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1 
RIVERFRONT MANAGEMENT
2 
INTRODUCTION 
Country : India 
State : Uttar Pradesh 
City : Varanasi; Banaras; Benaras; Kashi 
Area : 2,535 km2 (2011 ...
A riverfront is the zone of interaction between an urban settlement and a river. The 
riverfront area is, in essence, the ...
The holy curve 
The Ganga is especially sacred in Varanasi where 
its course towards the Bay of Bengal suddenly 
turns nor...
Riverfront Heritage Zone, Core Heritage Zone = densely populated (above 500 persons/ha) 
Eastern bank = a wide sand belt 
...
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Managing the filth
12 
Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam Reports 
1. Status of Varanasi Urban water supply as on 01/04/2005 
Note: mld = million litre ...
Uttar Pradesh State Ganga River Conservation Agency (UPSGRCA) 
13 
Progress Report, July 2014 
1. JICA Assisted GAP II, Va...
Treatment plants 
The mode of waste water disposal in Varanasi occurs mainly through irrigation and through 
the Assi Nall...
15 
Performance of these 3 Sewage Treatment Plants 
COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand 
BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand 
TSS = T...
16 
Riverfront Management
17
18 
Factors that need to be taken into account while planning and managing a 
riverfront : 
1) Land side issues – site pre...
19 
Conditions of Working STPs in Varanasi 
Dinapur STP (1994) 
• Location :- North-east of Varanasi. 
• Capacity:- 80 mil...
20 
Problems (elements that can be stated responsible ) 
1. Governance problem 
2. Infrastructure problems (like ageing in...
21
22 
Factors to be considered in river front management 
1. Land side uses:- 
• River bank development (like Ghats infrastr...
23 
Technical and Financial Assistance 
1. Advanced IntegratedWastewater Oxidation Pond System (AIWPS). 
• Fecal coliform ...
24 
Environmental considerations 
1. Without the river and its floodplains the riverfront reserves would not exist. 
2. It...
25 
Cultural and Religious aspect 
• It has been realised that the cultural and natural heritages are increasingly threate...
26 
Varanasi’s way forward 
 E-governance 
 Better STP technology designs 
 Better maintenance of pipelines, drain cove...
27 
Vishal Pratap Singh 
1455MWS 
Bedashree Choudhury 
14109MWS
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Varanasi Riverfront Development

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A slideshow on Riverfront development (ongoing activities as well as prospective and necessary measures) in Varanasi, why Varanasi Ghats mean so much, why blind urbanization is not enough, etc.

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Varanasi Riverfront Development

  1. 1. 1 RIVERFRONT MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. 2 INTRODUCTION Country : India State : Uttar Pradesh City : Varanasi; Banaras; Benaras; Kashi Area : 2,535 km2 (2011 census) Population : 3,676,841 (2011 census) [excluding a daily floating population of approximately 2-3 Lakhs] Sex ratio : 913 per 1000 Literacy Rate : 75.60% Average yearly rainfall : 1113 m River : Ganga Stretch of Ganga in Varanasi : 6.5 km 1450 km in Uttar Pradesh, with an additional 110 km in the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. [of a total of 2,525 km stretch in India] Number of Ghats/Riverfront Areas : 86
  3. 3. A riverfront is the zone of interaction between an urban settlement and a river. The riverfront area is, in essence, the river bank(s) on or near which the city/town is located. The city of Varanasi is located in the middle Ganga valley of North India, in the Eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, along the left crescent-shaped bank of Ganga. The riverfront forms the eastern edge of the city. Ganga flows northerly in a crescent shape for about 7 km and the city has grown on the left bank in a circular form around it. The area along the right side is a flood plain, preserving the natural ecosystem. 3 The average height of the city from mean sea level is 77 m – around 72 m in the south along the Assi stream, and 83 m at the high ground near the confluence of the Varana to the Ganga in the north (known as Rajghat plateau). The city proper is built on a high ridge of kankar (lime concretion) that forms the left bank of Ganga for a distance of 5 km, being quite above normal flood level.
  4. 4. The holy curve The Ganga is especially sacred in Varanasi where its course towards the Bay of Bengal suddenly turns north. This unique directional change of the river course led to the development of the ancient city of Kashi, on the west bank of the river, facing the rising sun. Only in Varanasi does the Ganga flow in a crescent shape meander from south to north (6.5 km). This peculiar shape is a result of fluvial process through which the coarser sediments get deposited on its western bank between Rajghat in the north and Samne ghat in the south. Between these two points a hillock-like geological feature, called natural levée, has formed. It is a 60 m bed of clay with coarse-grained sand, limestone concretion (kankar) and gravel. This peculiar geological formation changes the flow of Ganga in a half-circular shape. 4 This sharp-bend meander is only observed in Varanasi throughout Ganga’s course → symbolically described as the crescent moon on the forehead of Lord Shiva.
  5. 5. Riverfront Heritage Zone, Core Heritage Zone = densely populated (above 500 persons/ha) Eastern bank = a wide sand belt Beyond the sand belt is a protected green belt of trees within which lies a reserved area for turtle breeding. The sand is utilized for construction purposes and during winters, a portion of the sand belt is used for vegetable and melon farming. 5
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  11. 11. 11 Managing the filth
  12. 12. 12 Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam Reports 1. Status of Varanasi Urban water supply as on 01/04/2005 Note: mld = million litre per day Production of waste water (mld) – 309.0 No. of STPs constructed – 3 Total capacity of STPs (mld) – 101.8 % of waste water treated – 33 No. of drains – 27 Discharge of drains (mld) – 309.80 Sewage diverted (mld) – 125.00 STPs proposed under GAP Phase II – 4; capacity (mld) – 208.00 2. Status of non-core activities (proposed and completed) under river action plan phase I Low cost sanitation – 3 Crematoria – 1 Development of Ghats – 4 3. Financial status of river action plan Schemes completed under phase I – 13; cost – 36.81 crore Schemes proposed under phase II – 5; Approved schemes – 4; cost – 43.92 crore
  13. 13. Uttar Pradesh State Ganga River Conservation Agency (UPSGRCA) 13 Progress Report, July 2014 1. JICA Assisted GAP II, Varanasi: construction of 1 STP of 140 MLD capacity 2 Sewage pumping station 205 community toilets 10 dhobi ghats laying of 18 km sewer line Total cost of project – 496.90 crore Sanctioned by GOI on 14/JUL/2010 Scheduled date of completion – JUL 2015 2. Development of Area around Assi Ghat, Varanasi: Riverfront development works at Assi Ghat which improve construction of – 11 toilet blocks 7 urinal blocks 6 change rooms 4 drinking water fountains 2 wash towers 10 food and crafts stalls Total cost of project – 27.28 crore Sanctioned by GOI on 29/MAR/2011 Scheduled date of completion – MAR 2013
  14. 14. Treatment plants The mode of waste water disposal in Varanasi occurs mainly through irrigation and through the Assi Nallah than opens into the river Ganga. Under the Ganga Action Plan Phase 1 (GAP-1), 1985, Sewage Treatment Plants (STP) that were constructed and are functioning in Varanasi - 14 Varanasi-Bhagwanpur STP [Bhgwanpur abbreviated henceforth as BHU] Varanasi-Dinapur STP Varanasi-SPT-DLW STP [DLW = Diesel Locomotive Works; SPT = Sompeta] These Sewage Treatment Plants are all of the Activated Sludge Process (ASP) treatment system. The performance of the STPs at DLW and Bhagwanpur were found satisfactory with almost all the units in operation. The Dinapur and Bhagwanpur STPs are overloaded, while the STP at DLW is under loaded.
  15. 15. 15 Performance of these 3 Sewage Treatment Plants COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand BOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand TSS = Total Suspended Solids STP Raw Waste Water (mg/L) Treated Waste Water (mg/L) COD BOD TSS COD BOD TSS Varanasi- Bhagwanpur 147 42 132 53 19 43 Varanasi- Dinapur 275 120 304 94 28 72 Varanasi-SPT-DLW 90 28 86 40 10.5 60 Percent (%) Reduction of COD, BOD and TSS in each STP - STP Type COD BOD TSS Varanasi-BHU ASP 66 77 76 Varanasi-Dinapur ASP 64 55 67.5 Varanasi-DLW ASP 56 64 30
  16. 16. 16 Riverfront Management
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  18. 18. 18 Factors that need to be taken into account while planning and managing a riverfront : 1) Land side issues – site preservation, orientation, scenic views, vegetation, drainage, runoff control systems, limiting non-point pollution sources, solid waste management, etc. 2) Technical and Financial Assistance - agencies and Grant Programs, community development blocks, growth management implementation, NGOs, etc. 3) Water quality assessment and management – sewage treatment plants, waste water disposal mechanisms, solid waste disposal, grey water management, green water harvesting, etc. 4) Environmental considerations – point and non-point pollution sources, natural water bodies, aquifers, ecosystems, etc. 5) Cultural and Religious aspect – ascribed holiness, national standing in terms of piety, significance in Hindu life, potentialWorld Heritage site, etc. 6) Legal systems and existing customary rules and rights, public access, etc. 7) Climate, topography, etc.
  19. 19. 19 Conditions of Working STPs in Varanasi Dinapur STP (1994) • Location :- North-east of Varanasi. • Capacity:- 80 millions litres per day (MLD). • Waste water:- Both industrial and sewage water is taken to the STP. • Treated waste water is used for irrigation downstream, which is highly toxic in nature. • During power failure untreated water is directly used for irrigation. • It is running at 1/3 of its capacity. Bhagwanpur STP condition: • Location:- south of Varanasi. • Capacity:- 70 millions litres per day (MLD). • Both sewage and storm water is taken to the STP. • During monsoons all sewage pipe lines over flow • many pipelines have become choked.
  20. 20. 20 Problems (elements that can be stated responsible ) 1. Governance problem 2. Infrastructure problems (like ageing infrastructure, chocked sewage pipe line etc. ) 3. Electrical power supply 4. Cultural and Religious aspect 5. Involvement of different stakeholders 6. Old technologies 7. The underground sewerage system was established in 1917.
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  22. 22. 22 Factors to be considered in river front management 1. Land side uses:- • River bank development (like Ghats infrastructure, soil erosion, illegal mining etc. )
  23. 23. 23 Technical and Financial Assistance 1. Advanced IntegratedWastewater Oxidation Pond System (AIWPS). • Fecal coliform bacteria removal mechanisms. • Based on operational simplicity, low cost and high removal efficiencies (99% BOD5, suspended solids and coliform bacteria removal). • very important advantages such as very low energy and land requirements. 2. Ghat Interceptor Sewer. • This will collect sewage from outflows that are currently going into Gangaji and convey this by gravity to an AIWPS sewage treatment plant.
  24. 24. 24 Environmental considerations 1. Without the river and its floodplains the riverfront reserves would not exist. 2. It provides habitat and food resource for a freshwater fauna including fish, turtles, water birds and etc. 3. The flood plain is host to a large no. of native plants species and provide breeding and nursery area. 4. A healthy and diverse assemble of native plants and animals ensure a functioning ecosystem and contribute to good water quality and healthy soils. Floodplain Management Strategies • Because floodplains have attracted people and industry, a substantial portion of this country’s development is now subject to flooding. • Restoring and preserving the natural resources and functions of flood-plains. • Development and redevelopment policies on the design and location of public services, utilities and critical facilities. • Develop projects that control floodwater.
  25. 25. 25 Cultural and Religious aspect • It has been realised that the cultural and natural heritages are increasingly threatened by destruction not only due to the traditional causes of decay, but also by changing social and economic conditions. • Religious by-products (like waste products of puja, bathing soaps, opposing views and sentiments, cremation)
  26. 26. 26 Varanasi’s way forward  E-governance  Better STP technology designs  Better maintenance of pipelines, drain covers etc.  More vigilant and effective monitoring, assessment and research  Improvement of the urban sewerage system (ageing infrastructure)  Involvement of various stakeholders at different levels  Ghats development while upholding religious sentiments; striving to attain for Varanasi the deserved status of World Heritage site.
  27. 27. 27 Vishal Pratap Singh 1455MWS Bedashree Choudhury 14109MWS

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