Rise in buddhism and jainism


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Rise in buddhism and jainism

  2. 2. STUPAS ♠ The plan, elevation, section and total form is derived from a circle ♠ The Stupas were large halls with a dome and bore symbols of the Buddha. ♠ The famous stupa emerged under the architectural patronage of Ashoka. ♠ First made with brick, but when Ashoka realized that they wouldn‟t stand the vigours of time and weather, he switched to stone. ♠ Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. ♠ World famous stupais atSanchi. ♠ A small square balcony at the top is known as „Harmika‟ ♠ Around the base of the dome a terrace (medhi) was added from the ground, thus adding aseparate and upper ambulatory passage (pradakshina path)1.8 m wide. ♠ The 4 gateways are known as Toranas. ♠ Toranas consist of 2 square upright columns. 2
  3. 3. ♠ The Panels on toranas consists of figures.♠ Western- group of dwarfs♠ Southern- lions♠ Northern and eastern- elephants♠ The ambulatory or pradikshna path is fenced by railing known as „vedica‟. 3
  4. 4. ASHOKA PILLARS ♠ It was erected by Ashoka. ♠ It has an important place in Buddhist architecture. ♠ The pillar at Sarnath is more than 15m high. ♠ It has a group of four lions on it. ♠ These lions originally supported a massive metal wheel with 24 spokes called “wheel of law”. ♠ It‟s capital more than 2 m high. ♠ It resembles the shape of an inverted bell. ♠ It has a circular abacus. ♠ Contains 4 figures of animals( elephant, bull, lion & horse) ♠ Animals symbolize guardians of four quarters of universe ♠ Elephant- east 4
  5. 5. ♠ Bull – south ♠ Horse – west ♠ Lion- northCHAITYAS ♠ A chaitya is a Buddhist or Jain shrine including a stupa. ♠ Chaitya is often used to denote assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa. ♠ It has a small rectangular door-way which opens to a vaulted hall. ♠ It is divided longitudinally by 2 collonades. ♠ The roof is usually semi-circularVIHARAS ♠ They are the residential places of Buddhist priests. 5
  6. 6. ♠ There are 25 rock cut viharas at Ajanta and 11 at Ellora. ♠ They consist of a main hall, assembly hall and dining chambers. ♠ Cells are provided for meditation. ♠ The shrines contain beautiful figures of Buddha. ♠ The walls depict the stories based on Buddhas life. ♠ They were usually built of stone or brick.Ajanta caves ♠ These caves altogether 30 in number are located in the shape of a horse-shoe and contain all the characteristics of Buddhist architecture. ♠ They were intended to be monastery and contain “Chaitya” (prayer- hall) and “Viharas” (residential facilities for monks). 6
  7. 7. ELLORA CAVES ♠ Total 12 Buddhist cave. ♠ There is only one chaitya and the remaining are viharas. ♠ At Ellora, there are in total 34 famous temples carved out of stone. ♠ The cave temples of Ellora can be divided into three groups, mostly belonging to three periods: Buddhist, Hindu and Jain. ♠ Out of 34 cave temples only 12 of the temples belong to the Buddhist period. ♠ Infact even these temples also include the Hindu and Jain theme. This represents the slow decline of Buddhism.VISVAKARMA CAVE ♠ Vaulted hall. ♠ 2 rows of colonnades forming a broad nave in the centre. ♠ Stupa has a cylindrical base supporting a huge dome with statue of Buddha seated in front with his feet down. ♠ Columns are rectangular. ♠ They carry heavy entablature which is elaborately sculptured. 7
  8. 8. FRESCOES OF AJANTA♠ The Ajanta caves are famous for their Frescoes.♠ The Ajanta paintings contain beautiful paintings and illustrations in Buddhas life.♠ Ranked among world‟s finest mural paintings.♠ Plaster used for walls is about 1 cm thick.♠ Plaster comprises of hay, cow dung and rice husk.♠ The surface was made evenly smooth.♠ The surface was then coated with lime.♠ Outlines were drawn and finally color was applied to produce beautiful paintings. The art and architecture under mauryan and gupta empires 8
  9. 9. ♠ Sculptures and wall paintings of Ajanta Caves♠ The themes dominate the influence of Buddha♠ These art pieces of this place depict the daily life of the then India whilst showcasing the intricacies of the sculpture during the Gupta period.♠ Buddhist art flourished during this period, which has often been described as a golden age.♠ A famous rock-cut monastery at Ajanta consists of several chaitya halls and numerous residential viharas.♠ Both facades and interiors contain elegant relief sculpture, while interiors are covered with painted murals that feature superb figures. THE END 9