Transportation currently yeild about 24% of GHG emissions in CO
Transportation currently yeild about 24% of GHG emissions in CO
Transportation currently yeild about 24% of GHG emissions in CO
In The Handbook of Water Use and Conservation, by Amy Vickers Consumptive water use, is defined as “water use that permanently withdraws water from its source; water that is no longer available because it has evaporated, been transpired by plants, incorporated into products or crops, consumed by people or livestock, or otherwise removed from the immediate water environment.”
The Handbook of Water Use and Conservation, by Amy Vickers, water withdrawal is defined as “water diverted or withdrawn from a surface water or groundwater source.”About 410,000 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water was withdrawn for use in the United States during 2005. About 80 percent of the total (328,000 Mgal/d) withdrawal was from surface water, and about 82 percent of the surface water withdrawn was freshwater. The remaining 20 percent (82,600 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater, of which about 96 percent was freshwater. If withdrawals for thermoelectric power in 2005 are excluded, withdrawals were 210,000 Mgal/d, of which 129,000 Mgal/d (62 percent) was supplied by surface water and 80,700 Mgal/d (38 percent) was supplied by groundwater.Water withdrawals in four States — California, Texas, Idaho, and Florida — accounted for more than one-fourth of all fresh and saline water withdrawn in the United States in 2005. More than half (53 percent) of the total withdrawals of 45,700 Mgal/d in California were for irrigation, and 28 percent were for thermoelectric power. Most of the withdrawals in Texas (26,700 Mgal/d) were for thermoelectric power (43 percent) and irrigation (29 percent). Irrigation accounted for 85 percent of the 19,500 Mgal/d of water withdrawn in Idaho, and thermoelectric power accounted for 66 percent of the 18,300 Mgal/d withdrawn in Florida
West to East Patterns
Tucson/Arizona- Declines of 300-500 ft, subsidience up to 125 ftSubsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the Earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea-level. The opposite of subsidence is uplift, which results in an increase in elevation. Ground subsidence is of concern to geologists, geotechnical engineers and surveyors.Groundwater Salinity- http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/studies/mrb/salinity.htmlReport specifically at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2006/5315/Chemicals in Groundwater-http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3127/
Mechanical reductions of energy in treatment systems
Logan- found the USGS report at http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3098/pdf/2009-3098.pdf... Is this the same information as displayed on slide 10?
Nationally, roughly 4% of total electricity use in the United States is for pumping and treating potable water and wastewater. The figure is a lot higher if you include energy use for the things we do with water, such as heating it. For example, 19% of California electricity use is dedicated to water when water heating is included.The farther we have to pump water, the greater the energy use—especially if we have to pump it over mountain ranges, like in California. For many cities and towns in the U.S., water pumping and sewage treatment use more electricity than anything else. On a per-capita basis, this energy use for water pumping and treatment varies from about 350 kWh/year in the South Atlantic states to over 750 kWh/year in the Mountain states, according to a 2002 Electric Power Research Institute report—about as much annual use as a refrigerator.L- Break into 4 pieces, enlarge each and have fade into each other on mouse click
Western Resource Advocates (WRA)Uses of water for electricity generation: Conventional generation: cooling (boiler feed make up water, other minor uses off-site: transportation, processing, washing (coal))Alternatives: cooling for solar thermal, washing of solar panels, wind turbine blades (very minor). Geothermal: water use varies substantially, depending on type of facility, cooling system (dry or wet) and whether/not facility can use geothermal fluids for cooling (often, facilities can).
Evaporated WaterL- Can you source- I believe this is the DOE reportLogan- This is from an nrel report, page 10, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/33905.pdf
DOELogan- this hsould be the DOE report, can you please confirm and add citation?Logan- page 11, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/33905.pdf
Note range of petroleum, biodiesel, etc.Logan-From DOE 2006 report
WGA- need source
WRAL-needs sourceURS Colorado Energy Needs Report 9-25-08, discuses oil shale and upgrading?So does Western Resource Advocates
WRA- L- Need sourceLogan- http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/pipeline.php
Alicen’s Slideshttp://www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.phpViewed over a 30 year period, initial building costs account for approximately just 2% of the total, while operations and maintenance costs equal 6%, and personnel costs equal 92%.Graphic: Sieglinde FullerSource: Sustainable Building Technical Manual / Joseph J. Romm, Lean and Clean Management, 1994.
Alicen’sWatergy:http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_watergy.htmlA spreadsheet model that uses water and energy relationship assumptions to analyze the potential for savings.Estimates direct water, direct energy, and indirect energy annual savings as well as total cost and payback times.At this time, WATERGY estimates potential conservation opportunities for the following methods:Installation of 1.6 gal/flush toilets Water conserving urinalsAutomatic faucetsFaucet aeratorsLow flow showerheadBoiler blowdown optimizationEfficient dishwashersEfficient washing machinesLandscape irrigation optimization
Watergy:http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_watergy.htmlA spreadsheet model that uses water and energy relationship assumptions to analyze the potential for savings.Estimates direct water, direct energy, and indirect energy annual savings as well as total cost and payback times.At this time, WATERGY estimates potential conservation opportunities for the following methods:Installation of 1.6 gal/flush toilets Water conserving urinalsAutomatic faucetsFaucet aeratorsLow flow showerheadBoiler blowdown optimizationEfficient dishwashersEfficient washing machinesLandscape irrigation optimization
Usually 1-4 MG for a new gas well, two types of water (flowback=intial) and produced(ongoing)
Alicen’s slidesFTA-Domestic Water Conservation Techniques
Alicen’s slidesFrom ‘Update of Market Assessment’ pg 92Xeriscaping1. Appropriate Design: Use a design that considers soil types and drainage, limits turf area, etc., so that landscaping requires limited irrigation. 2. Soil Improvements: Apply appropriate nutrients to soil to help maintain healthy plants, which results in more resilient and drought resistant plants. 3. Reduced Turf Area: Limit turf to areas for recreation purposes only. 4. Mulching Beds: Mulch reduces moisture evaporation off surface of beds and controls weed growth. 5. Efficient Irrigation: (also see retrofit options below) Early morning or late evening watering reduces evaporation. Automatic irrigation controls. Appropriate watering schedule to fit plant need and climate. Deep watering less often. Soil moisture sensor (tensiometer) or rain sensor connected to controls to avoid over-watering. 6. Climate-appropriate plants: Native and other low-water-demand plants that are specifically geared for the particular region reduce both water requirements and maintenance. 7. Maintenance: Proper maintenance and adjustments of sprinkler heads ensures appropriate watering. Routine inspection of irrigation system for leaks and broken heads. Maintain weeds, fertilize properly, and prune as recommended.
Alicen’s slidesGoal of these ECMs is to increase concentration ratio by is maintaining water qualityO&M Water DocumentUltraviolet light is added through an intense UV lighting module that provides disinfection which kills microorganisms in the cooling tower that can build up and lead to fouling or even legionnaire’s disease.Sulfuric (or other) acid treatment controls scale build-up. When added to recirculating water, acid can improve the efficiency of the water by controling scale buildup created from mineral deposits. Sidestream filtration filters a portion of the flow (much like a swimming pool filter) to remove sediment and other impurities. A sidestream filtration is composed of a rapid sand filter or high-efficiency cartridge filter to cleanse the water. These systems draw water from the sump, filter out sediment and return the filtered water to the tower, enabling the system to operate more efficiently with less water and chemicals. Ozonation is a powerful oxidizer that controls scale, corrosion, and biological growth, and can produce high cycles of concentration in cooling towers.
Alicen’s slidesFrom update of market assessment document, pg 92
colorado.gov/energy Energy-Water Nexus, WaterWise Conference, October 14th, 2011• Presented by: Conor Merrigan, LEED AP BD+C
Presentation Overview • Governor’s Energy Office Overview • National Picture • Watergy • Water in Colorado and the West • Legislating Water-Energy • Water-Energy in Buildings • Saving Watergy • Q&A
The Governor’s Energy Office (GEO) MissionThe Governor’s Energy Office promotes sustainableeconomic development in Colorado through advancingthe state’s energy markets and industry to create jobs,increase energy security, lower long term consumercosts, and protect our environment.
Energy Markets Represent a Significant Opportunity forColorado MISSION Tens of thousands of new jobs in the industry across Jobs The Governor’s fuel types (emerging & legacy) & supply chain Energy Office promotes sustainable economic development in (R&D, manufacturing, O&M) the state’s energy market Colorado through advancing and industry to create jobs, increase energy security, lower long term consumer costs, and protectfuel types & geographic location & reducing Security Diversifying our environment. demand through resource efficiency reduces volatility & increases reliability Cost Increased efficiency and maturation of renewable energy and alternative fuels have resulted in new low cost sources of energyEnvironment Fuel consumption represents a major source of emissions of local pollutants and greenhouse gases
Market Opportunities and Barriers in the Colorado EnergySector Est. Colorado Market Opportunities Market Market Size Barriers ($ MM/yr)MISSIONThe Governor’s nergy Office •promotes sustainable economic of externalities $17,000 Accelerate investment in new • Full accountingPower Generation technologies (driven by • Transmission infrastructuredevelopment in Colorado through advancing the state’s energy markets (In State) environmental and security • Technology maturity (eg clean factors) coal, solar)and industry to create jobs, increase energy security, lower long term -$1,700 • Displace imports (~10% of • Transmission infrastructureconsumer costs, is a net protect our environment.Power Generation (CO and consumption • Protectionist policies (CA) (Export) importer) • Export $1,000s CA, AZ, NV energy markets) TBD* • Additional annual economic • Valuation by market makers / Consumer consumer savings TBD FY12* regulators Efficiency • Consumer information • Access to financing $8,000 • 10% displacement of oil with • Fueling infrastructure Transportation alternative fuels will keep $8,077 • Economies of scale Fuels mm / yr in Colorado • Price volatility concerns • Accounting for externalities $11,000 • Increased investment potential in • Limited market demand and Natural Gas CO (amount TBD) export capacity Production • Public perception driving regulatory uncertainty
GEO Promotes Policies that Support Private SectorSolutions Profit Societal Opportunity Interest
colorado.gov/energy National PictureEnergy Water Nexus 201
ConsumptionEnergy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress onthe Interdependency of Water and Energy, US Department ofEnergy 2006 8
Withdrawals Part of energy cycles -- for providing water for U.S. consumers; for treating water to user-specific standards; and for treating and discharging wastewater to protect natural resources (surface waters and subsurface aquifers) Understand that water “use” -- is defined in terms of withdrawals (competitive, multi- path traffic) and in terms of consumptionSource -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use inthe United States in 2005,” USGS, October 2009 9
Statewise Water Withdrawals by Sector Regional Groupings irrigation and power sectors are dominant user groups western U.S. heavy in irrigation demand eastern U.S. heavy in power demandSource -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use in the UnitedStates in 2005,” USGS, October 2009 10
U.S. Water Withdrawals -- Statewise OverviewResource challenges -- withdrawals and transport over greaterdistances or from greater depthsIncreases in groundwater salinity and chemical content leading toincreased treatment needs Energy and Water Interdependency = NOW Examples of Declining Groundwater Levels (Bartolino and Cunningham, 2003, per Ho, Sandia) Region Groundwater Table Decline Water table declined, stream flows reduced, salt Long Island, NY water moving inland Declined up to 100 ft, water supply (saturated High Plains thickness) reduced over half in some areas Pacific Northwest Groundwater level declines up to 100 ft Tucson/Pheonix, AZ Declines of 300 to 500 ft, subsidence up to 12.5 ft Las Vegas, NV Declines up to 300 ft, subsidence up to 6 ft Antelope Valley, CA Declines over 300 ft, subsidence over 6ft Source: “Energy-Water Science & Technology Research Roadmap,” Hightower, Sandia National Laboratories, 2005Source: “Development of a technology roadmap for the energy and waterNexus,” C. K. Ho et al, Sandia, WATER2006, October 2006
Example Energy Loads common energy duties to procure, process, and deliver water and wastewater: pump -- withdrawal from a resource treat -- e.g. SDWA, industrial user standards, etc. pump -- to users via a distribution network pump -- of wastewater via a collection network treat -- of wastewater (e.g. NPDES) pump -- of treated wastewater to a resource Therefore: build energy estimates using above treatment duties and sectoral profiles to estimate pumping duties.SDWA -- Safe Drinking Water ActNPDES -- National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System 12
Options for Reducing Energy for Water: Pumps -- capacity matching, efficiency Motors -- capacity matching, efficiency Controls -- flexibility and optimization can be targeted to prioritize effectiveness re. cost, energy, and environment can be addressed, in many cases, independently of other system efficiency issues such as infrastructure energy loadings, process configurations, etc. components typically accessible to change-out with modest structural implications capturing energy savings is not likely to invoke a cascade of other system changes caveat -- this is not to the exclusion of comprehensive system analyses, upgrades 13
Source -- NREL estimates, August 2010 (in process)Source -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use inthe United States in 2005,” USGS, October 2009 14
Treatment Power Requirements: current and future water supply Today Future Treatment Implications:5000 In view of the dominance of water transport energy -- What will rising water treatment demands do to the Sea Water energy balance of our water supplies?4000 Desalination3000 1. higher treatment energy duty is still a fraction of transport energy in Brackish most cases Water2000 Treatment 2. such instances of energy shift will be for limited, site-specific cases1000 3. overall national energy duties for Public Water water still dominated by transport Supply Systems Source: EPRI (2000), Water Desalination Task Force (2003), via Hightower, Sandia, 2005 15
Embodied Energy of Water Source Collection, Water Water Extraction & Treatment Distribution Conveyance End-use Recycled Water Recycled Water Agricultural Treatment Distribution Residential Commercial Industrial Wastewater Wastewater Discharge Treatment Collection Source Graphic: Bob Wilkinson, UCSB“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
colorado.gov/energy WatergyEnergy Water Nexus 201
Overall Consumptive Water Use by RegionConsumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production, NREL,P. Torcellini, N. Long, and R. Judkoff, Dec 2003 20
Water Consumed per kWhConsumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production, NREL, P.Torcellini, N. Long, and R. Judkoff, Dec 2003 21
Water Intensity of Electricity Sources 1,800 Emerging 1,600 Technologies 1,400 gal/MWh 1,200 Renewables Water Intensity of Electricity Generation: Legend 1,000 Conventional 800 Generation 200 600 180 400 160 200 140 0 120 te gal/MWh 100 ) as clea et) , P with C ) ( h y) ) am et) So ry) CS ) S SP et) al ss d V ith S ar t) G et) in b rid et (C CT et m Win C CC e rP r ,w C (w w w er n ar ( d (d ,w rC w (w ,w Co CC l, IG C 80 CC ith C as s ( Nu al ( (s r ( y la P ( la y y C a ar a Co So S a NG , w y 60 in , I Co rC , m ,b ,b C G o th Bio la i G al 40 ,b So G m m al al G er al 20 th er Co eo th e G 0 G eo Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Solar Wind Biomass Geothermal"Water Use for Energy - Western Resource Advocates." Western ResourceAdvocates - Protecting the West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011.<http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/waterenergy.php>.
Water Intensity of Fuel ProductionEnergy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress onthe Interdependency of Water and Energy, US Department ofEnergy 2006 23
Water Use Ethanol Irrigation: 1000 - 1200 Gallons of Water Processing: 4.2 Gallons of Water1 Gallon of Ethanol =
Water Use: Oil Shale Upgrading? 22 Barrels 1 Mining/ RetortBarrel 2 – 5 Barrelsof Oil = Western Resource Advocates
kWh/AF hp>. - De 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Al nv bu er qu ,C er qu O e Ph , N Ph oe M oe ni ni x, Tu x, AZ AZ cs on (C , A AP "Energy/Water Pipelines - Western Resource ) Existing Supplies La Z (C West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. s Ve A P) ga s, Advocates." Western Resource Advocates - Protecting the No Re <http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/pipeline.p NV r th us Co Intensity of Water er n La e (S nse rv In ke t. te Po G at io gr eo nRe at w rg Ya ed el e, gi lP on m Su i UT al pa pp peli ) W Pu ly ne at er m Pr (U sh pb oj ec T ) So ed ack t( ut Su Pr CO he pp oj ) SN rn ly ec W De Pr t (C A liv oj O G er ec ) ro yS t( un CO Yu dw yst m em ) a at De er (C sa Pr O lte oje ) Ca rP ct rls ro (N ba je V) Energy Energy Intensity of the Wests Water Supplies d ct De * (A sa Z) Proposed New Supplies lin at io n
End Use Energy“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
In 5 Southwestern states, power plants consume ~292 million gallons a day Change in Runoff (2041 – 2060 vs. 1900 – 1970)13% of the nation’s energyuse is by the water sector (The River Network, 2009) Western Resource Advocates
colorado.gov/energyWater in Colorado and the West • Energy Water Nexus 201
Colorado- Source Water• Primarily snow melt from the mountains• Twelve diversion points from the western slope• 80% of our water comes from the western slope• 80% of our water is used on the eastern slope Map: Colorado River District Architect: RB+B / Hutton
Source Water• 2/3 of our river water goes to other states• 90% of the water that leaves the state comes from our rivers• Portion of our water comes from ground water supplies• Water stored in local reservoirs Photo by Paul Brokering Map: Colorado River District
Proposed Water Supply Projects “Million” Central Utah Project Project NISP Windy GDP Powell Gap Pipeline SDS CA Aqueduct SJ Chama Carlsbad Desal. Central Arizona Project YDP"Energy/Water Pipelines - Western Resource Advocates." Western ResourceAdvocates - Protecting the West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011.<http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/pipeline.php>.
Water Intensity of Electricity Generation00 Existing Energy-Related Water Demands: Colorado River00 Emerging Technologi es • Colorado River00 Legend water use: 6,080 AF/yr 167,000 AF/yr Coal00 • Additional in- Nuclear basin water use Gas for power00 Solar generation: Conventional Generation Renewables Wind 170,000 AF/yr Biomass00 Geothermal0000 "Water Use for Energy - Western Resource Advocates." Western Resource Advocates - Protecting the West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/waterenergy.php>.0 s al al d r r s
What is the value of water? Municipal Tap Fees in the Western United StatesCosts are not annualized, but areadjusted to a common metric($/AF)Map creation: Joseph Hoover
CO water costs• Water prices rose sharply in Colorado with population growth and drought Water Sales to Municipalities: Colorado 2,500 2,000 Annualized Cost (2008$/AF/yr) 1,500 1,000 500 - 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Energy Use of Proposed Water Projects The energy used by each pipeline could support thousands of residents. Equivalent Energy Use Project (# of People) Southern Nevada Water Authority 15,100 Nevadans Lake Powell Pipeline 32,500 Utahns Southern Delivery System 24,000 Coloradans Northern Integrated Supply Project 3,300 – 5,600 Coloradans Million Pipeline 42,000 Coloradans Emissions equivalent: burning 48,000,000 gallons of gasoline/yr.“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
colorado.gov/energy Legislating WaterEnergy Water Nexus 201
Federal Legislative/Regulatory Info• water use flow rates for bathroom fixturesNEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) • all federal agencies funding or permitting decisions be made with full consideration of the impact to the natural and human environment• Watersense Project • Label for products that are at least 20 percent more efficient without sacrificing performance• Climate policies• Obama Administration’s Executive Orders Oct. 5, 2010 • 26% improvement in water efficiency by 2020;• EPAct 1992: Specified maximum • Toilet: 1.6 gpf • Urinal: 1.0 gpf • Showerhead: 2.5 gpm • Faucet: 2.2 gpm (restroom) and 2.5 gpm (kitchen)
Non-Colorado State Legislative/Regulatory Info• Arizona: RW harvesting, gray water and tax credit for gray water systems• Nevada: “Agnostic” on RW harvesting and gray water use• New Mexico: RW harvesting legal; Gray water use: legal for residences up to 250 gal/day• Utah: Allows RW harvesting by people who own water rights;• Wyoming: Not regulating RW harvesting, limited use of gray water systems.
Regulations for Colorado Energy Utilities• Amendment 37 – Colorado’s RPS – notes the water savings of renewables• The Colorado PUC allows utilities to evaluate and rank competitive bids for renewables based on the cost of the energy and other factors, including water use.• As of August, 2010, the PUC will require utilities to report water consumption for existing and proposed facilities and the water intensity (in gal/MWh) of resource portfolios.
New Water SuppliesHB 1365 – Clean Air, Clean Jobs Act• Retire/repower/retrofit ~900 MW of coal plants on the Front Range (incl. Cherokee, Valmont, Arapahoe)• Cherokee (Denver) – consumes ~7,000 AF/yr• Valmont (Boulder) – consumes ~2,000 AF/yrWhat is the water value of Xcel Energy’s plan?• Water rights: $86 million• Timing: 2015 – 2022Are there other opportunities for energydecisions to benefit water?
Greywater in Colorado• Greywater = water from showers, laundry, sinks, and dishwashing• Used for irrigation of non- edible plants• Regulated by: • State of CO Guidelines on Individual Sewage Disposal Systems • County Individual Sewage Disposal Systems (ISDS) regulations http://stephaniebayer.fastpage.name/graywaterresourceinc/
Greywater in Colorado• Subsurface, below the root use, requires local health department permit only• Surface applications require permitting and monitoring • CO Dept. of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) regulations: greywater not separated from blackwater • 2,000 gallons/day require CDPHE permitting • Excessive use may create problems (or benefits) for wastewater treatment plants.• Well permits may allow for Image: NorCal Blogs greywater use
Rainwater Harvesting in Colorado • All precipitation falling within the borders belongs to the State of Colorado • Senate Bill 09-080 allows limited rainwater collection for residential well users not served by a municipality or water district for landscape irrigation • Can detain water for 72 hours • Pilot program measuring changes in streamflow due to rainwater harvesting. (Sterling Ranch) www.dallasnews.com Architect: RB+B / HuttonSource: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/natres/06702. html
Buildings & Water Usage Energy Water Nexus 201
Commercial Building Water Usage• Buildings use 20% of the world’s water Cooling/ Domestic/• Highest use heating restrooms • Cooling/heating 33% 37% • Domestic/restrooms• Water efficiency in buildings can lead to: • 10-11% reduction in energy use Other (incl. • 11-12% reduction in kitchen) Landscaping operating costs 10% 20% Image: American Water Works Association
Cooling• Evaporative Coolers • Assumption that water use is too high • The average CO power plant uses 1 gallon of water to produce 1 kWh of electricity • Better to use water on-site or to use it at the power plant at a higher cost? Image: www.evaporativecooleraustralia.com.au Architect: RB+B / Hutton
Cooling• Highest water use is for Image: www.maxdesignwalker.com cooling towers• “..devices to get rid of unwanted energy with wanted water.” – Bill Hoffman, Water Conservation Specialist• 1.44 gallons of water evaporated for every 3.5 kWh of cooling Image: Hooper Corp.
Cooling• Cooling tower water loss occurs by: • Evaporation • Drift loss • Blowdown• Makeup water continuously added Image: Widetec Corp.
Reducing Cooling Tower Wasted Water• Strategies • Meter the blowdown and makeup water flows • Use conductivity controllers to maintain desired concentrations • Install overflow alarms • Utilize drift eliminators• Technologies • Inline Water pre-treatment to eliminate/blowdown Image: www2.bren.ucsb.edu
colorado.gov/energySaving Water and Energy Energy Water Nexus 201
Strategies for Reduction Identify• Water audit Opportunities • Incentives• Water footprint • Domestic • Measurement• Life-cycle costing • Industrial/Process and Verification • Landscaping Quantify • Leaks Implement Water Use
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.)Develop a Water Use Baseline• Develop a Water Balance• Quantify total water entering your system from meters• Quantify all facility and equipment level metered sources• Estimate unmetered uses• Estimate losses• Estimate water use at the end-use
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.)Calculate Your Water Footprint in four distinct phases:• Setting goals and scope• Water footprint accounting• Water footprint sustainability assessment• Water footprint response formulationhttp://www.waterfootprint.org/Direct and indirect use of waterPersonal, quick and extended calculatorCorporate footprint calculator guidancehttp://www.h2oconserve.org/?page_id=503Direct and indirect use of water
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.) Life-cycle accounting (LCCA) • Estimate overall costs of project alternatives • Select design that with lowest life-cycle costs (LCC). • Perform LCCA early in design process for biggest impact on LCC Viewed over a 30 year period, initial building costs account for approximately just 2% of the total, while operations and maintenance costs equal 6%, and personnel costs equal 92%.Graphic: Sieglinde Fuller, Source: Sustainable Building Technical Manual /Joseph J. Romm, Lean and Clean Management, 1994. 58
Identify Opportunities for Reduction (cont)• Boiler Water • Retrofit to recover water and heat (saves 50-70% in operating costs) • Convert steam systems to hot water pipes • Insulate pipes • Install flow meters and automated controls • Use water quality indicators for blowdown instead of timers• Save energy to save water! Image: www.theworldtopics.com/boilers Architect: RB+B / Hutton
Identify Opportunities for Reduction:Retrofit/Replacement/New ConstructionEPA’s WaterSense Program (http://www.epa.gov/watersense/)• Generally 20 percent more water-efficient• Draft Specifications Under Development: • Weather- or Sensor-Based Irrigation Control Technologies • Pre-rinse Spray Valves • Water Softeners• Final Specifications: • Certification Programs for Irrigation Professionals • High-Efficiency Urinals • High-Efficiency Lavatory Faucets • High-Efficiency Toilets • High-Efficiency Showerheads • Water-Efficient Single-Family New Homes
Resources/Incentives• Federal Tax Credit• Business Energy ITC:• Denver Water offers free commercial water-use audits.• http://www.denverwater.org/Conservation/TipsTools/Commercial/• FEMP: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/water/• Cost Calculator for Faucets and Showerheads:• EPA WaterSense: http://www.epa.gov/watersense/• EPA EnergyStar: http://www.energystar.gov/• AWWA: http://www.awwa.org/• California Urban Water Conservation Council: http://cuwcc.org/
colorado.gov/energy ToolsEnergy Water Nexus 201
National Geographic Water Footprint Calculatorhttp://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/water-footprint-calculator/
Kohler commercial water calculator • Estimates water usage compared to U.S. average and LEED baselines • Both commercial and residential • Example: Ambient Energy office • Building and user data • Fixtures Architect: RB+B / Hutton
Kohler commercial water calculator • Results – 58.4% reduction compared to the US average Architect: RB+B / Hutton
Watergy Calculator• http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_watergy.html• A spreadsheet model that uses water and energy relationship assumptions to analyze the potential for savings.• Estimates direct water, direct energy, and indirect energy annual savings as well as total cost and payback times.
Denver Water –Program Summary• Overview • Indoor Commercial Incentive Program • Irrigation Incentive Program • Commercial and Residential Rebates
Three Exciting Technologies • Biological Treatment for Wastewater, Ag Applications • Mineral Extraction Water Retreat – Mechanical and Chemical • 2 stage Anaerobic Digestion for Dry Feedlot Manure 69
Fundamental Realities of Lagoon DynamicsGood Algae vs. Bad Algae •“Mat algae” (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae) disrupt treatment process and pollute discharge waterways. •Single-cell (microalgae) however, produce pure oxygen and will out-compete “mat algae” for nutrients.Air vs. Oxygen •Oxygen is a critical component for biological treatment. •Atmospheric air contains only ~20% oxygen. •Increased oxygen supply = increased performance.
Oxygen Production (Mechanical Aerator vs. Biological Aerator)Mechanical Aerators (Blowers) High initial costs High electrical power consumption Continual maintenance No adjustment flexibility for lagoon fluctuations Limited Oxygen Transfer EfficiencyBiological Aerator (Algae) Low initial cost Low power requirement (solar) Laminar mixing provided by small bubble diffusers Pure oxygen generation Variable oxygen production depending on change of influent characteristics.
Wastewater Treatment Methods With Microalgae •Will meet current discharge requirements. •Uses 45% - 85% less power than alternative systems. •Meets criteria for a “green” solution and possible “green” funding. •CAPEX and OPEX costs are 30% to 60% less than mechanical systems with 2 to 3 times longer useful life. •Easily expandable for additional capacity. •“Operator friendly” •More adaptable to future technology than mechanical systems.
Denver Water – Indoor Commercial Incentive Program• Overview • Commercial, industrial, institutional customers • Pays $21.50 per thousand gallons of water saved annually • Must show minimum savings of 100,000 gal/year• Requirements • Equipment or technology must be in use for 20 years • Must be able to be sub- metered or measurable within other means
Denver Water – Indoor Commercial Incentive Program• Examples • Replacing water-cooled with air-cooled equipment • Upgrading industrial laundry equipment • Process water reclamation systems • Improvements to cleaning processes• Ineligible • Irrigation • Plumbing Fixtures
Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Overview • Homeowner’s associations, commercial, and irrigation only customers • Pays $21.50 per thousand gallons of water saved annually, over a 5 year period• Requirements • Equipment or technology must be in use for 20 years • Estimated savings must meet a minimum of 3 acre feet per year
Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Examples • Replacing irrigation system • Improving pressure and efficiency by installing pump systems • Upgrading weather based controls • Replacing turf with native grass or low- water plants
Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Rebates • 50% material cost of rain cans • 50% material cost of gear driven motor heads • $5/nozzle, $20 minimum for rotary nozzles • 25% material cost of weather based smart controllers • $1000 material installation cost per contract• Design Assistance • 10% of project savings up to $10,000
Denver Water - Rebates• Commercial New Construction • Clothes washer - $150 • Coin/card operated laundry - $150 • High efficiency toilet -$125 • High efficiency urinal - $50 • Flushometer bowl/valve combination - $75-125 • Cooling tower meter - $50 • Cooling tower controller - $500 • Boilerless steamer - $350 • Car wash nozzles - $1/nozzle • Car wash weep system - $100 • Warewashing equipment - $300