  Nexus-­‐perspec=ve     3)  Water  in  Sustainable  Development  Goal  Chapter    
  41. 41. Water  in  Rio+20  –  Zero  Drac     1)  Water  chapter 67. We underline the importance of the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights. Furthermore, we highlight the critical importance of water resources for sustainable development, including poverty and hunger eradication, public health, food security, hydropower, agriculture and rural development. 68. We recognize the necessity of setting goals for wastewater management, including reducing water pollution from households, industrial and agricultural sources and promoting water efficiency, wastewater treatment and the use of wastewater as a resource, particularly in expanding urban areas.
  42. 42. Water  in  Rio+20  –  Zero  Drac     1) Water chapter II 69. We renew our commitment made in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPOI) regarding the development and implementation of integrated water resources management and water efficiency plans. We reaffirm our commitment to the 2005-2015 International Decade for Action “Water for Life”. We encourage cooperation initiatives for water resources management in particular through capacity development, exchange of experiences, best practices and lessons learned, as well as sharing appropriate environmentally sound technologies and know-how.
  43. 43. Water  in  Rio+20  –  Zero  Drac       2)  Nexus-­‐  Perspec=ve   Water,  Energy,  Food  central  first  themes  in  nearly  any  chaper     Linkages  not  yet  very  strong     Specific  reference:       “We encourage international initiatives and partnerships to address the interrelationship among water, energy, food and climate change in order to achieve synergies as well as to minimize conflicts among policy objectives, being particularly sensitive to impacts on vulnerable populations.”  
  44. 44. Water  in  Rio+20  –  Zero  Drac       Three  important  water  dimensions:       3)  Water  in  Sustainable  Development  Goal  Chapter     We recognize that goals, targets and milestones are essential for measuring and accelerating progress towards sustainable development and agree to launch an inclusive process to devise by 2015: a) a set of global Sustainable Development Goals that reflect an integrated and balanced treatment of the three dimensions of sustainable development, are consistent with the principles of Agenda 21, and are universal and applicable to all countries but allowing for differentiated approaches among countries;
  45. 45. Water  in  Rio+20  –  Zero  Drac       Three  important  water  dimensions:        Sustainable  Development  Goals  II 107. We propose that the Sustainable Development Goals could include sustainable consumption and production patterns as well as priority areas such as oceans; food security and sustainable agriculture; sustainable energy for all; water access and efficiency; sustainable cities; green jobs, decent work and social inclusion; and disaster risk reduction and resilience.
  46. 46. Rio Secretary General Sha Zukang at Bonn Nexus Conference on SDGs These would need to be balanced and integrated into discussions about a post-2015 development agenda. We need to accelerate progress to meet the aspirations of the poor. But this is not enough. Our future sustainable development goals must encompass the poor and the rich alike. The UN is starting working on the post-2015 development agenda (not post-2015 MDG agenda). As part of this, it will have to address the limitations of the current goals and one of these is the lack of sufficient goals on sustainability. Yes there are goals on water, sanitation, slum upgradation, but there are none on energy, sustainable consumption and production, or the other critical priority areas. Any development agenda must be a sustainable development agenda, incorporating the unfinished MDG agenda, in what we define in 2015. The nexus of food, water and energy is likely to be addressed in a post 2015 development agenda.
  47. 47. German Development Cooperation on Water and Sanitation I•  Water and Sanitation Important Priority Area –  In terms of financial volume –  Number of partner countries•  Fields of Action: –  Sector and institutional reform –  Investment programs // Access to Water –  IWRM promotion and Transboundary Water Management –  Sustainable Water use in agriculture
  48. 48. German Development Cooperation on Water and Sanitation II•  International Sector Dialogue –  Water Initiatives like Sanitation and Water for All or Global Water Partnershop -  World Water Forum/Stockholm Water Week•  Water engagement of multilateral institutions –  Water policies and projects of EU, WB, Reg. Banks
  49. 49. German contribution to multilateral organisations spent on Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH – 2010, USD)Organisation Contribution in Mio. $Global Environment Facility (GEF) 1,7African Development Fund (AfDF) 20,1Asian Development Fund (AsDF) 5,8International Development Association 99,7(IDA)European Commission (EC) 105,5Total 233,0
  50. 50. German Development Cooperation – Actors in bilateral cooperaiton Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)(sets overall sectoral and regional policies, leads dialogue with partner governments) TechnicalFinancial Cooperation CooperationGerman Development GIZBank, KFW BGR In support of implementation of water strategies of partners
  51. 51. 28 Partner Countries with Special Focus onWater
  52. 52. Total German Commitments in the Water Sector Million USD, 2005 - 2010 1100 977,44 1000 906,44 917,42 900 800 700 600 593,96 500 497,14 400 382,26 300 200 100 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
  53. 53. Institutional Development of the Water Sector (Kenya)  Project partner: Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Water and Irrigation (MWI)  Other Partners: DED, InWEnt, KfW, UN-Habitat,  Duration: 2003 – 2010 Total Funding: € 14.4 Million Initial situation:   Inadequate access to safe water supplies/ sanitation   Ineffective, centralized and responsibilities leaving unclear structure without incentives for better performance   Incoherent data regarding water supply situation Approach:   Policy Development and Commercialisation   Accounting needs of poor populations   Water resources management supporting 2 Catchment Advisory Committees   Support public relations & communication
  54. 54. DiscussionI Bonn 2011 Nexus Conference1)  Is the Nexus-Perspective useful? Strenghts/Weaknesses?2)  Where is integrated planning and decision-making necessary and where is a sector-focus more important?II Water in Rio plus 201.  From a water perspective: What would you like to see in the Rio Outcome2.  What should be in a Sustainable Development Goal on Water ?III German Development Cooperation in the Water Sector
  55. 55. Institutional Development of the Water Sector (Kenya)Impacts:  Improvement in institutional framework conditions for the water sector  2 of 3 newly funded Water and Sewerage Companies enabled to meet their operation and maintenance costs, supported WSP in Nyeri prototype of effectiveness  Stakeholders accepted and participated actively within the reform process  Water Kiosks solution introduced: estimated 2.5 % of income/per month for water instead of 15 % for illegal resources (500.000 persons reached)  Support to a national Catchment Management Strategy