PtB IEEP EESC SD Goverance to Rio+20 final adjusted
Institute for European Environmental PolicySustainable Development Governance at National, Regional and Local levels in a Global Context, preparing for Rio Patrick ten Brink Senior Fellow and Head of Brussels Office, IEEP PREPARING FOR THE 2012 RIO SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT THE CONTRIBUTION OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN EUROPE Session 2: Strengthening the Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development - Reforming Sustainable Development Governance 23 March 2011 - 10.00 am – 5.30 pm Meeting room VMA 3 Van Maerlant street 2 1040 Brussels 1
Structure of the presentation Governance challenges & responses Risks Water Biodiversity Climate Deforestation Progress & Opportunities Stockholm to Rio Conventions: global framework for national to local action Subsidy reform: national action with local to global implications Marine: Fisheries/Coral Reefs Steps to a Green Economy: multi-level governance 2
Governance Challenges: MultipleWEF: Global Risks Landscape 2011Perception data from WEF Global Risks Survey Governance Challenges: Multiple WEF: Global Risks Landscape 2011 Perception data from WEF Global Risks Survey National, regional & local risks “variations on a theme” of the above 3 WEF(2011) Global Risks 2011 (6th Edition)
Water stress, availability & sanitation 1.1 billion people live without clean drinking water 2.6 billion people lack adequate sanitation (2002, UNICEF/WHO JMP 2004) 1.8 million people die every year from diarrhoeal diseases. 3 900 children die every day from water borne diseases (WHO 2004)Many poles for action: countries (inc. cooperation), regions, cities, citizens, companies• Investment in environmental infrastructures, regulation, pricing, innovation.• Investment in Green infrastructure/natural capital. Rewarding benefits / PES• Labelling and consumer information et al. 5http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
Water: National action to facilitate local action Hydrological services: Aquifer recharge;Governance: measurement, policy Improved surface water quality, reducesynergies, rewarding benefits provision frequency & damage from flooding`Tool: Mexico national PSAH framework with local applications: PES to forest owners to preserve forest: manage & not convert forestResults:Deforestation rate fell from 1.6 % to 0.6 %.18.3 thousand hectares of avoided deforestationAvoided GHG emissions ~ 3.2 million tCO2eNational step forward re MDGs Reduce Deforestation Address Poverty Munoz 2010); Muñoz-Piña et al. 2008; Muñoz-Piña et al. 2007.
Water: Nation on nation impacts: Consumerresponsibilities UK external water footprint – Understanding the implications of our consumptionLocal action: San Francisco “meatfree Mondays”; Ghent: Thursdays!For citizens: info, labelling & footprintsWRAP and WWF (2011) See also OPEN:EU for more on footprints:http://www.oneplaneteconomynetwork.org/
Governance challenge: Biodiversity lossBiodiversity loss leads to loss of natural wealth, ecosystem services, 8 UNEP (2011)benefits to economy and society/wellbeing (see TEEB (2009,2010,2011) MEA (2005) UNEP Yearbook 2011
Contribution to Governance solutions -Understanding the value of nature “I believe that the great part of miseries of mankind are brought uponTEEB for Policy Makers report have made of the value of things.” them by false estimates they Benjamin Franklin, 1706-1790 “There is a renaissance underway, in which people are waking up to the tremendous values of natural capital and devising ingenious ways of incorporating these values into major resource decisions.” Gretchen Daily, Stanford University Book announcement: The Economics of Ecosystems and TEEB Reports: http://www.teebweb.org/ Biodiversity in National and International Policy Making now Summaries (in range of languages) and chapters available from Earthscan
Governance : Understanding and responding tothe value of nature, our “natural capital”Provisioning services• Food, fibre and fuel• Water provision• Genetic resourcesRegulating Services• Climate /climate change regulation• Water and waste purification• Air purification• Erosion control• Natural hazards mitigation• Pollination• Biological controlCultural Services• Aesthetics, Landscape value, recreation and tourism• Cultural values and inspirational services Important to appreciate the whole set of eco-Supporting Services system services & take into account in• Soil formation decisions – and not only after they have been lost and oft costly substitutes needed. This is+ Resilience- eg to climate change critical for good governance at all levels.
Cities understanding the value of their natural assetsMultiple Benefits: at the Urban level – City of Toronto• Estimating the value of the Greenbelt for the City of Toronto• The greenbelt around Toronto offers $ 2.7 billion worth of non-market ecological services with an average value of $ 3, 571 / ha.→ Implication re: future management of the greater city area ? Ecosystem Annual Value Valuation Benefits (2005, CDN $) Carbon Values 366 million Air Protection Values 69 million Watershed Values 409 million Pollination Values 360 million Biodiversity Value 98 million Recreation Value 95 million Agricultural Land 329 million Value Source: Wilson, S. J. (2008) Map: http://greenbeltalliance.ca/images/Greebelt_2_update.jpg
Challenges to governance: Climate ChangeAvoiding the problem, adapting to what we cannot avoid .UNFCCC: Multilateral context for national action: shared responsibility, mechanismsKey: National, regional & city actions – especially in context of insufficient global (ornational) commitment & actions• understanding adaptation needs, investment in adaptation (man made and natural capital), spatial planning• 12 Mitigation: RES, energy efficiency, ETS, taxes/charges, subsidy reform, innovation, avoided deforestation, restoration + labelling, consumer information and consumer choice UNEP (2011) UNEP Yearbook 2011
Challenges to governance: deforestation UNFCCC, UNCBD + bilateral + domestic + private + NGO + peoples Multiple paths for action, diff. interests & opportunities & 13 costs Instruments: REDD+, bilateral aid, national commitments, city procurement etc
Stockholm to Rio to Jo’burg to RioStockholm Conference Rio Summit WSSD Rio+20 Earth SummitUnited Nations United Nations Conference on World Summit on UN Conference onConference on the Environment and Development Sustainable SustainableHuman Environment (UNCED) – also known as, Rio Development or Development (UNCSD) Conference, Earth Summit Earth Summit 20021972 1992 2002 2012 2015 ? MDGsUNs first major conferenceon international 172 governments &108 Johannesburg Themes:environmental issues heads of state/government declaration a green economyBeginning of modern Climate: UNFCCC Millennium Development in the context ofpolitical and public Goals (MDGs) povertyawareness of global Biodiversity: CBD eradication andenvironmental problems Global Compact sustainable Desertification: UNCCD development,Emergence of Restore the worlds Agenda 21 (Cities et al)international depleted fisheries for 2015 an institutionalenvironmental law Forest principles framework for sustainableLed to the creation of UNEP development.
Governance: commitment to Conventions Rio Rio+20 Issue: awareness: need for national Issue: need for implementation – government commitment national, regional, city, citizen 15 UNEP (2011) UNEP Yearbook 2011
Subsidy Reform : Win-win: environment-economySubsidies: over $1trillion/year: a mix of “the good, the bad and the ugly”Opportunities: win-wins, reduce lock-in, progress towards a green economyFree up money to help with MEAs
Global Fish stocks: an overexploited, underperforming natural asset at risk of collapseSource: adapted from FAO 2005 Half of wild marine fisheries are fully exploited; a further quarter already over-exploited At risk : $ 80-100 billion income from the sector est. 27 million jobs short term vs long term over a billion people rely on fish as their main or sole source of animal protein
Marine: Critical natural asset in dangerNeed: reduce pressure on coral reefs, MPAs et al & encourage GHG reductions@ -450ppm and 2 degrees already accepting major lossesCritical governance issue: MPAs and no-take zones: government spatial planning/regulation/enforcement, need to factor in local (short term) acceptability, transition challenges & sustainable financing for MPAs.
Steps to a sustainable green equitable socio-economy Past: Global Commitments & Near future: Medium term: Long term: sustainable, resource efficient, green, National env. measures “walk the talk” “Turning the curve” equitable socio-economy Implementation Transition to a Decarbonisation Commitments new green New Resource Efficiency economy commitments paradigm Resource limits Learning from success & failures Measurement Ecosystem capacity/limits & transparency Absolute Decoupling Making multilateralism work + Risk management Differentiated responsibility: multiple actors, interests, Beyond GDP measures incentives, opportunities – multi- level governance Equity Building consensus & Happiness partnerships Solutions: Economic signals/markets; +ve Environmental Policies Integration / measurement and assessment; regulation; spatial mainstreaming planning; greening the supply chain; investments Limited integration/mainstreaming – policy in innovation & natural capital; labelling and Continued losses of natural capital 19 coherence certification; consumer choice/responsibility & social norms for a sustainable economy / society.1972 1992 2012 2020 2050
Thank you Patrick ten Brink email@example.comIEEP is an independent, not-for-profit institute dedicated to the analysis, understanding and promotion of policies for a sustainable environment. www.ieep.eu The Manual of European Environmental Policy http://www.europeanenvironmentalpolicy.eu/