Introduction• All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great builders.• With the coming of the Mughals, Indian architecture was greatly influenced by Persian styles. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities.• The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character.• It had a time-span of 132 years, practically from 1526 to 1658, and Agra-Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore- Kashmir- Kabul, Delhi, Allahabad, Ajmer, Ahmedabad, Mandu and Burhanpur are its major centres.
Introduction The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are :• The bulbous domes• The slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners• Large halls• Massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation
Introduction• Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who showed his passion for building by planning and constructing splendid edifices.• During his reign Mughal architecture took on new forms.• Akbar made free use of both Hindu and Persian styles.• The use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling are the salient -features of Akbars buildings.• Akbar constructed numerous forts, towers, palaces, mosques, mausoleums and gateways.
Humayun’s tombHumayun’s tomb was built by hiswidow Haji Begum in 1565 A.D. inDelhi in 1569A.D., fourteen yearsafter his death. The mausoleumstands in the centre of a squareenclosed garden. The garden isdivided and sub-divided intosquares, typical of Mughalgardens. The lofty double storeyedstructure is built on a huge highplatform terrace which has a row ofcalls with arched openings. Thecentral chamber is octagonal inshape and contains the tomb. Eachside of the mausoleum has a largearched alcove in the centre withsmaller ones on either side. It has ahigh marble double dome in thecentre and pillared kiosks withcupolas surrounding it. Built of redsandstone with an inlay of black,white and yellow marble it presentsan imposing picture. Planned by aPersian architect and constructedby Indian workers, it is acombination of both Persian and
Agra FortA greater part of the fort atAgra was constructed by Akbarstarting in 1565 AD andcompleted it in 1574 A.D.Situated on the bank of theriver Jamuna, it is a massiveand grand structure. Thespecial feature of this fort is the2.5 kms. long and 21metres high circuitous wall ofsolid red sand stone. Thestones are linked with ironrings so close that not even ahair can pass through. Theentrance to the fort is throughtwo gateways. The mainentrance known as Delhi Gatewas the ceremonial entrance tothe fort. The other smallergateway is called the Hathi Polor Elephant Gate because ofthe two huge elephants on
Fatehpur SikriAkbar’s greatest architecturalachievement was theconstruction of Fatehpur Sikri,his Capital City near Agra. Theconstruction of the walled citywas started in 1569 A.D. andcompleted in 1574A.D. contained some of themost beautiful buildings – bothreligious and secular whichtestify to the Emperor’s aim ofachieving social, political andreligious integration. Thereligious edifices worthmentioning are the Jami Masjidand Salim Chisti’s Tomb. Thetomb built in 1571 A.D. in thecorner of the mosquecompound is a square marblechamber with a verandah. Thecenotaph has an exquisitelydesigned lattice screen around
Buland DarwazaA magnificent gateway wasadded later in 1571-72 tocommemorate his conquest ofGujarat. Built of red sandstone and marble it is said tobe the “most perfectarchitectural achievement inthe whole of India". A flight ofsteps lead to the gatewaywhich is about 53 metres inheight and 39 metres inwidth. Entrance is through ahuge arched domed recess. Abroad rectangular stripbordering the archway hascalligraphic inscriptions onit. At the corners are slenderturrets. The beautifulperforated parapet and the rowof kiosks with cupolas add tothe dignity of the monument.
Akbar’s Tomb - SikandraThe Mausoleum of Akbar atSikandra near Agra wasstarted by Akbar andcompleted by his son Jahangirin 1612 A.D. who changed theoriginal design of his father.Designed on the model of aBuddhist Vihara, it is set in thecentre of a squaregarden. The enclosure wall oneach side has a gateway. Themain gateway has four whitemarble minarets in the fourcorners. The Mausoleum hasfive terraces, rising from thebasement, one above theother, diminishing in size asthey ascend. The red sand-stone entrance gateway is thelargest and is richly decoratedwith inlaid coloured stone work.
Itmad-Ud-Daula’s TombThe Mausoleum of Itmad-ud-Daula, the revenue minister ofJahangir and Nur Jehan’sfather was built in Agra on thebanks of the Jumuna. Startedby Jahangir it was completedby Nur Jehan in 1628 A.D. Asmall rectangular structure inwhite marble, inlaid with semi-precious stones and colouredglass, it is a delicate andbeautiful piece ofarchitecture. It is the first puremarble monument and differsfrom the typical massive, redsand-stone structures of earlierMughals. Situated in a gardenamidst fountains, it has asquare lower storey with fourminarets in the four corners. Atraceried pavilion forms thesecond storey. A centralchamber inside contains the
Itmad-Ud-Daula’s Tomb•Shah Jehan, the most famous of the Mughal builders had apassion for building.•His buildings are marked by the quality feminity, grace andelegance.• They do not show the masculinity of Akbars solid red sand-stone constructions.•Mughal architecture reached the peaks of excellence duringthis reign.•The main characteristics of his buildings are – The use of delicately carved white marble richly decoratedwith pietra dura or inlay of coloured stones and calligraphy inblack marble.•Some of his outstanding works are the Moti Masjid or PearlMosque in Agra Fort and the Taj Mahal, the Red fort in Delhiwith the Diwan-i-Am and Diwan-i-Khas, the Jami Masjid in
Jama Masjid - DelhiThe Jama Masjid in Delhi is thelargest mosque in India andwas built between 1650-1656A.D. It is constructed on ahigh platform and approachedby a flight of steps on threesides. The main entrance is adouble storeyed gateway andleads to a vast squarecourtyard which is enclosed bypillared corridors. The prayerhall, rectangular in plan has afacade of eleven arches. Thehigh central arch is flanked bytall slender minarets withcupolas. White marble panelswith inscriptions frame thearches. Three domes withalternate black and whitemarble stripes surmount theprayer hall. On the easterncorners, stand two tapering
Red Fort - Delhi The fortress is in the shapeof a rectangle 900 metres by550 metres. The rampartwalls are about 34 metreshigh. A moat surrounds therampart. Two of the fivegateways of the fort are three-storeyed structures flankedby octagonal towers. Theseare the Lahori Gate and theDelhi Gate. Figures of twohuge elephants flank theDelhi Gate. The mainentrance to the fort isthrough the Lahori Gate. Acovered passage with shopson either side leads to thepalaces inside the fort.Barracks for soldiers,audience halls, horse andelephant stables, and
Taj MahalThe Taj Mahal in Agra, a dreamin white marble was built byShah Jehan as a memorial tohis beloved wife MumtazBegum. Built on the banks ofthe river Jumna, it was startedin 1632 A.D. and took 22years to complete. Marblefrom Makrana and preciousstones from different parts ofthe world were used in itsconstruction. Planned by Isa,a Persian architect it is amasterpiece ofarchitecture. The Taj issituated in the centre of a highmarble terrace. A marbleminaret of four storeys standson each of the four corners ofthe terrace. The minarets arecrowned with domes. Themain structure is a square. Ahuge, vaulted recess withsmaller arched recesses in two
Taj MahalAn octagonal hall with anexquisite perforated marblescreen contains the cenotaphsof Mumtaz and ShahJehan. The vaulted ceiling iscrowned in the centre by alarge bulbous dome whichtapers off into a foliatedcrest. Around the dome arefour cupolas. The surface ofthe walls – exterior and interiorand the cenotaphs arebeautifully decorated withpietra dura, floral andgeometrical designs. Bordersof inscriptions decorate themain archways.A Mosque on the west and acorresponding structure on theeast in red sand-stonecomplete the effect ofsymmetry. Situated in a largeenclosed rectangular garden
Bibi Ka MaqbaraAurangzeb being a puritandid not encourage art in anyform. Architecture and fineArts declined during his reignnever to come up againduring Mughal rule. One ofthe very few buildings of thisperiod worth mentioning isthe mausoleum of his wife,Rabia-Ud-Daurani erected in1679 A.D. in Aurangabad(Deccan) by her son. A poorreplica of the Taj Mahal andhalf its size, it shows theextent to which art haddeclined. Its noteworthyfeatures are the latticedoctagonal white marblescreen, which encloses thetombs and the beaten brassdoors with floral panels and
The Mughal period in the Indianhistory is one of the gloriousperiods that have enriched India inmultifarious ways. Art andarchitecture had received a greatfillip during the Mughal period thathad gifted us with architecturalgems that have defied the passageof time in their appeal and