• A museum is an institution which assembles, studies and conserves the
objects, in order to set them before public for communication and knowledge
supported by them.
• The true conception of a museum is an institution with educational uses.
• The principle is presentation i.e. to exhibit the objects belonging to the
• Visual and tactile experience is used to sharpen the encounter between the
object and the observer.
• Hence also serve as an inspiration for personal growth.
• The success of museums depend on three circumstances:
Firstly, their connection with modern ideas of progress and evolution.
Secondly, their optimistic approach for authenticity.
Thirdly, their aim of reflecting history on basis of documents .
• They present natural phenomena, technology innovations and scientific ideas.
• The experience motivates children and adults to become more inquisite.
• There must be only one public entrance, placed quite separately from the others.
• It should be attractive even to the casual passes and should interest them.
• It should provide an easy introduction to the visitor from outside.
• There should be adequate museum service zones in which packages are left, guide
books, notices are displayed and security checks carried out.
• The entrance acts an transition area, they help to the eyes to adapt to the eye
• A social gathering place.
• An orientation space.
• The size of the entrance hall varies on
The number of visitors.
Architectural expression of the place.
Functions for the space.
• Functions of the entrance hall are:
Cloak Room: For placing visitor’s baggage for security reasons.
Enquiry and Sales Counter
• The main objective of displaying exhibits is to get their message across the visitors.
• The gallery must create an environment conductive for the purpose.
• The spatial character of the gallery must provide a spontaneous and unconscious
• The visitor must be able to have an overall view of the space and should be able to
locate himself in relation to some known point.
• The general principles considered while designing shall be:
People enjoy surprises and visual excitement.
Change in scale, lighting and layout make the journey short.
People are curious in nature, hence crowds and queue attracts them.
• Paths: Routes of movement.
• Spaces left between exhibits can be channelised by screens.
• Relationship between path and object determines viewing sequence.
• Edges: the linear elements and boundaries between paths. An edge defines,
separates yet brings out cohesion.
• District: points of reference which remain external and unlike nodes are not
May be equally distant objects or small signs that give clue of position.
These are sections which can be grasped mentally, provide pause and make each
section more graspable.
• Nodes: These are focal points where paths converge and these act as a hub of
• Pictorial Walk Through: While moving through a gallery or planning door
openings, it should be considered that a visual continuity is ensured –as you
some out of the gallery, something interesting must invite you.
• Giving the Eye Rest: Exhibits in a gallery must be sensitively placed so as to
attract the attention of the viewer.
In an observation, the eye stars off at the top and sees everything they can.
Soon they begin to tire and select, in self defense they cease to observe
aggressive colours and strange shapes.
Hence, the familiar shapes like the disc, the ring, the square and the
are easily seen and held in vision.
Hence, to make sure that the visitor does not lose his initial elation, it is
essential to have more rest than movement in the general design pattern.
• Pacing is the means of both reducing mental fatigue and physical fatigue.
• They result from object satiation, disorientation, lack of contrast as well as
• Pacing is achieved by:
Visual Relationship of Spaces: Allow simultaneous view of spaces to create a
sequence of serial viewing to provide easy orientation.
Relief Areas: If the visitor walks through a number of galleries at a stretch
then he tends to lose interest.
Contrast and Diversity of Spaces: Variety in spatial character prevents
monotony and stimulates the spirit of enquiry.
After every couple of galleries there should be visual and physical areas to
keep the visitor alert for further communication with the exhibits.
• The Viewing:
• The first and foremost criteria is seeing
• Pacing is the means of both reducing mental and physical fatigue.
• Owing to their communicative and imprehensive nature, visitors can easily
acknowledge and comprehend models.
• The circulation of a space establish the sequence of its sensed realization.
• The space is judge by the flow of impressions .
• When in motion one sees a image of series blending into an espanding visual
realization of objects, sense and space.
• The three main group of circulation are:
Public Circulation: Both for visitors and students.
good and exhibits circulation.
• Ideally the visitor entering the museum should sense the disposition of public
services exhibits with minimum help from signs and displays.
• Reception facilities should be visible from the entrance and then the
architecture should lead the way.
• Non exhibits area should be next to the entrance.
• Controlled Circulation :when the exhibits have a story to tell in a
definite sequence, the only to ensure that every body sees everything is
through controlled circulation.
• People are not offered choice of route, it requires careful planning.
• This shhould not last more than 100 yards and there should be loosening of
layout to avoid the feeling of unbearable consruction.
• Each display is carried by every visitor, hence adequate space for stopping and
looking must be provided around special displays likely to draw large crowd.
• Uncontrolled Circulation: in this public is allowed free choice of
things to see.
• It may lead to confusion as the visitor may miss out many exhibits.
• In children’s gallery , where informal and playful is required , such a layout is
• A good design should ensure freedom for visitors as well as direct them.
MODES OF DISPLAY
• Display is a graphic in 3 dimension.
• The arrangement of objects in space, sculptured by light is the strength if displays.
• The major modes of display are:
• Panels/Screens : Mainly used for 2-D exhibits.
the interactive communication cant be achieved by this mode.
• Models and animation models
• Unconventional models.
• Display cases.
owing to their communicative and comprehensive nature,all visitors easily
acknowledge and comprehend models.
They need to be designed aesthetically to attract the attention of the visitor.
models can be widely used to demonstrate the various facets of science in an
interesting manner for young minds.
MODES OF DISPLAY
• They are able to capture the attention of the public due to their ability to animate
and communicate an application.
• They are basically used in exhibiting industrial processes and specula fiction effects.
• Though all exhibits can’t be made lucid to all age groups , this mode is effective in
communicating in a dynamic manner.
• Such models however need specific conditions of environment as well as technical
• Therefore they are only used for permanent exhibits.
• These are essentially miniature, protected rooms having items meant for display
within the confined format of partly or entirely glass enclosed box.
• Cases give protection by their showcases.
• Theft is made impossible, as it requires forcible entry.
• Dust or insects are excluded or minimized.
• Local climatic conditions can be controlled or created.
• In a museum lighting determines how we feel and how we perceive things.
• PHYSIOLOGICALLY: the lighting must highlight the object on display.
• It must create the right ambience.
• There are two types of lighting:
natural and artificial lighting.
• Daylight is rarely satisfactory for exhibits as it is too far temperate in cold
countries and far too brilliant in tropical countries.
• Daylight has daily and seasonal changes with unpredictable patterns
depending on cloud cover, atmospheric pollutions and other climatic
• Daylight can only be successful in illuminating large areas to stimulate natural
• However some exhibits need natural daylight like plants, large engineering
exhibits and most sculptures.
• It provides a steady less liable source of light which least liable to be affected
by lateral obstacles.
• Wall space is as a result left free for display and exhibits.
• However maintenance is a problem.
• This type is also difficult to inculcate in multistory.
• It is provided either by windows of various shapes and sizes placed at suitable
intervals in the walls or by continuous openings
• They provide a convenient and economical method of regulating ventilation
• Acts as an excellent relief by providing pleasant views of the outside natural
• However it also causes glare and reflections which impedes the visibility and
decreases flexibility of interior layout.
• Wall space is also rendered useless comparitively.
• It is a continuous band of window above the eye level on the side extending to the
• Sun breakers may be used.
• Not recommended as reflections and glare where glass is used to protect the
• Space around the window is rendered useless.
CORNER WINDOW LIGHTING
• Glare can be eliminated in this case and there is more freedom in space
MONITORS AND INVERTED MONITORS
• Direct light falls on the walls and objects.
• Can be used in single storey buildings as the lower floors cannot get top lighting.
Hence, since natural light cannot be avoided, it is best to use it as general light with
artificial light over specific exhibits.
It is desirable to have natural light to refresh the visitor’s mind.
• Ideal exhibition conditions are attained where every aspect of the display is
controllable and the light can be focused, moved, colored and all remains
independent of weather.
• Hence these aspects can be controlled t control interest, mood attention and even
• It is desirable for an exhibition to have both light and dark areas so that object stand
• One should be able to achieve light levels to achieve variation in illumination with
moderate levels in brightness to connect spaces dramatic and theatrical effects can
be sought out by artificial light.
• These are non directional and cannot be focused or used to project a parallel beam.
• Reduce glare and used as general lighting.
• These are directional and used to highlight on certain spot.
• More flexible in use and expensive.
• Can be used in conjunctions with reflectors.