The Norwegian education system<br />Oeyvind Mellem<br />Head union official, Union ofEducation Birkenes<br />
The Norwegian education system<br />Universal schooling for children was introduced in Norway 250 years ago. From 1889, seven years of compulsory education were provided, 1969 this was increased to nine years and in 1997 to 10 years.<br />As a result of Norway’s scattered population, forty per cent of primary and lower secondary schools are so small that children of different ages are taught in the same classroom. Primary and lower secondary levels are often combined in the same school. <br />Mellem: The Norwegian education system<br />s2<br />
Curriculum<br />The collective objectives and principles for teaching in primary and lower secondary schools are laid down in the national curriculum.<br />The curriculum for primary and lower secondary education includes:<br />Core curriculum for primary and lower secondary, upper secondary and adult education <br />Principles and guidelines for primary and lower secondary education <br />Curricula for individual subjects<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s3<br />
Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s4<br />The subject curricula lay down a common learning content for all pupils, which increases in scope throughout the school and is greatest at the lower secondary stage. This common learning content is enlarged on and supplemented to adapt it to local conditions and to the needs of individual pupils.<br />
Building teaching competence<br /><ul><li>The Ministry prepared a plan for competence building for the period 1996–2000, giving special attention to supplementary training for teachers at primary and lower secondary schools.
For the period 2000–2003 a targeted plan for competence building, development and experimentation gives particular priority to the lower secondary level.
As part of the Knowledge Promotion the Ministry of Education and Research has presented a Strategy for Competence Development in Primary and Secondary Education.
The strategy "Skills for Quality 2009 - 2012" is a lasting commitment to continuing education for teachers.</li></ul>Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s5<br />
School subjects at primary and lower secondary levels<br />Christian knowledge and religious and ethical educationNorwegianMathematicsSocial StudiesArt and CraftsScience and the EnvironmentEnglish (is compulsory from the primary level)MusicHome EconomicsPhysical EducationCompulsory additional subjects<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s6<br />
In addition, time is set aside at all levels for School’s and pupils’ options. These hours are taken from the teaching hours allocated to the main levels. A separate quota of hours is allocated to class and pupils` council work at the lower secondary level. At the lower and upper primary levels, it is possible for schools to allocate a quota of hours locally for this purpose from the hours allocated to other subjects.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s7<br />
Additionallanguage and projectwork<br />In addition to the compulsory subjects, pupils are required to choose one of the following options:<br />Second foreign language. Pupils can choose a foreign language in addition to English, i.e. German or French or another language on the basis of local or regional needs. <br />Supplementary language study. Pupils can choose additional in-depth study of a language they already have a basic knowledge of. <br />Practical project work. This is an activity that is planned in cooperation with the pupils.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s8<br />
Day-care facilities for school children<br />In many families, both parents are out at work during the day. If they have children in the lower primary school, they may therefore need day-care facilities for them both before and after school hours.<br />Day-care facilities for school children must provide facilities for play and for participation in cultural and recreational activities appropriate for the age, level of physical ability and interests of the children.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s9<br />
Such day-care facilities must also provide satisfactory development conditions for children with physical disabilities.<br />From 1 January 1999, all municipalities in Norway have been legally obliged to provide day-care facilities before and after school hours for children attending the first four grades.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s10<br />
Mellem: The Norwegian education system<br />s11<br />
Kindergartens<br />shall, according to the Kindergarten Actof 2005, be pedagogicalundertakings for children under compulsoryschool age. In 2009 an individual, legal right to a place in kindergarteninstitutionwasintroduced.<br />Mellem: The Norwegian education system<br />s12<br />
Primary and lowersecondaryeducation<br /><ul><li>covers education for childrenaged 6 to15. This includespupils in 1st to 10th grade, togetherwithpupils in minoritylanguage groups and special groups.
In addition, therearespecialschools for childrenwithspecialeducationalneeds.
Municipalitiesarerequired to offer day care facilities from 1st grade to 4th grade.</li></ul>Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s13<br />
Uppersecondaryeducation<br /><ul><li>providesthreeyearsofgeneral educationor vocational training afterthe 10th yearoflowersecondaryeducation.
The norm for apprenticeship training is twoyearsofvocationaltraining in uppersecondaryeducationfollowed by one or twoyearsofpracticaltraining in industry.</li></ul>Mellem: The Norwegian education system<br />s14<br />
Highereducation<br />As part oftheimplementationoftheBologna Process, thedegree system wasentirelyrestructured in 2002-2003. <br />As a result, the main structurefollowsthe 3 + 2 + 3 model. (Three-yearBachelor'sdegrees, two-yearMaster'sdegrees, and three-yearPhDdegrees.)<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s15<br />
Highervocationaleducation<br />Highervocationalprogrammesarepostsecondary, butnot defined as highereducation.<br />The duration is minimum sixmonths and maximumtwoyears.<br />Highervocationalprogrammesareofferedby both public and private providers.<br />As per December 2009 theyhada total ofabout 12 000 registeredstudents.<br />Aroundone third ofthestudents participated in programmesoffered by public providers, mainlycounties. <br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s16<br />
Study associations<br />A study association consistsoftwo or more voluntaryorganisationsand offer a selectionofcourses, ranging from basiceducation/training to work training and studies at universitylevel.<br />Studyassociations offer coursesin most municipalities and mayapply for governmentfunding<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s17<br />
Adult education<br />includesadult education on primary, lowersecondaryand uppersecondarylevel, folk highschools, adult educationassociations and independentdistancelearninginstitutions.<br />Adults who have not completedsufficientprimary and lowersecondaryeducationareentitled to education at theselevels.<br />Adults from the age of25 years, who have completedprimary and lowersecondaryschool or theequivalent, but not uppersecondaryeducation, have by application, theright to sucheducation.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s18<br />
Folk highschools<br />offer a variety of non-academic courses of various length.<br />Do not grant degrees or have exams.<br />Although the majority of participants attend shorter courses, long courses (6–12 months) are the main activity of the folk high schools.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s19<br />
Distancelearninginstitutions<br />Distance learning is a common option for those who need a flexible way of learning.<br />Institutions may apply for government funding.<br />In the past, distance learning consisted mainly of correspondence courses, and although online courses have become increasingly common, correspondence courses still predominate.<br />The courses range from leisure and hobby courses to those providing degree level qualifications, but the majority of students attend courses at upper secondary or university level.<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s20<br />
Challenges <br />Lifelonglearning<br />Earlyintervention<br />Systematicfollow up<br />Theory vs. Practicalwork<br />School dropouts<br />New reforms<br />Qualification for thefuture<br />Ambitions and motivation<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s21<br />
Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us<br />This lively RSAnimate, adapted from Dan Pink's talk at the RSA, illustrates the hidden truths behind what really motivates us at home and in the workplace. (10’48’’)<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc&feature=relmfu<br />Tittelen endres i "Topp- og Bunntekst..."<br />s22<br />