BRIEF SUMMARY• INTRODUCTION ON HEALTH PROBLEMS• ROLE OF HEALTH IN A WORLD CLASS CITY• MUMBAI A MAJOR CITY IN INDIA• HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI• MAJOR FACTORS CAUSING HEALTH PROBLEMS• STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT AND NGO’S• ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE IN OVERCOMING THESE PROBLEMS
INTRODUCTION Health problems are caused due to various factors such as :-• Malnutrition• Allergies• Genetic disorder• In born diseases• Change in climatic conditions• Natural calamities• Surrounding environmental conditions
CONDITIONS CAUSING HEALTH PROBLEMS IN A WORLD CLASS CITY• Unplanned urbanization is a marked feature of Indian demography during last 40-50 years.• Therefore the impact of the problems that come with urbanization is much more severally felt in this state and particularly in cities like Mumbai.• Urban poverty manifests in informal settlements and slum which have little or no access to sanitation, water supply, education and health infrastructure.
MUMBAI A MAJOR CITY IN INDIA• With more than 18 million inhabitants, Mumbai is the most popular and populous city of India.• It is the sixth most populated city of the world.• Mumbai is the richest city and entertainment capital of India.• It is also the commercial hub of India, attracting thousands of immigrants from all over the country.• This has resulted in a spike in urban poverty giving rise to slums in mumbai.
MAJOR FACTORS CAUSING HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAISOCIAL FACTORS• Rapid and unplanned urbanization is much more severally problem of mumbai.• Increasing number of migrants resulting in increase in population.
MAJOR FACTORS CAUSING HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAISOCIAL FACTORS• Urban poverty is also the basic problem of Mumbai, were 50% of population lives in slum.• Uncivilized society and improper knowledge of health.
MAJOR FACTORS CAUSING HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS• It is also badly affected by pollution.• Improper disposal of garbage and waste products.• Unsafe sewage disposal.• Unplanned and exposed drainage.
MAJOR FACTORS CAUSING HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI• Improper infrastructure and road facilities.• Improper supply of water.• Poor and unsafe health facilities.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI Top sensitive diseases registered across Mumbai1. Malaria and Dengue2. Diarrhoea and Typhoid3. Hypertension4. Tuberculosis5. Diabetes6. Hepatitis7. HIV
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI1.Malaria and Dengue :-• Malaria is mosquito borne diseases.• Malaria is prevalent in Mumbai because of the significant amount of rainfall and high humidity.• This diseases is mainly caused in rainy season.• Water logging and improper disposal of wastes creates a favourable condition for mosquito which causes Malaria.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI2. Diarrhoea and Typhoid :-• Diarrhoea is also called as loose motion.• Consumption of contaminated water and unhygienic food is the major cause Diarrhoea and Typhoid.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI3. Hypertension :-• Hypertension is the term used to describe high blood pressure.• Sedentary lifestyle, stress excessive smoking and intake of alcohol are the major causes of hypertension in Mumbai.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI4. Tuberculosis :-• Tuberculosis is a contagious diseases.• TB infected persons coughs , sneezes or, talks tiny droplets of saliva are expelled into the air, which can be inhaled by another person.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI5. Diabetes :-• High blood pressure, obesity and high fat diet, high alcohol intake and sedentary lifestyle are the major causes of Diabetes.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI6. Hepatitis:-• People working in health care professions, having multi-sexual partners, Drugs users, Hemophiliacs.• It is more common among lower socioeconomic and poorly educated individuals.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI7) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, AIDS )• HIV is majorly a sexually transmitted diseases.• Factors leading to rapid increase of HIV in Mumbai :-• Late night parties and consumption of alcohol which leads to unsafe sex.• It is also transmitted by unsafe use of medical equipments or apparatus.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI Various other factors causing various health problems:- Poor road condition:-• Due to poor road condition people traveling by various means of transport suffer from severe upper and lower back pain.• This also affects pregnant ladies resulting in miscarriage.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAIAir Pollution:-• Increase in number of vehicles industrial growth and unwanted smoke leads to air pollution in metro city Mumbai.• This majorly affects of studying and working crowd.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI1. Short-term effect :-• Irritations in eyes, nose and throat.• Upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia.• Affect the health of people suffering from asthma.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAI2. Long-term effects:-• Includes chronics respiratory diseases, lung cancer, heart diseases, and even causes damage to the brain, nerves, liver and kidney.• It also affects lungs of growing children.
HEALTH PROBLEMS IN MUMBAIWater Pollution:- Poor drainage system, unsafe disposal of waste and unsafe water supply leads to various water-born diseases such as cholera, typhoid.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT AND NGO’S• In Mumbai the health infrastructure is provided by :-• Public and Private Hospitals.• Government and Municipal Corporation of Mumbai.• NGO`S and Other Private Organisations.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT AND NGO’SPublic and private hospitals :• Mumbai has about 22,000 hospital beds distributed in about 1000 health care centres.• Of these about 17 are municipal hospitals which can be afforded by the urban poor who make up 50% of the population.• There are approximately 1000 diagnostic centres, clinics and urban health centres in mumbai.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT AND NGO’SManagement and disposal of waste:• More than 5000 metric tons of solid waste is generated every day in Mumbai.• BMC employs about 20,000 workers for solid waste management• The municipal corporation is in charge of the disposal of this waste.• Evidently these corporation cannot cope up with the task.
STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT AND NGO’SROLE OF NGO`s :-• There are variety of NGO`s that are trying to address all these diverse problems and concerns in the health scenario in mumbai.• These organizations are involved in providing allied health care services as well as advocacy & lobbying with the Government.• Groups of NGO`S like SNEHA, HELP, CEHAT and ACASH focuses issues related to nutrition empowerment and other health problems.
ROLE OF ARCHITECTURE IN OVERCOMING THESE PROBLEMS• Proper drainage system.• Proper location of dumping ground.• Construction of roads.• Provision of stalls to avoid hawkers.• Provision of public toilets with proper cleaning and maintenance.• Provision of dustbins at regular intervals in main streets and internal pathways.• Proper landscaping to minimize the air pollution.• Proper town planning, itself improves the standard of living which results in improvement and maintaining the good health of society.