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colorado.gov/energy     Energy-Water Nexus, WaterWise      Conference, October 14th, 2011• Presented by: Conor Merrigan, L...
Presentation Overview   • Governor’s Energy Office Overview   • National Picture   • Watergy   • Water in Colorado and the...
The Governor’s Energy Office (GEO) MissionThe Governor’s Energy Office promotes sustainableeconomic development in Colorad...
Energy Markets Represent a Significant Opportunity forColorado MISSION         Tens of thousands of new jobs in the indust...
Market Opportunities and Barriers in the Colorado EnergySector                   Est. Colorado     Market Opportunities   ...
GEO Promotes Policies that Support Private SectorSolutions         Profit                           Societal       Opportu...
colorado.gov/energy      National PictureEnergy Water Nexus 201
ConsumptionEnergy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress onthe Interdependency of Water and Energy, US Department ...
Withdrawals    Part of energy cycles -- for   providing water for U.S.   consumers; for treating water to   user-specific...
Statewise Water Withdrawals by Sector                                                 Regional                            ...
U.S. Water Withdrawals -- Statewise OverviewResource challenges -- withdrawals and transport over greaterdistances or fro...
Example Energy Loads    common energy duties to procure, process, and      deliver water and wastewater:           pump  ...
Options for Reducing Energy for Water:     Pumps                 -- capacity matching, efficiency     Motors            ...
Source -- NREL estimates, August 2010 (in process)Source -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use inthe United States in 2005,” ...
Treatment Power Requirements:                                   current and future water supply               Today       ...
Embodied Energy of Water           Source               Collection,            Water           Water              Extracti...
colorado.gov/energy             WatergyEnergy Water Nexus 201
18
Water Use for Energy
Overall Consumptive Water Use by RegionConsumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production, NREL,P. Torcellini, N. Long, and R...
Water Consumed per kWhConsumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production, NREL, P.Torcellini, N. Long, and R. Judkoff, Dec 20...
Water Intensity of Electricity Sources               1,800                                                              Em...
Water Intensity of Fuel ProductionEnergy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress onthe Interdependency of Water and...
Water Use Ethanol                            Irrigation: 1000 - 1200 Gallons of Water              Processing:            ...
Water Use: Oil Shale                                Upgrading? 22 Barrels  1            Mining/ RetortBarrel          2 – ...
Energy for Water
kWh/AF       hp>.                                                                   -                                     ...
End Use Energy“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
In 5 Southwestern states,                                  power plants consume                                  ~292 mill...
colorado.gov/energyWater in Colorado and the West       • Energy Water Nexus 201
Colorado- Source Water• Primarily snow melt  from the mountains• Twelve diversion  points from the  western slope• 80% of ...
Source Water•   2/3 of our river water goes to other states•   90% of the water that leaves the state comes from our river...
Proposed Water Supply Projects                                                                                            ...
Water Intensity of Electricity Generation00       Existing Energy-Related Water Demands: Colorado River00                 ...
What is the value of water?     Municipal Tap Fees in the Western United StatesCosts are not annualized, but areadjusted t...
CO water costs•   Water prices rose sharply in Colorado with population growth and drought                                ...
Energy Use of Proposed Water Projects  The energy used by each pipeline could support thousands of residents.             ...
colorado.gov/energy    Legislating WaterEnergy Water Nexus 201
Federal Legislative/Regulatory Info•   water use flow rates for bathroom fixturesNEPA (National    Environmental Policy Ac...
Non-Colorado State Legislative/Regulatory Info•   Arizona: RW harvesting, gray water and tax credit for gray water systems...
Regulations for Colorado Energy Utilities•   Amendment 37 – Colorado’s RPS – notes the water savings of renewables•   The ...
New Water SuppliesHB 1365 – Clean Air, Clean Jobs Act•   Retire/repower/retrofit ~900 MW of coal plants on the Front Range...
Greywater in Colorado• Greywater = water from  showers, laundry, sinks, and  dishwashing• Used for irrigation of non-  edi...
Greywater in Colorado• Subsurface, below the root use,  requires local health department  permit only• Surface application...
Rainwater Harvesting in Colorado  • All precipitation falling within the    borders belongs to the State of    Colorado  •...
Buildings & Water Usage  Energy Water Nexus 201
Commercial Building Water Usage• Buildings use 20% of  the world’s water                                      Cooling/   D...
Cooling• Evaporative Coolers •   Assumption that     water use is too high •   The average CO     power plant uses 1     g...
Cooling• Highest water use is for                             Image: www.maxdesignwalker.com  cooling towers• “..devices t...
Cooling• Cooling tower water  loss occurs by: •   Evaporation •   Drift loss •   Blowdown• Makeup water  continuously adde...
Reducing Cooling Tower Wasted Water•   Strategies    • Meter the blowdown and makeup      water flows    • Use conductivit...
colorado.gov/energySaving Water and Energy  Energy Water Nexus 201
Conservation Savings
Strategies for Reduction                              Identify• Water audit               Opportunities     • Incentives• ...
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.)Develop a Water Use Baseline•  Develop a Water Balance•  Quantify total water...
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.)Calculate Your Water Footprint in four distinct phases:• Setting goals and sc...
Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.) Life-cycle accounting (LCCA) •    Estimate overall costs of project alternat...
Identify Opportunities for Reduction (cont)• Boiler Water  •   Retrofit to recover water and heat      (saves 50-70% in op...
Identify Opportunities for Reduction:Retrofit/Replacement/New ConstructionEPA’s WaterSense Program (http://www.epa.gov/wat...
Resources/Incentives•   Federal Tax Credit•   Business Energy ITC:•   Denver Water offers free commercial water-use audits...
colorado.gov/energy                ToolsEnergy Water Nexus 201
National Geographic Water Footprint Calculatorhttp://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/water-footp...
Kohler commercial water calculator • Estimates water   usage compared to   U.S. average and   LEED baselines • Both commer...
Kohler commercial water calculator • Results – 58.4% reduction compared to the US average                                 ...
Watergy Calculator•   http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_watergy.html•   A spreadsheet model that uses ...
Denver Water –Program Summary• Overview •   Indoor Commercial     Incentive Program •   Irrigation Incentive Program •   C...
Innovations
Three Exciting Technologies •   Biological Treatment for Wastewater, Ag Applications •   Mineral Extraction Water Retreat ...
Fundamental Realities of        Lagoon DynamicsGood Algae vs. Bad Algae  •“Mat algae” (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae) ...
Oxygen Production                  (Mechanical Aerator vs. Biological Aerator)Mechanical Aerators (Blowers)       High ini...
Wastewater Treatment Methods With Microalgae  •Will meet current discharge requirements.  •Uses 45% - 85% less power than ...
colorado.gov/energy                Questions?Contact Information:Conor.Merrigan@state.co.us(303)866-3965
Additional Resources
Denver Water – Indoor Commercial Incentive Program• Overview •   Commercial, industrial,     institutional customers •   P...
Denver Water – Indoor Commercial Incentive Program• Examples  •   Replacing water-cooled      with air-cooled equipment  •...
Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Overview •   Homeowner’s     associations,     commercial, and     irrigation...
Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Examples •   Replacing irrigation     system •   Improving pressure and     e...
Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Rebates •   50% material cost of     rain cans •   50% material cost of     g...
Denver Water - Rebates• Commercial New Construction •   Clothes washer - $150 •   Coin/card operated laundry - $150 •   Hi...
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GEO_Water_Energy_Nexus

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This presentation demonstrates the link between energy and water and relies heavily on information from Western Resource Advocates and DOE. It is Colorado focused but also has a national perspective.

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GEO_Water_Energy_Nexus

  1. 1. colorado.gov/energy Energy-Water Nexus, WaterWise Conference, October 14th, 2011• Presented by: Conor Merrigan, LEED AP BD+C
  2. 2. Presentation Overview • Governor’s Energy Office Overview • National Picture • Watergy • Water in Colorado and the West • Legislating Water-Energy • Water-Energy in Buildings • Saving Watergy • Q&A
  3. 3. The Governor’s Energy Office (GEO) MissionThe Governor’s Energy Office promotes sustainableeconomic development in Colorado through advancingthe state’s energy markets and industry to create jobs,increase energy security, lower long term consumercosts, and protect our environment.
  4. 4. Energy Markets Represent a Significant Opportunity forColorado MISSION Tens of thousands of new jobs in the industry across Jobs The Governor’s fuel types (emerging & legacy) & supply chain Energy Office promotes sustainable economic development in (R&D, manufacturing, O&M) the state’s energy market Colorado through advancing and industry to create jobs, increase energy security, lower long term consumer costs, and protectfuel types & geographic location & reducing Security Diversifying our environment. demand through resource efficiency reduces volatility & increases reliability Cost Increased efficiency and maturation of renewable energy and alternative fuels have resulted in new low cost sources of energyEnvironment Fuel consumption represents a major source of emissions of local pollutants and greenhouse gases
  5. 5. Market Opportunities and Barriers in the Colorado EnergySector Est. Colorado Market Opportunities Market Market Size Barriers ($ MM/yr)MISSIONThe Governor’s nergy Office •promotes sustainable economic of externalities $17,000 Accelerate investment in new • Full accountingPower Generation technologies (driven by • Transmission infrastructuredevelopment in Colorado through advancing the state’s energy markets (In State) environmental and security • Technology maturity (eg clean factors) coal, solar)and industry to create jobs, increase energy security, lower long term -$1,700 • Displace imports (~10% of • Transmission infrastructureconsumer costs, is a net protect our environment.Power Generation (CO and consumption • Protectionist policies (CA) (Export) importer) • Export $1,000s CA, AZ, NV energy markets) TBD* • Additional annual economic • Valuation by market makers / Consumer consumer savings TBD FY12* regulators Efficiency • Consumer information • Access to financing $8,000 • 10% displacement of oil with • Fueling infrastructure Transportation alternative fuels will keep $8,077 • Economies of scale Fuels mm / yr in Colorado • Price volatility concerns • Accounting for externalities $11,000 • Increased investment potential in • Limited market demand and Natural Gas CO (amount TBD) export capacity Production • Public perception driving regulatory uncertainty
  6. 6. GEO Promotes Policies that Support Private SectorSolutions Profit Societal Opportunity Interest
  7. 7. colorado.gov/energy National PictureEnergy Water Nexus 201
  8. 8. ConsumptionEnergy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress onthe Interdependency of Water and Energy, US Department ofEnergy 2006 8
  9. 9. Withdrawals  Part of energy cycles -- for providing water for U.S. consumers; for treating water to user-specific standards; and for treating and discharging wastewater to protect natural resources (surface waters and subsurface aquifers)  Understand that water “use” -- is defined in terms of withdrawals (competitive, multi- path traffic) and in terms of consumptionSource -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use inthe United States in 2005,” USGS, October 2009 9
  10. 10. Statewise Water Withdrawals by Sector Regional Groupings  irrigation and power sectors are dominant user groups  western U.S. heavy in irrigation demand  eastern U.S. heavy in power demandSource -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use in the UnitedStates in 2005,” USGS, October 2009 10
  11. 11. U.S. Water Withdrawals -- Statewise OverviewResource challenges -- withdrawals and transport over greaterdistances or from greater depthsIncreases in groundwater salinity and chemical content leading toincreased treatment needs Energy and Water Interdependency = NOW Examples of Declining Groundwater Levels (Bartolino and Cunningham, 2003, per Ho, Sandia) Region Groundwater Table Decline Water table declined, stream flows reduced, salt Long Island, NY water moving inland Declined up to 100 ft, water supply (saturated High Plains thickness) reduced over half in some areas Pacific Northwest Groundwater level declines up to 100 ft Tucson/Pheonix, AZ Declines of 300 to 500 ft, subsidence up to 12.5 ft Las Vegas, NV Declines up to 300 ft, subsidence up to 6 ft Antelope Valley, CA Declines over 300 ft, subsidence over 6ft Source: “Energy-Water Science & Technology Research Roadmap,” Hightower, Sandia National Laboratories, 2005Source: “Development of a technology roadmap for the energy and waterNexus,” C. K. Ho et al, Sandia, WATER2006, October 2006
  12. 12. Example Energy Loads common energy duties to procure, process, and deliver water and wastewater:  pump -- withdrawal from a resource  treat -- e.g. SDWA, industrial user standards, etc.  pump -- to users via a distribution network  pump -- of wastewater via a collection network  treat -- of wastewater (e.g. NPDES)  pump -- of treated wastewater to a resource Therefore: build energy estimates using above treatment duties and sectoral profiles to estimate pumping duties.SDWA -- Safe Drinking Water ActNPDES -- National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System 12
  13. 13. Options for Reducing Energy for Water:  Pumps -- capacity matching, efficiency  Motors -- capacity matching, efficiency  Controls -- flexibility and optimization can be targeted to prioritize effectiveness re. cost, energy, and environment can be addressed, in many cases, independently of other system efficiency issues such as infrastructure energy loadings, process configurations, etc. components typically accessible to change-out with modest structural implications capturing energy savings is not likely to invoke a cascade of other system changes caveat -- this is not to the exclusion of comprehensive system analyses, upgrades 13
  14. 14. Source -- NREL estimates, August 2010 (in process)Source -- “Summary of Estimated Water Use inthe United States in 2005,” USGS, October 2009 14
  15. 15. Treatment Power Requirements: current and future water supply Today Future Treatment Implications:5000 In view of the dominance of water transport energy -- What will rising water treatment demands do to the Sea Water energy balance of our water supplies?4000 Desalination3000 1. higher treatment energy duty is still a fraction of transport energy in Brackish most cases Water2000 Treatment 2. such instances of energy shift will be for limited, site-specific cases1000 3. overall national energy duties for Public Water water still dominated by transport Supply Systems Source: EPRI (2000), Water Desalination Task Force (2003), via Hightower, Sandia, 2005 15
  16. 16. Embodied Energy of Water Source Collection, Water Water Extraction & Treatment Distribution Conveyance End-use Recycled Water Recycled Water Agricultural Treatment Distribution Residential Commercial Industrial Wastewater Wastewater Discharge Treatment Collection Source Graphic: Bob Wilkinson, UCSB“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
  17. 17. colorado.gov/energy WatergyEnergy Water Nexus 201
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Water Use for Energy
  20. 20. Overall Consumptive Water Use by RegionConsumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production, NREL,P. Torcellini, N. Long, and R. Judkoff, Dec 2003 20
  21. 21. Water Consumed per kWhConsumptive Water Use for U.S. Power Production, NREL, P.Torcellini, N. Long, and R. Judkoff, Dec 2003 21
  22. 22. Water Intensity of Electricity Sources 1,800 Emerging 1,600 Technologies 1,400 gal/MWh 1,200 Renewables Water Intensity of Electricity Generation: Legend 1,000 Conventional 800 Generation 200 600 180 400 160 200 140 0 120 te gal/MWh 100 ) as clea et) , P with C ) ( h y) ) am et) So ry) CS ) S SP et) al ss d V ith S ar t) G et) in b rid et (C CT et m Win C CC e rP r ,w C (w w w er n ar ( d (d ,w rC w (w ,w Co CC l, IG C 80 CC ith C as s ( Nu al ( (s r ( y la P ( la y y C a ar a Co So S a NG , w y 60 in , I Co rC , m ,b ,b C G o th Bio la i G al 40 ,b So G m m al al G er al 20 th er Co eo th e G 0 G eo Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Solar Wind Biomass Geothermal"Water Use for Energy - Western Resource Advocates." Western ResourceAdvocates - Protecting the West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011.<http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/waterenergy.php>.
  23. 23. Water Intensity of Fuel ProductionEnergy Demands on Water Resources: Report to Congress onthe Interdependency of Water and Energy, US Department ofEnergy 2006 23
  24. 24. Water Use Ethanol Irrigation: 1000 - 1200 Gallons of Water Processing: 4.2 Gallons of Water1 Gallon of Ethanol =
  25. 25. Water Use: Oil Shale Upgrading? 22 Barrels 1 Mining/ RetortBarrel 2 – 5 Barrelsof Oil = Western Resource Advocates
  26. 26. Energy for Water
  27. 27. kWh/AF hp>. - De 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 Al nv bu er qu ,C er qu O e Ph , N Ph oe M oe ni ni x, Tu x, AZ AZ cs on (C , A AP "Energy/Water Pipelines - Western Resource ) Existing Supplies La Z (C West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. s Ve A P) ga s, Advocates." Western Resource Advocates - Protecting the No Re <http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/pipeline.p NV r th us Co Intensity of Water er n La e (S nse rv In ke t. te Po G at io gr eo nRe at w rg Ya ed el e, gi lP on m Su i UT al pa pp peli ) W Pu ly ne at er m Pr (U sh pb oj ec T ) So ed ack t( ut Su Pr CO he pp oj ) SN rn ly ec W De Pr t (C A liv oj O G er ec ) ro yS t( un CO Yu dw yst m em ) a at De er (C sa Pr O lte oje ) Ca rP ct rls ro (N ba je V) Energy Energy Intensity of the Wests Water Supplies d ct De * (A sa Z) Proposed New Supplies lin at io n
  28. 28. End Use Energy“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
  29. 29. In 5 Southwestern states, power plants consume ~292 million gallons a day Change in Runoff (2041 – 2060 vs. 1900 – 1970)13% of the nation’s energyuse is by the water sector (The River Network, 2009) Western Resource Advocates
  30. 30. colorado.gov/energyWater in Colorado and the West • Energy Water Nexus 201
  31. 31. Colorado- Source Water• Primarily snow melt from the mountains• Twelve diversion points from the western slope• 80% of our water comes from the western slope• 80% of our water is used on the eastern slope Map: Colorado River District Architect: RB+B / Hutton
  32. 32. Source Water• 2/3 of our river water goes to other states• 90% of the water that leaves the state comes from our rivers• Portion of our water comes from ground water supplies• Water stored in local reservoirs Photo by Paul Brokering Map: Colorado River District
  33. 33. Proposed Water Supply Projects “Million” Central Utah Project Project NISP Windy GDP Powell Gap Pipeline SDS CA Aqueduct SJ Chama Carlsbad Desal. Central Arizona Project YDP"Energy/Water Pipelines - Western Resource Advocates." Western ResourceAdvocates - Protecting the West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011.<http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/pipeline.php>.
  34. 34. Water Intensity of Electricity Generation00 Existing Energy-Related Water Demands: Colorado River00 Emerging Technologi es • Colorado River00 Legend water use: 6,080 AF/yr 167,000 AF/yr Coal00 • Additional in- Nuclear basin water use Gas for power00 Solar generation: Conventional Generation Renewables Wind 170,000 AF/yr Biomass00 Geothermal0000 "Water Use for Energy - Western Resource Advocates." Western Resource Advocates - Protecting the West’s Land, Air, and Water. Web. 13 Oct. 2011. <http://www.westernresourceadvocates.org/water/waterenergy.php>.0 s al al d r r s
  35. 35. What is the value of water? Municipal Tap Fees in the Western United StatesCosts are not annualized, but areadjusted to a common metric($/AF)Map creation: Joseph Hoover
  36. 36. CO water costs• Water prices rose sharply in Colorado with population growth and drought Water Sales to Municipalities: Colorado 2,500 2,000 Annualized Cost (2008$/AF/yr) 1,500 1,000 500 - 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
  37. 37. Energy Use of Proposed Water Projects The energy used by each pipeline could support thousands of residents. Equivalent Energy Use Project (# of People) Southern Nevada Water Authority 15,100 Nevadans Lake Powell Pipeline 32,500 Utahns Southern Delivery System 24,000 Coloradans Northern Integrated Supply Project 3,300 – 5,600 Coloradans Million Pipeline 42,000 Coloradans Emissions equivalent: burning 48,000,000 gallons of gasoline/yr.“Energy Intensity Water Report”, WesternResource Advocates, 2009
  38. 38. colorado.gov/energy Legislating WaterEnergy Water Nexus 201
  39. 39. Federal Legislative/Regulatory Info• water use flow rates for bathroom fixturesNEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) • all federal agencies funding or permitting decisions be made with full consideration of the impact to the natural and human environment• Watersense Project • Label for products that are at least 20 percent more efficient without sacrificing performance• Climate policies• Obama Administration’s Executive Orders Oct. 5, 2010 • 26% improvement in water efficiency by 2020;• EPAct 1992: Specified maximum • Toilet: 1.6 gpf • Urinal: 1.0 gpf • Showerhead: 2.5 gpm • Faucet: 2.2 gpm (restroom) and 2.5 gpm (kitchen)
  40. 40. Non-Colorado State Legislative/Regulatory Info• Arizona: RW harvesting, gray water and tax credit for gray water systems• Nevada: “Agnostic” on RW harvesting and gray water use• New Mexico: RW harvesting legal; Gray water use: legal for residences up to 250 gal/day• Utah: Allows RW harvesting by people who own water rights;• Wyoming: Not regulating RW harvesting, limited use of gray water systems.
  41. 41. Regulations for Colorado Energy Utilities• Amendment 37 – Colorado’s RPS – notes the water savings of renewables• The Colorado PUC allows utilities to evaluate and rank competitive bids for renewables based on the cost of the energy and other factors, including water use.• As of August, 2010, the PUC will require utilities to report water consumption for existing and proposed facilities and the water intensity (in gal/MWh) of resource portfolios.
  42. 42. New Water SuppliesHB 1365 – Clean Air, Clean Jobs Act• Retire/repower/retrofit ~900 MW of coal plants on the Front Range (incl. Cherokee, Valmont, Arapahoe)• Cherokee (Denver) – consumes ~7,000 AF/yr• Valmont (Boulder) – consumes ~2,000 AF/yrWhat is the water value of Xcel Energy’s plan?• Water rights: $86 million• Timing: 2015 – 2022Are there other opportunities for energydecisions to benefit water?
  43. 43. Greywater in Colorado• Greywater = water from showers, laundry, sinks, and dishwashing• Used for irrigation of non- edible plants• Regulated by: • State of CO Guidelines on Individual Sewage Disposal Systems • County Individual Sewage Disposal Systems (ISDS) regulations http://stephaniebayer.fastpage.name/graywaterresourceinc/
  44. 44. Greywater in Colorado• Subsurface, below the root use, requires local health department permit only• Surface applications require permitting and monitoring • CO Dept. of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) regulations: greywater not separated from blackwater • 2,000 gallons/day require CDPHE permitting • Excessive use may create problems (or benefits) for wastewater treatment plants.• Well permits may allow for Image: NorCal Blogs greywater use
  45. 45. Rainwater Harvesting in Colorado • All precipitation falling within the borders belongs to the State of Colorado • Senate Bill 09-080 allows limited rainwater collection for residential well users not served by a municipality or water district for landscape irrigation • Can detain water for 72 hours • Pilot program measuring changes in streamflow due to rainwater harvesting. (Sterling Ranch) www.dallasnews.com Architect: RB+B / HuttonSource: http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/natres/06702. html
  46. 46. Buildings & Water Usage Energy Water Nexus 201
  47. 47. Commercial Building Water Usage• Buildings use 20% of the world’s water Cooling/ Domestic/• Highest use heating restrooms • Cooling/heating 33% 37% • Domestic/restrooms• Water efficiency in buildings can lead to: • 10-11% reduction in energy use Other (incl. • 11-12% reduction in kitchen) Landscaping operating costs 10% 20% Image: American Water Works Association
  48. 48. Cooling• Evaporative Coolers • Assumption that water use is too high • The average CO power plant uses 1 gallon of water to produce 1 kWh of electricity • Better to use water on-site or to use it at the power plant at a higher cost? Image: www.evaporativecooleraustralia.com.au Architect: RB+B / Hutton
  49. 49. Cooling• Highest water use is for Image: www.maxdesignwalker.com cooling towers• “..devices to get rid of unwanted energy with wanted water.” – Bill Hoffman, Water Conservation Specialist• 1.44 gallons of water evaporated for every 3.5 kWh of cooling Image: Hooper Corp.
  50. 50. Cooling• Cooling tower water loss occurs by: • Evaporation • Drift loss • Blowdown• Makeup water continuously added Image: Widetec Corp.
  51. 51. Reducing Cooling Tower Wasted Water• Strategies • Meter the blowdown and makeup water flows • Use conductivity controllers to maintain desired concentrations • Install overflow alarms • Utilize drift eliminators• Technologies • Inline Water pre-treatment to eliminate/blowdown Image: www2.bren.ucsb.edu
  52. 52. colorado.gov/energySaving Water and Energy Energy Water Nexus 201
  53. 53. Conservation Savings
  54. 54. Strategies for Reduction Identify• Water audit Opportunities • Incentives• Water footprint • Domestic • Measurement• Life-cycle costing • Industrial/Process and Verification • Landscaping Quantify • Leaks Implement Water Use
  55. 55. Quantify How Much Water is Being Used
  56. 56. Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.)Develop a Water Use Baseline• Develop a Water Balance• Quantify total water entering your system from meters• Quantify all facility and equipment level metered sources• Estimate unmetered uses• Estimate losses• Estimate water use at the end-use
  57. 57. Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.)Calculate Your Water Footprint in four distinct phases:• Setting goals and scope• Water footprint accounting• Water footprint sustainability assessment• Water footprint response formulationhttp://www.waterfootprint.org/Direct and indirect use of waterPersonal, quick and extended calculatorCorporate footprint calculator guidancehttp://www.h2oconserve.org/?page_id=503Direct and indirect use of water
  58. 58. Quantify How Much Water is Being Used (cont.) Life-cycle accounting (LCCA) • Estimate overall costs of project alternatives • Select design that with lowest life-cycle costs (LCC). • Perform LCCA early in design process for biggest impact on LCC Viewed over a 30 year period, initial building costs account for approximately just 2% of the total, while operations and maintenance costs equal 6%, and personnel costs equal 92%.Graphic: Sieglinde Fuller, Source: Sustainable Building Technical Manual /Joseph J. Romm, Lean and Clean Management, 1994. 58
  59. 59. Identify Opportunities for Reduction (cont)• Boiler Water • Retrofit to recover water and heat (saves 50-70% in operating costs) • Convert steam systems to hot water pipes • Insulate pipes • Install flow meters and automated controls • Use water quality indicators for blowdown instead of timers• Save energy to save water! Image: www.theworldtopics.com/boilers Architect: RB+B / Hutton
  60. 60. Identify Opportunities for Reduction:Retrofit/Replacement/New ConstructionEPA’s WaterSense Program (http://www.epa.gov/watersense/)• Generally 20 percent more water-efficient• Draft Specifications Under Development: • Weather- or Sensor-Based Irrigation Control Technologies • Pre-rinse Spray Valves • Water Softeners• Final Specifications: • Certification Programs for Irrigation Professionals • High-Efficiency Urinals • High-Efficiency Lavatory Faucets • High-Efficiency Toilets • High-Efficiency Showerheads • Water-Efficient Single-Family New Homes
  61. 61. Resources/Incentives• Federal Tax Credit• Business Energy ITC:• Denver Water offers free commercial water-use audits.• http://www.denverwater.org/Conservation/TipsTools/Commercial/• FEMP: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/water/• Cost Calculator for Faucets and Showerheads:• EPA WaterSense: http://www.epa.gov/watersense/• EPA EnergyStar: http://www.energystar.gov/• AWWA: http://www.awwa.org/• California Urban Water Conservation Council: http://cuwcc.org/
  62. 62. colorado.gov/energy ToolsEnergy Water Nexus 201
  63. 63. National Geographic Water Footprint Calculatorhttp://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/water-footprint-calculator/
  64. 64. Kohler commercial water calculator • Estimates water usage compared to U.S. average and LEED baselines • Both commercial and residential • Example: Ambient Energy office • Building and user data • Fixtures Architect: RB+B / Hutton
  65. 65. Kohler commercial water calculator • Results – 58.4% reduction compared to the US average Architect: RB+B / Hutton
  66. 66. Watergy Calculator• http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/information/download_watergy.html• A spreadsheet model that uses water and energy relationship assumptions to analyze the potential for savings.• Estimates direct water, direct energy, and indirect energy annual savings as well as total cost and payback times.
  67. 67. Denver Water –Program Summary• Overview • Indoor Commercial Incentive Program • Irrigation Incentive Program • Commercial and Residential Rebates
  68. 68. Innovations
  69. 69. Three Exciting Technologies • Biological Treatment for Wastewater, Ag Applications • Mineral Extraction Water Retreat – Mechanical and Chemical • 2 stage Anaerobic Digestion for Dry Feedlot Manure 69
  70. 70. Fundamental Realities of Lagoon DynamicsGood Algae vs. Bad Algae •“Mat algae” (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae) disrupt treatment process and pollute discharge waterways. •Single-cell (microalgae) however, produce pure oxygen and will out-compete “mat algae” for nutrients.Air vs. Oxygen •Oxygen is a critical component for biological treatment. •Atmospheric air contains only ~20% oxygen. •Increased oxygen supply = increased performance.
  71. 71. Oxygen Production (Mechanical Aerator vs. Biological Aerator)Mechanical Aerators (Blowers) High initial costs High electrical power consumption Continual maintenance No adjustment flexibility for lagoon fluctuations Limited Oxygen Transfer EfficiencyBiological Aerator (Algae) Low initial cost Low power requirement (solar) Laminar mixing provided by small bubble diffusers Pure oxygen generation Variable oxygen production depending on change of influent characteristics.
  72. 72. Wastewater Treatment Methods With Microalgae •Will meet current discharge requirements. •Uses 45% - 85% less power than alternative systems. •Meets criteria for a “green” solution and possible “green” funding. •CAPEX and OPEX costs are 30% to 60% less than mechanical systems with 2 to 3 times longer useful life. •Easily expandable for additional capacity. •“Operator friendly” •More adaptable to future technology than mechanical systems.
  73. 73. colorado.gov/energy Questions?Contact Information:Conor.Merrigan@state.co.us(303)866-3965
  74. 74. Additional Resources
  75. 75. Denver Water – Indoor Commercial Incentive Program• Overview • Commercial, industrial, institutional customers • Pays $21.50 per thousand gallons of water saved annually • Must show minimum savings of 100,000 gal/year• Requirements • Equipment or technology must be in use for 20 years • Must be able to be sub- metered or measurable within other means
  76. 76. Denver Water – Indoor Commercial Incentive Program• Examples • Replacing water-cooled with air-cooled equipment • Upgrading industrial laundry equipment • Process water reclamation systems • Improvements to cleaning processes• Ineligible • Irrigation • Plumbing Fixtures
  77. 77. Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Overview • Homeowner’s associations, commercial, and irrigation only customers • Pays $21.50 per thousand gallons of water saved annually, over a 5 year period• Requirements • Equipment or technology must be in use for 20 years • Estimated savings must meet a minimum of 3 acre feet per year
  78. 78. Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Examples • Replacing irrigation system • Improving pressure and efficiency by installing pump systems • Upgrading weather based controls • Replacing turf with native grass or low- water plants
  79. 79. Denver Water – Irrigation Incentive Program• Rebates • 50% material cost of rain cans • 50% material cost of gear driven motor heads • $5/nozzle, $20 minimum for rotary nozzles • 25% material cost of weather based smart controllers • $1000 material installation cost per contract• Design Assistance • 10% of project savings up to $10,000
  80. 80. Denver Water - Rebates• Commercial New Construction • Clothes washer - $150 • Coin/card operated laundry - $150 • High efficiency toilet -$125 • High efficiency urinal - $50 • Flushometer bowl/valve combination - $75-125 • Cooling tower meter - $50 • Cooling tower controller - $500 • Boilerless steamer - $350 • Car wash nozzles - $1/nozzle • Car wash weep system - $100 • Warewashing equipment - $300

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