Organizational Development Interventions


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Organizational Development Interventions

  1. 1. OD Interventions© Ramakrishna Kongalla, Assistant Professor Rtist @ Tourism
  2. 2. OD interventions• "Interventions" are principal learning processes in the "action" stage of organization development.• are structured activities used individually or in combination to improve their social or task performance.• introduced by a change agent as part of an improvement program• "Structured activities" mean such diverse procedures as experiential exercises, questionnaires, attitude surveys, interviews, relevant group discussions, and even lunchtime meetings between the change agent and a member of the client organization.• Every action that influences an organizations improvement program in a change agent-client system relationship can be said to be an intervention. Rtist @ Tourism
  3. 3. • There are many possible intervention strategies from which to choose. Several assumptions about the nature and functioning of organizations are made in the choice of a particular strategy.• Beckhard lists six such assumptions: – The basic building blocks of an organization are groups (teams). Therefore, the basic units of change are groups, not individuals. – An always relevant change goal is the reduction of inappropriate competition between parts of the organization and the development of a more collaborative condition. – Decision making in a healthy organization is located where the information sources are, rather than in a particular role or level of hierarchy. – Organizations, subunits of organizations, and individuals continuously manage their affairs against goals. Controls are interim measurements, not the basis of managerial strategy. – One goal of a healthy organization is to develop generally open communication, mutual trust, and confidence between and across levels. – People support what they help create. People affected by a change must be allowed active participation and a sense of ownership in the planning and conduct of the change. Rtist @ Tourism
  4. 4. • Interventions range from those designed to improve the effectiveness of individuals through those designed to deal with teams and groups, intergroup relations, and the total organization.• There are interventions that focus on task issues (what people do), and those that focus on process issues (how people go about doing it).• Finally, interventions may be roughly classified according to which change mechanism they tend to emphasize: – for example, feedback, awareness of changing cultural norms, interaction and communication, conflict, and education through either new knowledge or skill practice. Rtist @ Tourism
  5. 5. • One of the most difficult tasks confronting the change agent is to help create in the client system a safe climate for learning and change. In a favorable climate, human learning builds on itself and continues indefinitely during mans lifetime.• Out of new behavior, new dilemmas and problems emerge as the spiral continues upward to new levels. In an unfavorable climate, in contrast, learning is far less certain, and in an atmosphere of psychological threat, it often stops altogether.• Unfreezing old ways can be inhibited in organizations because the climate makes employees feel that it is inappropriate to reveal true feelings, even though such revelations could be constructive.• In an inhibited atmosphere, therefore, necessary feedback is not available. Also, trying out new ways may be viewed as risky because it violates established norms.• Such an organization may also be constrained because of the law of systems: If one part changes, other parts will become involved. Hence, it is easier to maintain the status quo.• Hierarchical authority, specialization, span of control, and other characteristics of formal systems also discourage experimentation. Rtist @ Tourism
  6. 6. • The change agent must address himself to all of these hazards and obstacles. Some of the things which will help him are: – A real need in the client system to change – Genuine support from management – Setting a personal example: listening, supporting behavior – A sound background in the behavioral sciences – A working knowledge of systems theory – A belief in man as a rational, self-educating being fully capable of learning better ways to do things.• A few examples of interventions include team building, coaching, Large Group Interventions, mentoring, performance appraisal, downsizing, TQM, and leadership development. Rtist @ Tourism
  7. 7. Major Types of Interventions• The field of Organization Development uses a variety of processes, approaches, methods, techniques, ap plications, etc., (these are often termed "interventions") to address organizational issues and goals in order to increase performance.• The following partial list of interventions is organized generally in the order presented by Cummings and Worley in their "Organization Development and Change" (West Publishing, 1993). Rtist @ Tourism
  8. 8. Human Process InterventionsGuiding Individuals Group-Based• Coaching • Conflict Management Counseling Dialoguing Delegating Group Facilitation Leading Group Learning Morale (Boosting) Self-Directed Work Teams Mentoring Team Building Motivating Virtual Teams Rtist @ Tourism
  9. 9. Technostructural Interventions• Downsizing and Outsourcing Organizing Tasks, Jobs and Roles Organizing Staff Business Process Re-Engineering ISO9000 Total Quality ManagementStrategic Interventions• Business Planning Cultural Change Large-Scale Interventions Organizational Transformation Strategic Planning Rtist @ Tourism
  10. 10. Human Resource Management InterventionsEmployee Performance Management Employee Wellness Programs• Establishing Performance Goals • Diversity Management Performance Plans Drugs in the Workplace Observation and Feedback Employee Assistance Programs Evaluating Performance Ergonomics: Safe Facilities in the Rewarding Performance Workplace Recognizing Performance Problems HIV/AIDS in the Workplace ("Performance Gaps") Personal Wellness Performance Improvement / Preventing Violence in the Workplace Development Plans Safety in the Workplace Staffing Spirituality in the Workplace Firing EmployeesEmployee Development• Career Development Leadership Development Planning Management Development Planning Personal Development Personal Productivity Personal Wellness Supervisory Development Planning Training and Development Rtist @ Tourism
  11. 11. most common OD Interventions that companies practice1. Applying criteria to goalshere the leadership establishes objective criteria for theoutputs of the organizations goal-setting processes.Then they hold people accountable not only for statinggoals against those criteria but also for producing thedesired results.Example:Organizations are implementing the concept of BalancedScorecard, X-Matrix etc., to capture the goals of theemployees, which in turn is helpful in their assessmentand mid-term correction of their performance. Rtist @ Tourism
  12. 12. 2. Establishing inter-unit task forcesThese groups can cross both functional parts of theorganization (the "silos") as well as employee levels.They are ideally accountable to one person and areappropriately rewarded for completing their assignedtask effectively. Then they disband.Example:Organizations have introduced various schemes forrewarding their employees for their performance, like:- Introducing the concept of Variable pay in as a part ofCTC- Spot Recognition Award- Project bonus, performance bonus etc., Rtist @ Tourism
  13. 13. 3. Experimentation with alternative arrangementsToday organizations are subject to "management bybest-seller." The goal in these interventions is to createwhat is being called a "learning organization," one thatperforms experiments on organizational structure andprocesses, analyzes the results, and builds on them.Example:Organizations today are targeting at streamlining theprocess of Learning and Development and encouragingthe culture of Learning in the organizations.- Targeting achieving mandatory man-days of training fortheir employees- Introducing the Competency based practices Rtist @ Tourism
  14. 14. 4. Identifying "key communicators"This is to carefully determine who seems to be "in the know"within the organization. These people often do not know thatthey are, in fact, key communicators. This collection ofindividuals is then fed honest information during criticaltimes, one-on-one and confidentially.Example:Defining the process of Organizational Communication policy- Introducing Top – down and Bottom – up Communicationapproach- Introducing Employee Forums and Suggestion Box optionsfor employee interaction- Identifying Critical employees in the organization andmaking them the Brand Ambassadors of their company Rtist @ Tourism
  15. 15. 5. Identifying "Fireable Offenses"This intervention deepens the understanding of andcommitment to the stated values of the organization. Thisfacilitates the work of the Top Management to answerthe critical question, "If were serious about thesevalues, then what might an employee do that would beso affrontive to them that he/she would be fired?"Example:- Publishing and Instilling Values and Beliefs among allemployees- Introducing Policies like Whistle Blowing, SexualHarassment etc., Rtist @ Tourism
  16. 16. 6. In-visioningThis is actually a set of interventions that help to "acculturate"everyone in the organization into an agreed-uponvision, mission, purpose, and values. The interventions mightinclude training, goal setting, organizational survey-feedback, communications planning, etc.7. Team BuildingThis intervention can take many forms.Example:The most common is interviews and other pre-work, followedby a one- to three-day offsite session. During the meeting thegroup diagnoses its function as a unit and plans improvementsin its operating procedures. Rtist @ Tourism
  17. 17. 8. Inter-group Problem SolvingThis intervention usually involves working with thetwo groups separately before bringing themtogether. They establish common goals andnegotiate changes in how the groups interface.Example:This is practiced in Product DevelopmentCompanies and most of the IT and ITES Companies.- Focused group discussion are encouraged by themanagement, for generating better ideas andconcepts Rtist @ Tourism
  18. 18. 9. Management/leadership trainingMany OD professionals come from a training background. Theyunderstand that organizations cannot succeed long term without well-trained leaders. The OD contribution there can be to ensure that thedevelopment curriculum emphasizes practical, current situations thatneed attention within the organization and to monitor the degree towhich training delivery is sufficiently participative as to promiseadequate transfer of learnings to the job.Example:Most of the organizations today are focusing at LeadershipManagement for their employees. Earlier, this was targeted to the TopManagement alone, but now, organizations are seeing its relevance toinculcate the leadership skills in their middle management and juniormanagement as well.- Business Organization Retreat (BOD) is being the most commonpractice, is a part of this initiative. Rtist @ Tourism
  19. 19. 10. Setting up measurement systemsThe total-quality movement emphasizes that allwork is a part of a process and that measurement isessential for process improvement. The ODprofessional is equipped with tools and techniquesto assist leaders and others to create measurementmethods and systems to monitor key successindicators.Example:- The concepts like Six Sigma, TQM etc act asMeasurements tools for the process followed in theorganization. Rtist @ Tourism
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  22. 22. Thank You…!!!©Ramakrishna Kongallae-mail: Rtist @ Tourism