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Organizational development interventions

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Organizational
Development
Interventions
Debbie Nell G. Geronimo
OD
INTERVENTIONS
INTERVENE
“To intervene is to enter
into an ongoing system of
relationships, to come
between or among persons,
groups, or objects for the
purpose of helping them.”
Chris Argyris
(July 16, 1923 – November 16, 2013)
INTERVENTION
Interventions are sets of structured activities
in which selected organizational units engage in a
series of tasks which will lead to organizational
improvement.
The intervention is the procedure the OD
consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational
situation and providing feedback to management,
to address an organization problem or positive
future.
CRITERIA FOR
EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS
1. The Extent to Which it (the Intervention)
fits the needs of the organization.
2. The degree to which it is based on causal
knowledge of intended outcomes.
3. The extent to which the OD intervention
transfers change-management competence to
organization members.
2 Factors that Impact the Success of
OD Interventions
1. Factors relating to Change Situation
These relate to the environment of the
organization and include the physical and human
environment.
A. Readiness for Change
B. Capability to Change
C. Cultural Context
D. Capabilities of the
Change Agent
Ad

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Organizational development interventions

  • 2. Debbie Nell G. Geronimo OD INTERVENTIONS
  • 3. INTERVENE “To intervene is to enter into an ongoing system of relationships, to come between or among persons, groups, or objects for the purpose of helping them.” Chris Argyris (July 16, 1923 – November 16, 2013)
  • 4. INTERVENTION Interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units engage in a series of tasks which will lead to organizational improvement. The intervention is the procedure the OD consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational situation and providing feedback to management, to address an organization problem or positive future.
  • 5. CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE INTERVENTIONS 1. The Extent to Which it (the Intervention) fits the needs of the organization. 2. The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended outcomes. 3. The extent to which the OD intervention transfers change-management competence to organization members.
  • 6. 2 Factors that Impact the Success of OD Interventions 1. Factors relating to Change Situation These relate to the environment of the organization and include the physical and human environment. A. Readiness for Change B. Capability to Change C. Cultural Context D. Capabilities of the Change Agent
  • 7. 2. Factors Related to the Target of Change 2 Factors that Impact the Success of OD Interventions These relate to the specific targets at which OD interventions are targeted. The targets of change can be different issues of the organization and at different levels. A. Organizational Issues B. Organizational Levels
  • 8. A. Organizational Issues 1. Strategic Issues 2. Technology and Structure Issues 3. Human Resource Issues 4. Human Process Issues
  • 9. B. Organizational Levels OD interventions are aimed at different levels of the organization: individual, group, organization and trans-organization
  • 11. GROUPS TEAMS 1. A number of persons 1. A form of group 2. Usually reporting to a common superior 2. Has some characteristics in greater degree than ordinary groups 3. Having some face-to-face interaction 3. And a higher degree of interdependency and interaction 4. Persons have some degree of interdependence in carrying out tasks for the purpose of achieving organizational goals.
  • 13. TEAM INTERVENTION The purpose of this team is to help employees/members of the team that are struggling in some way. This usually refers to performance but can include emotional / behavioral / social concerns.
  • 14. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEAMS 1. Cross-Functional Teams Comprised of individuals with functional home base but they meet regularly to solve ongoing challenges requiring input from a number of functional areas 2. Effective Teams Effective teams are relaxed, comfortable and informal. 3. High Performance Teams Have strong personal commitment to each other commitment to other’s growth and success.
  • 15. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEAM INTERVENTION
  • 16. These activities focus on task issues such as the way things are done, the skills and resources needed to accomplish tasks, the quality of relationship among the team members or between members and the leader, and how well the team gets its job done. TEAM BUILDING Interventions focus on: 1. Formal Groups 2. Special Groups
  • 17. 4 MAIN AREAS OF TEAM INTERVENTION 1. Diagnosis 2. Task Accomplishments 3. Team Relationships 4. Team and Organization Processes
  • 18. Its purpose is to conduct a general critique of the performance of the group and to uncover and identify problems on which they will work on. THE FORMAL GROUP DIAGNOSTIC MEETING “Where we are going” and “how we are going.” After sharing the data throughout the group, next steps are: discussing the issues, grouping the issues in terms of themes, and getting a preliminary look at the next action steps.
  • 19. Primary emphasis is on processes such as communications, leader and member roles in groups, problem solving and decision making, group norms and group growth, leadership and authority, and intergroup cooperation and competition. PROCESS CONSULTATION INTERVENTIONS It places greater emphasis on diagnosing and understanding process events
  • 20. STEPS IN TEAM INTERVENTION Step 1 - Identify At-Risk Population It must be determined which members are “at-risk”. The lowest 10% in each level will be the target group. Step 2 - Initial Intervention Team Meeting Review data with all personnel in attendance. Brainstorm interventions. Other interventions may have been agreed upon during the initial Intervention Team meeting. Step 3 - Interventions Begin Step 4 - Second Intervention Team Meeting Step 5 - Request for Further Testing
  • 21. 1. Clarify Direction 2. Inspiring Performance 3. Building Relationships and Trust 4. Conflict Management 5. Relating to the External World TEAM INTERVENTIONS
  • 23. • The focus of this is on improving intergroup relations. • OD methods provide ways of increasing intergroup co-operation and communication. • Blake, Shepherd and Mouton have developed activities applicable to stressed situations in the forms of steps.
  • 24. THIRD PARTY PEACE MAKING Intermediaries (or third parties) are people, organizations, or nations who enter a conflict to try to help the parties de-escalate or resolve it.
  • 25. WALTON’S APPROACH TO THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING Walton has presented a statement of theory and practice for third-party peacemaking interventions that is important in its own right and important in its own right and important for its role in organization development.
  • 26. FOUR ELEMENTS OF WALTON’S MODEL FOR DIAGNOSIS OF CONFLICT SITUATION: 1. The conflict issues. 2. Precipitating circumstances. 3. Conflict relevant acts. 4. The consequences of the conflict.
  • 27. SOURCES OF CONFLICTS SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES EMOTIONAL ISSUES  Involves disagreements over policies and practices, competitive bids for the same resources and differing conceptions of roles and role relationships.  Involves negative feelings between the parties (Examples: anger, distrust, scorn, resentment, fear, rejection)  Require problem -solving and bargaining behaviors between the principals.  Requires restructuring perceptions and working through negative feelings.
  • 28. WALTON’S OUTLINE FOR PRODUCTIVE CONFRONTATION (PROCESS OF ADDRESSING CONFLICT) 1. Mutual positive motivation. 2. Balance of power. 3. Synchronization of confrontation others.
  • 29. 4. Differentiation and integration of different phases of the intervention must be well paced. 5. Conditions that promote openness should be created. 6. Reliable communicative signals. 7. Optimum tension in the situation.
  • 30. ORGANIZATION MIRROR INTERVENTION • It is a technique designed to work unites feedback in how other elements of organization view them. • Set of activities in which host group receives feedback about how it is perceived and regarded from reps across organization.
  • 31. PARTNERING • Used in situations where two or more entities are likely to incur unnecessary and/or cost overruns. • A variation of team building and strategic planning
  • 33. These are the interventions that are comprehensive in the terms of the extent to which total organization is involved and/or the depth of cultural change addressed. COMPREHENSIVE OD INTERVENTIONS
  • 34. GETTING THE WHOLE SYSTEM IN THE ROOM Getting all the key actors of a complex organization or system together in a team building for future planning kind of session.
  • 35. BECKHARDS CONFRONTATION MEETING The confrontation meeting is developed by Richard Beckhard, is one day meeting of the entire management of an organization, in which they take a reading of their own organizational health.
  • 36. PROCESS OF CONFRONTATION MEETING PROCESS DURATION 1. Climate Setting 45 – 60 mins 2. Information Collecting 60 mins 3. Information Sharing 60 mins 4. Priority setting and group action planning 75 mins 5. Immediate follow-up by top team 60 – 180 mins 6. Progress Review 120 mins (four-six weeks later)
  • 37. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES The concept is described by Schendel and Hofers It is defined as the development and implementation of the organization’s grand design or overall strategy for relating to its current and future environmental demands.
  • 38. 6 MAJOR TASKS OF STRATEGIC MGT ACTIVITIES 1. Goal Formulation- Defining Mission & purpose 2. Environmental analysis- SWOT Analysis 3. Strategy formulation 4. Strategy evaluation 5. Strategy implementation 6. Strategic control
  • 39. STREAM ANALYSIS • Developed by Jerry Porras is a valuable model for thinking about change and for managing change. • Displaying the problems of an organization, examining the interconnections between the problems, identifying core problems and graphically tracking the corrective actions taken to solve the problems.
  • 40. STEPS OF STREAM ANALYSIS 1. Categorizing the important features of organizational work setting in to four streams. a. Organizational arrangements b. Social factors c. Technology d. Physical Setting
  • 41. 2. Diagnosing the problems and barriers to effectiveness 3. Classifying the problems into four streams. 4. Identifying the core problems by noting the interconnections between the problems. STEPS OF STREAM ANALYSIS
  • 42. SURVEY FEEDBACK It’s a process of systematically collecting data about the system and feeding back the data for individuals and groups at all levels of the organization to analyze, interpret meanings and design corrective action steps.
  • 43. 2 COMPONENTS OF SURVEY FEEDBACK ACTIVITIES 1. Climate or attitude survey 2. Feedback workshop
  • 44. GRID ORGANIZATONAL DEVELOPMENT • It’s a six phase program lasting about three to five years, an organization can move systematically from the stage of examining managerial behavior and style to the development and implementation of an ideal strategic corporate model. • It enables individuals and groups to assess their own strengths and weaknesses.
  • 45. PHASES IN GRID ORGANIZATONAL DEVELOPMENT Phase 1: The Managerial Grid Phase 2: Teamwork Development Phase 3: Intergroup Development Phase 5: Implementing the Ideal Strategic Model Phase 4: Developing an Ideal Strategic Corporate Model Phase 6: Systematic Critique
  • 47. • This class of interventions includes changes in how the overall work of an organization is divided into units, who reports to whom, methods of control, the arrangement of • It is called as techno structural interventions. equipment and people, work flow arrangements and changes in communications and authority. STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION
  • 48. 6 TYPES OF STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION 1. Structural Design is largely associated with experiments attempted to create better fit among the technology, structure and social interactions of a particular production unit.
  • 49. PREMISES OF SOCIOTECHNICAL SYSTEM 1. Effective work system must jointly optimize the relationship between their social and technical parts. 2. Such system must effectively manage the boundary separating and relating them to the environment.
  • 50. 2. SELF-MANAGED TEAMS A self-managed team has total responsibility for its defined remit. That remit might be a specific project. A self- managed team thrives on TYPES OF STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION interacting skill sets, on shared motivation and shared leadership.
  • 51. 3. WORK REDESIGN Hackman and Oldham – theoretical model of what job characteristics lead to the psychological states that produce what they call “HIGH INTERNAL WORK MOTIVATION” FIVE CORE JOB CHARACTERISTICS 1. Skill Variety 2. Task Identity 3. Task Significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback from Job
  • 52. 4. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE (QWL) An attempt to restructure multiple dimensions of the organization and to institute a mechanism, which introduces and sustains changes over time.
  • 53. QWL FEATURES 1. Voluntary involvement on the part of employees 2. Union agreement with process and participation. 3. Assurance of no loss of job 4. Training for team problem solving 5. Use of quality circles 6. Participation in forecasting, work planning 7. Regular plant and team meetings. 8. Encouragement for skill development. 9. Job rotations.
  • 54. 5. REENGINEERING The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.
  • 55. 6. LARGE SCALE CHANGE AND HIGH PERFORMANCE SYSTEMS When a number of OD and other interventions are combined to create major changes in the total culture of an organization, the term large scale is used.
  • 57. TEAM INTERVENTION Cherry Andrea G. Lucero Organizational Development Interventions COMPREHENSIVE OD INTERVENTIONS Junior Hilario STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION Nacer Ferreras INTER-GROUP AND THIRD PARTY INTERVENTIONS Alex B. Hermogeno MPA 1A - Camarin Debbie Nell G. Geronimo OD INTERVENTION & ITS CONCEPTS