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Describe Defence Mechanisms - Humans


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B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes,
immunoglobulins, primary and secondary immunological
response, antigen presenting cells, interleukins, cell surface
receptors MHC proteins, cytokines, antibody classification

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Describe Defence Mechanisms - Humans

  1. 1. b.stev Describe: Immune Defence - Humans
  2. 2. NON-specific immune response, description: <ul><li>Complement </li></ul><ul><li>Interferon </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammatory Response </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Inhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial Competition </li></ul>
  3. 3. COMPLEMENT SYSTEM <ul><li>a response system invasive microbes </li></ul><ul><li>synthesis occurs liver (mostly) </li></ul><ul><li>constitutes 5% globulin in the serum of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>>20 proteins/ various protein fragments involved </li></ul>the 2 MAIN pathways of the COMPLEMENT SYSTEM starter proteins: attach to invasive microbe - gives recognition of it’s presence - the complement system responds
  4. 4. 2. CLASSICAL: group of proteins in the blood that triggers a specific antibody response to the pathogen 1. ALTERNATE: specific proteins bind in sequence to pathogen - initiates c a s c a d e of response enzymes secreted - enzymes attack pathogen’s cell membrane , (opens) DEATH results called: MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX one of the most useful weapons to the body (Wikipedia, 2008)
  5. 5. INTERFERON <ul><li>Invasive attack from bodies such as: </li></ul><ul><li>virus </li></ul><ul><li>bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>foreign bodies </li></ul><ul><li>tumour cells </li></ul><ul><li>parasite ( s ) </li></ul>certain glycoprotein – known as, CYTOKINE is secreted produced : immune cells after foreign encounter (mostly) CYTOKINE(S): communicate a pathway by signalling a response from specific immune cells, throughout the various stages of the process, ie: - upgrade gene production, classical complement system - downgrade response, via the use of feedback inhibition
  6. 6. PHAGOCYTES: (engulf unwanted matter) dispose of toxins, tired cells & dead foreign bodies PUS: (debris) accumulated from the immune response INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE <ul><li>affected region becomes inflamed when infected: </li></ul><ul><li>blood circulation increases to the area </li></ul><ul><li>blood vessels become dilated & open </li></ul><ul><li>gaps allow the immune cells to pass </li></ul><ul><li>immune cells mobilise to the site </li></ul><ul><li>aided proteins also fuel the response </li></ul>PAIN felt - expanded tissues continually trigger nerves that signal, pressure : sensitivity results
  7. 7. <ul><li>LEUKOCYTE (white blood cell) – proliferates </li></ul><ul><li>increased proliferation various immune cells (B/T cells) </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced activity of : interferon </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced leukocyte phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>endotoxin (toxin inside pathogen)‏ effects decreased </li></ul>FEVER <ul><li>RESPONSE to microbe invasion : </li></ul><ul><li>temperature increase (usually 1-2 o C) </li></ul><ul><li>heart rate increase </li></ul><ul><li>increase of muscle tone </li></ul><ul><li>experience of, ‘the shivers.’ </li></ul>produce: unfavourable environment to the pathogen ie: some microbes only tolerate specific temperatures & disturbance (s) within their HOST ENVIRONMENT this response favours the bodies needs: (Wikipedia, 2008)
  8. 8. PLASTER: (band-aid) covers wound PHYSICAL BARRIERS HAIR : surface area over the skin (sense) SKIN : contains the physical body within repair/ renewal – maintains barrier NAILS : protects appendage ends - wounds/ bruising CLOTHES PROTECTIVE GEAR: masks/ gloves/ suit/ shoes QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENTS BUILDINGS
  9. 9. CHEMICAL INHIBITORS stomach acid: pH 2 – unfavourable to most bacteria mucus: traps microbes & debris mucus linings: cilia : move particle(s) out for excretion via - outward direction sebum: pH 5.5 – inhibits microbial growth bile: secreted by gallbladder to the duodenum enzyme: tears/ sweat/ saliva contain, lysozyme - disrupts cell wall (digests peptidoglycan)
  10. 10. MICROBIAL COMPETITION <ul><li>beneficial MICROBES out-compete pathogens: </li></ul><ul><li>already present & established population </li></ul><ul><li>secrete toxins/ inhibitor proteins to competitor </li></ul><ul><li>already attached to specifically beneficial sites </li></ul><ul><li>ie: hair follicle, mucous regions, digestive tract </li></ul><ul><li>interferons stimulate immune response </li></ul>(Wikipedia, 2008)
  11. 11. Bibliography Kennedy. A. (1999). The inflammatory response . Retrieved October 18, 2008, from http//: . htm - 11k - Wikipedia. (2008). Complement system - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Complement _system - 66k - Wikipedia. (2008). Interferon - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Interferon - 111k - Wikipedia. (2008). Inflammation - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Inflammation - 130k -
  12. 12. Wikipedia. (2008). Fever - wikipedia,the free encyclopedia . Retrieved October 17, 2008, from http//:www. en.wikipedia. org/wiki/ Fever - 77k - Pommerville J.C. (2004). Alcamo’s – Fundamentals of Microbiology (7 th ed.). Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett.