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Dissertation _ Museum

Architecture is the art of spaces. The human feelings were influenced by architectural
space from time to time. Relating to the design of a history museum, it could evoke a
certain feeling or memory of a historical event. This dissertation focuses on the
influence of architectural space over period of times.
A theoretical as well as practical key issue in the design of museum and galleries is how
the layout of space interacts with displays to create a specific effect, express the intended
message to visitors. This dissertation aims to capture and represent the history of
mankind’s understanding of space in the design of an architectural building.

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Dissertation _ Museum

  3. 3. HINDUSTAN UNIVERSITY: PADUR, CHENNAI - 603 103 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “ AN ICONIC TIME MUSEUM REFLECTING THE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE OF THE CHENNAI METROPOLIS ” is the bonafide work of “M.SENTHIL ( 1350010)” who carried out the project work under my supervision. Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the work reported here does not form part of any other project / research work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. DEAN PG & COLLABORATION SUPERVISOR PROF. KERSTIN FRICK PROF. DR. RAVI KUMAR BHARGAVA School of Architecture School of Architecture Hindustan Institute of Hindustan Institute of Technology Technology and Science, Padur and Science, Padur The Project Viva-Voce Examination is held on _______________ INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  4. 4. i    ABSTRACT Architecture is the art of spaces. The human feelings were influenced by architectural space from time to time. Relating to the design of a history museum, it could evoke a certain feeling or memory of a historical event. This dissertation focuses on the influence of architectural space over period of times. A theoretical as well as practical key issue in the design of museum and galleries is how the layout of space interacts with displays to create a specific effect, express the intended message to visitors. This dissertation aims to capture and represent the history of mankind’s understanding of space in the design of an architectural building. Bruno Zevi describes: “Architecture… does not consist in the sum of the width, length and height of the structural elements which enclose space, but in the void itself, the closed space in which man lives and moves.” In a museum, there are many different functions. It is impossible to deal with all these functions with the same type of space. Even the exhibition spaces are not all the same. The fixed exhibition room is different from the temporary exhibition space because of its simpler function and particular atmosphere, which relates to the individual theme of each fixed exhibition room.
  5. 5. ii    It is confirmed by the designer at the beginning of the process, which can be presented by architectural language. Nevertheless, the temporary exhibition needs to suit different displays. A large, open and neutral space is a good solution. The elements of space play an important role in differentiating one space from another. By means of designing the element, the features of space can be intensified. The elements include the enclosing elements, which define the space, such as plane elements (floor, deck and overhead) and vertical elements (column and wall), and circulation elements, such as horizontal circulation (windows and doors) and vertical circulation (stairs and ramps). The features also depend on the qualities of the space that intimately relates to these elements, which is the result of the composition of different elements. The form; the colour, texture, pattern and sound; the proportion and scale; the definition and configuration; the degree of enclosure, light and view are all the qualities of space that the design is based on. This dissertation comprises of all the spatial and functional requirements of a museum planning. The design component of this project is located in Chennai, a metropolitan city. It intends to impress visitors with a vivid history of its development thro architectural expressions.
  6. 6. iii    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank my dissertation supervisor Professor Dr. Ravi Kumar Bhargava for his guidance and input during our tutorials and throughout this process. I would also like to thank my wife, Er. S. Jayalakshmi for all of her love, help and encouragement during my studies at Hindustan University. Lastly, I would like to thank my friends for their support. M. SENTHIL            
  11. 11. viii    LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. TITLES PAGE NO. 1.1 Methodology Chart 10 2.1 Museum planning process 14 2.2 Circulation Diagram 17 2.3 Gallery Circulation 18 2.4 Circulation Pattern 19 2.5 Type of Displays 20 2.6 Exhibition spaces 21 2.7 Display Standards 22 2.8 Cone of vision 23 2.9 Cone of vision 23 2.10 Natural lighting 25 2.11 Artificial lighting 27 2.12 Layout of Services 28 2.13 Fazards of State Museum 30 2.14 Aerial view of State Museum 30 2.15 Gallery Views of State Museum 31 2.16 Gallery Views of State Museum 32 2.17 Ground Floor Plan 34 2.18 First Floor Plan 34 2.19 View of Bharat Bhavan 36 2.20 Aerial view of Bharat Bhavan 36
  12. 12. ix    2.21 Views of Bharat Bhavan 37 2.22 Views of Bharat Bhavan 38 2.23 Plan of Bharat Bhavan 39 2.24 Views of Bharat Bhavan 40 2.25 Site Sectional View of Bharat Bhavan 40 2.26 View of Science Centre 42 2.27 Aerial View of Science Centre 42 2.28 View of Science Centre 43 2.29 View of Science Centre 44 2.30 Block Model of Science Centre 45 2.31 View of National Museum 46 2.32 Aerial View of National Museum 46 2.33 Ground Floor plan 47 2.34 First Floor plan 48 2.35 Second Floor plan 48 2.36 Interior View 49 2.37 Aerial View of Ningbo Historic museum 51 2.38 Elevation view 52 2.39 Side view 53 2.40 Various perspectives 53 2.41 Front View 54 2.42 Front View 56 2.43 Front View 58 2.44 Interior View 58 2.45 Plan 59
  13. 13. x    3.1 1980’s View of Egmore Museum 61 3.2 View of Museum 62 3.3 Site plan of Museum 64 3.4 Sculpture gallery 65 3.5 Hindu Sculpture gallery 65 3.6 Ground and First floor plan of Main Building 66 3.7 View of sculpture Gallery 67 3.8 Ground and First floor plan of Front Building 68 3.9 View of Anthropology Gallery 69 3.10 View of Bronze Gallery 69 3.11 Ground and First floor plan of Bronze Gallery 70 3.12 View of Children’s Gallery 71 3.13 Ground and First floor plan of Children Museum 72 3.14 View of National Art Gallery 73 3.15 Ground floor plan of National Art gallery 74 3.16 View of National Art gallery 74 3.17 View of Contemporary Art gallery 75 3.18 Ground and First floor plan of Contemporary Art Gallery 76    
  14. 14. xi    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ASI – Archaeological Survey of India BIM – Building Information Modeling CCTV – Closed Circuit Tele Vision CMDA – Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority DCR – Development Control Rules HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ICOM - International Council of Museums MEP – Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing UV - Ultra- Violet  
  15. 15. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Museum is a temple, where art and knowledge are most important. It has a balance between devotion to art. Three primary task of a museum: Education Presentation Forming of a collection Nowadays, the public would not go to a museum in the first instance to acquire knowledge or information. Instead, visitors of a museum expect to go through a unique experience. This is why museums should be able to offer an “event” in their competition with movie theatres, amusement parks and shopping malls. This dissertation topic discuss, how the museum reflecting the essence of past, present and future of its city to the visitors. This study has developed into a structured way to enhance inter-disciplinary museum design work, by developing a prescriptive design process framework. 1.1 DEFINITION Museums are defined as ‘semi-formal’ places of learning which collect, display and interpret artefacts of some sort, for educational purposes. This study paper focuses on collections-based museums, as distinct from ‘science centres’ which utilise interactive exhibits to illustrate culture. In The Emergence of the Modern Museum, Siegel defines a museum as, ‘a collection of repository of rare and curious things in nature and art, arranged for the purposes of study.’
  16. 16. 2 1.1.1 ICOM Definition The International Council of Museums (ICOM) is an international non-governmental organization of museums and museums professionals which is committed to the conservation, continuation and communication to society of the world’s natural and cultural heritage, present and future, tangible and intangible. The ICOM is based in Paris. It was established in 1946. With approximately 30,000 members in 137 countries, ICOM is a network of museum professionals acting in a wide range of museum-and heritage-related disciplines. ICOM defines museum for Study / Education / Enjoyment. It defines museum as “It is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, and open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, material evidence of people and their environment” 1.1.2 Educational Role of the Museum “The museum has an important duty to develop its educational role and attract wider audiences from all levels of the community, locality or group it serves. It should offer opportunities for such people to become involved in the museum and to support its goals and activities. Interaction with the constituent community and promotion of their heritage is an integral part of the educational role of the museum” Learning in museums generally involves a visitor or a group of visitors attending to an object, a display, label, person, element or some mental construct of these. Museum learning has long been examined in relation to attracting power and loading power of exhibits in museums. The information thus collected by the visitors is stored in the brain and remains there over a period.
  17. 17. 3 The information a visitor receives during a museum visit tends to bear a ‘contextual map’. The museum visit represents a collection of experiences rather than a single unitary phenomenon. Any information obtained during the museum visit is likely to include social related, attitude related, cognitive related and sensory related association. These associations will become embedded in memory altogether with the result that anyone facet of these experiences can facilitate the recall of the entire experience. 1.2 HISTORY OF MUSEUM For centuries, museums have played an important role in societies around the world. They are cultural institutions in which people are able to come, learn, and enjoy art. Some museums have gained a reputation for their collection of art. An examination of the evolution of the museums from their early years leading up to the present will be used to reveal their impact on society and to explore how museums can and do play a role in cultural diplomacy, most notably through art exhibitions. The concept of museums in India may be traced back to the historic times, in which references to the Chitrasala (picture gallery) do occur. However, in India the museum movement post-dates the similar developments that occurred in Europe. The earliest necessity to house objects of antiquarian remains dates back to late 1796 AD when the Asiatic Society of Bengal felt the need to house the enormous collection of archaeological, ethnological, geological, zoological pursuits. However, the first museum by them was started in 1814. The nucleus of this Asiatic Society Museum later provided to the Indian Museum, Calcutta. In Archaeological Survey of India also, due to the various explorative investigations that was initiated since the times of its first Director General, Alexander Cunningham, vast quantity of antiquarian remains were collected.
  18. 18. 4 The creation of site museums had to wait until the arrival of Sir John Marshall, who initiated the founding of the local museums like Sarnath (1904), Agra (1906), Ajmer (1908), Delhi Fort (1909), Bijapur (1912), Nalanda (1917) and Sanchi (1919). The concept of site museums is well elucidated by Hargreaves, one of the former Director Generals of ASI: “it has been the policy of the Government of India to keep the small and movable antiquities, recovered from the ancient sites, in close association with the remains to which they belong, so that they may be studied amid their natural surroundings and not lose focus by being transported’. A separate Museums Branch in ASI was created in 1946 by Mortimer Wheeler. After the independence, there was a spurt in the growth of site MUSEUMS in ASI. At present there are 44 site museums under the control of ASI.” 1.2.1 About Chennai Museum This dissertation topic is oriented towards Chennai metropolitan city. The Chennai museum was founded in 1851. Under Mr. Thurston’s care the museum has been greatly developed. The policy adopted has been to render it a popular illustrate guide to natural history, and it is appreciated by the public is sufficiently shown by the fact that it is visited annually by more than 400,000 persons. Among the most valuable objects in the archaeological section are the sculpted marbles from Guntur District. The collection of arms and armor from arsenal in the fort and the Tanjore palace, the prehistoric antiquities, and the numismatic collection, which is especially rich in coins of the various native dynasties of southern India and of the various European companies which have held was there, are other notable possessions of the institution. Attached to the museum is the Connemara public library, which was opened in 1896, and a theatre, capable of seating 400, provided with a stage adapted for lectures, conferences and charitable entertainments by amateurs.
  19. 19. 5 1.3 SPACE 1.3.1 The Essence of Space Space is the soul of architecture, as Lao Tzu said in 600 BC: “We put thirty spokes tighter and call it a wheel; but it is on the space where there is nothing that the utility of the wheel depends. We turn clay to make a vessel; but it is on the space where there is nothing that the utility of the vessel depends. We pierce doors and windows to make a house; and on these spaces where there is nothing that the utility of the house depends. Therefore, just as we take advantage of what is, we should recognize the utility of what is not.” The utility of architecture is not the solid shell which enclose a space, but the space itself. Of course, to enclose a certain space, we must use physical materials, and in accordance with certain construction methods to fit these materials together. But these are not the purpose of architecture, but a means of achieving. 1.3.2 The Features of Space Architecture is the art of space: its visual form, its dimensions and scale, the quality of its light — all of these qualities depend on our perception of the spatial boundaries defined by elements of form. As space begins to be captured, enclosed, molded, and organized by the elements of mass, architecture comes into being. The space that concerns architects is most usually expressed in an enduring architectural element: the room. The room is a human creation. The root of the word is related to “Raum”, which in German means “a place cleared for settlement or lodging.”
  20. 20. 6 The features of space make one space different from others, just like a bedroom is different from a living room and an office is different from a library. It makes the bedroom cosier and the library quieter. It makes a space vivid and affecting. When a space is a living room as well as a bedroom, it will lose some features in order to fit the multiple functions of it. Thus the features could be linked to the function of the space. While the space is only with a single function, the feature of this space is pure, strong and the most affecting. Apparently, when a space is multifunctional, the feature of it would become neutral to cater for different functions. In a museum, there are many different functions. It is impossible to deal with all these functions with the same type of space. Even the exhibition spaces are not all the same. The fixed exhibition room is different from the temporary exhibition space because of its simpler function and particular atmosphere, which relates to the individual theme of each fixed exhibition room. It is confirmed by the designer at the beginning of the process, which can be presented by architectural language. Nevertheless, the temporary exhibition needs to suit different displays. A large, open and neutral space is a good solution. The elements of space play an important role in differentiating one space from another. By means of designing the element, the features of space can be intensified. The elements include the enclosing elements, which define the space, such as plane elements (floor, deck and overhead) and vertical elements (column and wall), and circulation elements, such as horizontal circulation (windows and doors) and vertical circulation (stairs and ramps). The features also depend on the qualities of the space that intimately relates to these elements, which is the result of the composition of different elements. The form; the colour, texture, pattern and sound; the proportion and scale; the definition and configuration; the degree of enclosure, light and view are all the qualities of space that the design is based on.
  21. 21. 7 1.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY The following are the need for study about museum planning process: • To analyse the feel of space in an human environment. • To provide a effective circulation path and services. • To develop new concepts for interior spaces as well studying sustainable building materials thro case studies. • To investigate museum architecture and to define the role of a contemporary museum in terms of function and architectural implementation. The above said need clearly defines the importance of museum studies, hence this topic as dissertation. 1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This dissertation aims to explore how people make meaning in and from museums, through the spaces from time to time. Museums are broadly viewed as places of informal learning, and most people visit museums expecting to learn something. This Dissertation seeks to explore various representations of contemporary and historical spatial conceptions, using architecture as the medium for representation. From this research, it is hoped that the reader will gain an understanding of space and the impact it has on museums. A museum has specific functions different from other kinds of buildings. Its architecture, interiors and exhibitions are unique. Museum space follows function and its interior space should respond to and go well with its exhibitions. In addition, the exhibitions, presentations and displays should be interesting and interactive. The architecture should communicate scientific feeling and thought to the visitors.
  22. 22. 8 The purpose of this dissertation is to find interpretation guidelines for a historic museum and appropriate methods of communicating with visitors via the museum’s exhibits, interiors and exterior. This dissertation focuses on the major issues in literature study and case study. They are: 1. Site location 2. Buildings, surroundings and architectural interpretation, and 3. Museum interiors, activities and exhibitions. The findings suggest that the museums have differences according to their site locations, classifications, interior spatiality and exhibitions, and in their architecture, which are iconic of museums. The solutions are guidelines for cultural history museum design 1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS Identifying the scope and addressing the limitations of the work about to be undertaken is particularly pertinent for a project such as this. Documentation of the space with careful consideration of the parameters and limitations to work within. The subjects covered in this dissertation are very broad and can cover many areas. Due to constraints on the amount of text allowed, only areas that pertain to this topic will be covered. 1.7 HYPOTHESIS The central hypothesis for this study is that built environments which possess a quality of expression of space in both interior and exterior from time to time. How does architecture affect our experience of museums? How does it relate to the ‘art of exhibiting’? Intrigued by these questions and guided by the belief that space can be seen as the content of the museum building, as important as the objects themselves, this paper presents the findings regarding the interaction between spatial design and display layout. To test the hypothesis, this research utilizes secondary data.
  23. 23. 9 1.8 METHODOLOGY The methodology for this research is qualitative and is derived mostly from desk research both in libraries as well as from the Internet. The majority of the research and evidence to support the hypothesis comes from books, articles and government documents. The framework for this study will be an informational examination of museums as a whole, not sticking to any specific departments but to examine museums as cultural institutions and how they fit into society in times. The fig: 1.1 show the methodology chart for this study. This methodology chart explains the first step, about the study of general information of museum planning. This includes the components of museum planning, definition of museum and evolution of museum space in terms of foreign context and Indian context. The next step is the study of issues in museum planning from various case studies. Then the classification of issues in different aspects is made from the findings. Then the detail study is made for each aspects through different case studies. Finally, the synthesis is made for each aspect and scope for further research is identified.
  24. 24. 10 GENERAL STUDY OF MUSEUM PLANNING ♦ Various definitions ♦ Site selection ♦ Zoning ♦ Evolution of museum space (Foreign & Indian context) ♦ Museum circulation ♦ Type of Exhibits ♦ Type of Display ♦ Lighting ♦ Services ISSUES IN MUSEUM PLANNING (Through various case studies) CLASSIFICATION OF MUSEUMS MUSEUM DESIGN FACTORS SYNTHESIS SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCH Fig: 1.1 Methodology chart
  25. 25. 11 CHAPTER 2 DATA COLLECTION The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is the largest government institution in-charge of monuments of national importance. These monuments and sites have vast quantities of antiquarian remains that were unearthed and collected at archaeological sites across India by ASI. Archaeological Survey of India [ASI] has prescribed set of guide lines for planning a museum. Six pillars of museum management identified offer a stable, long lasting framework to prepare the guidelines for ASI museum: 1. Research and Dissemination 2. Preservation and Conservation 3. Interpretation and Presentation 4. Education and Outreach 5. Visitor Services and Amenities 6. Administration and Management 2.1 TYPE OF MUSEUMS It varies, from large institutions, covering many of the categories below, to very small institutions focusing on a specific subject, location, or a notable person. Categories include: fine arts, applied arts, craft, archaeology, anthropology and ethnology, biography, history, cultural history, science, technology, children's museums, natural history, botanical and zoological gardens. Within these categories many museums specialize further, e.g. museums of modern art, folk art, local history, military history, aviation history, philately, agriculture or geology. Another type of museum is an encyclopedic museum. Commonly referred to as a universal museum, encyclopedic museums have collections representative of the world and typically include art, science, history, and cultural history.
  26. 26. 12 The type and size of a museum is reflected in its collection. A museum normally houses a core collection of important selected objects in its field. This paper focuses on cultural history museum. 2.2 DESIGN GUIDELINES While the overall guidelines for the archaeological site-museums, they will require specific additions and interpretations to aid the visitor’s understanding of the period. In other words people should have an experiential visit to such museums which is evoked through good lighting, sound/music, recorded material, interactive spaces and audio-visual footage to enhance the ambiance. 1. The building’s ambience should be maintained inside as well as outside. Landscaping around the building should be developed in a way that it complements the experience within the museum. 2. Aesthetic choices support and reflect the theme and tone of the exhibition. 3. Orientation, spatial organization, and traffic flow are appropriate to the goals of the exhibition. 4. The physical space (such as layout, lighting, flooring) is created in such a way that audience members of varying physical sizes and abilities are able to navigate and interact with the exhibition. 5. If required audio-visual footage, voice recordings, ambiance music etc. may also be used for creating a complete experience. Other than following ASI guidelines for museum planning, the local building development control rules also to be followed, the museum comes under institutional buildings category in DCR [ Development Control Rules ].
  27. 27. 13 2.3 PLANNING FACTORS The museum planning involves planning the actual mission of the museum along with planning the space that the collection of the museum will be housed in. The way that museums are planned and designed vary according to what collections they house, but overall, they adhere to planning a space that is easily accessed by the public and easily displays the chosen artifacts. The planning Process of a museum should be using the storyboard as a guide, the designer should then proceed to evaluate and allocate exhibition space according to storyboard themes and other visual and communication needs. Fig 2.1 Shows museum planning process. The Selection of appropriate site and zoning the functional requirements and Determine the circulation space needed, including disabled access requirements, security needs and official legal norms such as fire escapes. Examine and distribute objects by units, sections, subsections that correspond to themes and sub-themes in the script and story board and designing the exhibition furniture system: panels, free standing exhibit showcases, screens, case shelves, block cases, table cases, wall hung panels and other wall mounted elements.
  28. 28. 14 PLANNING Site selections Site Zoning Space requirements Circulation Displays Exhibits Services Lighting Fig: 2.1 Museum planning process
  29. 29. 15 2.3.1 SITE SELECTION Site selection involves measuring the needs of a new project against the merits of potential location. Site selection is part of the planning. Lists of factors affecting the decision are usually drawn up, including: • Availability, • Access, • Cost of acquisition and development • Security considerations • Visibility • Compatibility of neighboring facilities Each factor should be weighted before it is evaluated. The weighting of site selection factors should be done in relation to fundamental issues of the museums mission, its policies and its institutional character. 2.3.2 ZONING OF A MUSEUM Zoning as a museum Planning Tool. In the practice or designing the zoning can be arranged as • Public Collection Areas: Zone with environmental controls and security designed for the preservation of collections. • Non Public Areas: Zone which is meant for the staff alone with environment controls and security. • Public Non-collection Areas: Zone in which the finish and durability and environment created for human comforts. • Non Public-Collection Areas: Zone in which the finish and durability and environment created for the staffs alone.
  30. 30. 16 Zoning analysis is a useful tool or the following reasons. • It clearly indicates the amount of space that must be contained within the museums environment. • It provides benchmarks which assist the museum project beam in monitoring the brief, • It forms the basis for preliminary of building running costs. 2.3.3 CLIMATE The Building should be oriented in such a way it gets a natural benefits for all seasons. Proper shading devices designed for controlling natural light glare over the displays. Avoid drastic changes in humidity and temperature at all times. As a general rule, temperature and humidity guidelines set for storage areas are appropriate for exhibit gallery areas as well. If the exhibit gallery contains a door used by the public to enter and exit the museum, do not put artifacts near the door in order to avoid extreme changes in temperature and humidity. The Light levels in storage: Brightness and UV levels are damaging to collections and should be controlled. Cover all lights with UV filters, especially florescent tubes. Refrain from storing any artifact in an area with sunlight 2.3.4 CIRCULATION IN INDOOR AND OUTDOOR Circulation space identifies area of a building that is used for pedestrian travel, such as a hallway, stair way, and areas in a room that leads to another room. It is generally not good to have a home with a high percentage of circulation space. When you visit a building, your main focus should be the rooms and not the hallway.
  31. 31. 17 • Develop exhibitions with these visitor circulation patterns in mind. Design so that visitors do not have to take extra steps. • Minimize the number of steps by not requiring backtracking. • Don’t design with multiple choice points where visitors have to make choices or where they will exit the exhibition without giving attention to all of the exhibit elements. • Avoid designing two-sided exhibitions where exhibits on one side compete with those on the other. Fig. :2.2 Circulation Diagram
  32. 32. 18 Designing circulation spaces should be: • Widen corridors beyond the typical 8-9 feet currently in use. • Corridors should be able to easily handle two-way traffic. • Break up corridor lengths. This will reduce travel time and also discourage kids from running through the halls. • Keep corridors a consistent width. Corridors that expand and contract create bottlenecks. • Consider rounding or angling corners so there is a sight line to the intersecting corridor. • Blind corners can be a hazard. People who walk at a fast pace or turn corners quickly do not see the traffic in the intersecting hallway. • This can lead to congestion, bumping, collisions, and altercations. Fig. : 2.3 Gallery Circulation
  33. 33. 19 2.3.5 EXHIBIT OF DISPLAYS Spaces should reinforce and promote the audience’s engagement with the collection Concluding accessory uses. While walking through a museum, we’ll often encounter stunning and displays that are meant to show a certain artifact or piece of artwork in the most attractive way possible. These visually stimulating displays often invoke awe and wonder in children and adults alike. These wondrous displays are referred to as museum exhibits. They can be found in all types of museums, including art museums, history museums, and science museums. Museum exhibits are set up and arranged to be both attractive and educational. Designing a museum exhibit, therefore takes a good deal of careful planning and hard work. The exhibits in a museum are typically set up so that they are placed and displayed as naturally as possible. They must also be designed with a museum’s available space . Fig. : 2.4 Circulation Pattern
  34. 34. 20 Some exhibits are designed to be permanent fixtures in a museum, while others are only temporary. Some may be designed to allow hands-on interaction, while others must be protected from curious museum goers. Fig. : 2.5 Type of Displays
  35. 35. 21 2.3.6 TYPE OF DISPLAYS If the cases are arranged with gently curving lines to take advantage of this pattern of movement visitors will find the room more attractive and can progress easily with the line of the case. Fig. : 2.6 Exhibition spaces
  36. 36. 22 fig 2.6 shows Often the arrangements can be staggered which produces a certain mystery and a desire on the part of the visitor to peek around corners to see what is next. Cases that area arranged to narrow the entrance a bit, so that the hall inside then opens out, provide a certain amount of interest. Display Case A display case is a cabinet with one or often more transparent glass (or plastic, normally acrylic for strength) sides and/or top, used to display objects for viewing. A display case may be freestanding on the floor, or built-in . Built-in displays may be mounted on the wall, may act as room partitions, or may be hanging from the ceiling. Fig. : 2.7 Display Standards
  37. 37. 23 Cone of Vision The cone of vision is the visual region displayed by a drawing that relates to a person’s normal vision without his/her peripheral vision. In a nutshell, the cone of vision is the area of sight – or the angle of sight. For example, if a person wanted to see the entire art display, usually a cone of vision is 60 degrees is required, so a person would need to sit far enough back to achieve this degree of vision. Fig. : 2.8 Cone of vision Fig. : 2.9 Cone of vision
  38. 38. 24 2.3.7 MATERIALS The materials used for the building construction as well for the exterior treatment should be locally available one, and also it should reflect the region’s character. Going for a locally available materials give a way to sustainable development. And for the Exhibit spaces, it is best to use stable materials in the construction of cases. However, if for example, unstable materials need to be used because of financial reasons, there are precautions that may be taken to minimize harmful effects. Seal all wood with a water- based polyurethane sealant. Covering the wood with metal foil will work also. Used industrial shelving is an option for ready-made storage solutions. Cover the shelving with stable materials appropriate to the collection: i.e., ethafoam, volara. Use dust covers for open shelving. Unbleached cotton muslin works well for many solutions. 2.3.8 LIGHTING Lighting in museums and art galleries plays a key role in a visitor's ability to perceive and enjoy both the artefacts in a museum and the building in total. In order to develop a successful lighting scheme, a museum lighting designer must satisfy many conflicting design requirements. Dramatic variations in light levels from exhibit to exhibit, or from exterior to interior, can affect a visitor's ability to appreciate artwork because the human eye requires several minutes to adjust to large changes in light levels. Sharply contrasting light levels between a bright entry and a dark gallery can be very disturbing, and potentially The elements of exhibit lighting match the three goals of any museum: • PRESENTATION: Showing the true beauty of art and historic artifacts • PRESERVATION: Protecting exhibits from fading and damage, and • CONSERVATION: Conserving energy, resources, manpower and funds
  39. 39. 25 NATURAL LIGHTING Natural lighting is achieved through the use of atriums and cut out spaces, especially by north lighting. Fig.3.8 shows the plan and section of various natural lighting arrangements. Fig. : 2.10 Natural lighting
  40. 40. 26 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING • Fluorescent lighting: Behing case fasica panel [ without diffusing panel separating light from case interior]; angles of vision muset be calculated to avoid glare from light source. • Vertical Lighting: Slim Fluorescent tubes set in case corners, forming light columns; suitable far wall cases with solid sides. • Fluorescent column: set behind case uprights; a possible solution far lighting in old wall cases. • Side Lighting: Louvres essential to mask fluorescent tubes; accurate calculation of light spread is needed to ensure even illumination on case back panel. • Internal case lighting: Slim light box for miniature fluorescent or incandescent lamps; brightness at eye level should be carefully controlled; wiring to the light box, housed in case corner, may be distracting. • External lighting: through flass tap, but heat may build up unless ‘cool’ light source is used; objects can cast shadows when lit by slanting light and possible problems of glare. • Integral Lighting: Light box separated from case interior by diffusing glass or louvers [with clear glass panel excluding dust]; fluorescent for even, well- distributed light, or tungsten, for highlighting, can be accommodated. • Lighting from below as well as from upper light box to reduce effect of shadows and to light undersides of objects; light source must be masked, usually by louvers. • Backlighting: fluorescent tubes behind diffusing material, usually opal Perspex; tubes must be evenly spaced, at some distance from diffuser; ideally fitted with dimmers to control brightness. • Strip lights [fluorescent or tungsten] attached to shelf ends inside the case, illuminating both above and below a shelf; can only be used for objects with no conservation risks.
  41. 41. 27 * Lighting is classified by intended use as general, accent, or task lighting, depending largely on the distribution of the light produced by the fixture. Forms of lighting include alcove lighting, which like most other up lighting is indirect. This is often done with fluorescent lighting. Fig. : 2.11 Artificial lighting
  42. 42. 28 2.3.9 SERVICES In the operation of collection services, not every operation necessarily requires a separate space, some services may be provided by outside agencies. As far as possible, collection movement and public circulation should be kept separate. Fig. : 2.12 Layout of services
  43. 43. 29 In Museum Planning, Building services engineering comprises mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and plumbing (MEP) engineering, all of which are further sub- divided into the following: • Communication lines, telephones and IT networks • Escalators and lifts • Fire detection and protection • Heating, ventilation and air conditioning [ HVAC] • Lightning protection • Natural lighting and artificial lighting, and building facades • Security and alarm systems • Water, drainage and plumbing Building Services influence the architecture of a building and play a significant role on the sustainability and energy demand of a building. The latest trend in MEP or building services engineering is the utilization of Building Information modeling or BIM which may include 3D and 4D modeling. 3D BIM services enable building visualization, preview or prototype of architectural structures before actual construction.
  44. 44. 30 2.4 LITERTAURE STUDY 2.4.1 STATE MUSEUM, BHOPAL The archeological department of Madhya Pradesh has about 6000 pre-historic equipments, about one lakh copper relics of copper age, about 60,000 copper inscription, 500 arms and weapons , about 1,000 very distinguished stone idols about 10,000 coins , 1000 manuscripts and about 1000 ancient miniature paintings. Fig. : 2.13 Fazards of State Museum Fig. : 2.14 Aerial view of State Museum
  45. 45. 31 Location The museum is set up on a vast precinct of 5 acres on the top of the picturesque shyamla hills is expected not only to be a major attraction for tourists and interested citizens, but a place of research interest for scholars. The museum has 16 galleries that have been categorized them- wise. The galleries are, A sales counter, library and a well-equipped auditorium are also provided. Planning The State Museum of Madhya Pradesh through careful selection of artifacts showcases the multifaceted rich cultural heritage of Madhya Pradesh. It has seventeen galleries, categorized item wise which includes pre-historic articles and fossils, excavated objects, sculptures, epigraphs, manuscripts, paintings, royal collection, textiles, documentary heritage of princely states of Madhya Pradesh, especially regarding freedom movement, miniatures, coins, rare musical instruments, arms and weapons depicting the unique heritage of Madhya Pradesh, the heartland of incredible India. A large number of fossil remains from the pre- historic sites are displayed in the Fossils gallery. Fig. : 2.15 Gallery Views of State Museum
  46. 46. 32 The paintings in the Bagh gallery which are contemporary of the Ajanta caves, replicated by Nandlal Bose in 1923 are a delight to watch. The evolution of different religions such as Buddhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism as well as the practice of worshipping Shakti and Tantricism, in Madhya Pradesh reflect the religious diversity over the ages which found its expressions in the stone and bronze sculptures displayed in the museum. The extraordinary masterpieces bear testimony to the fact that there were many master sculptors in the bygone era who were well acquainted with the principles of Iconography. Some of the sculpture exhibits are a blend of the sacred and the physical while others simply enchant the spectator as they are chiseled to perfection. Madhya Pradesh is a unique amalgamation of diverse cultural, political and religious influences over the ages. The musical instruments, literature, paintings, weapons, coins and textiles kept at the museum span many centuries. The inscriptions provide information about social, political, cultural and religious activities of those times. Fig. : 2.16 Gallery Views of State Museum
  47. 47. 33 The palm leaf manuscripts contain mythological stories and epics such as Ramayana and Mahabharata, religious practices as well as medical sciences. The manuscripts are mostly in Sanskrit and belong to the 18th and 19th century. The musical instruments gallery has made efforts to preserve some of the rare instruments. The intricate colorful illustration in the miniature paintings have evolved over the centuries and are a part of our country’s rich cultural heritage. The rare coins displayed in numismatics gallery reflect the stability and prosperity of the rulers. The earliest coins are the silver and copper punch marked coins form 2nd century B.C. Various dynasties such as the Maurya, Shunga, Satavahana, Kushana, Gupta, Pratihara, Paramara, Chandela, Kachchhapghata, Kalchuri, Mughal and later on Bundelas, Baghelas, Gonds, Maratha dynasties of Holkar and Scindia ruled over the State. The artifacts, textiles, weapons, seals and stamps from Madhya Pradesh have been protected and preserved for the posterity. Tales of valour during the freedom movement and the rising against the British have been portrayed in various documents. Also preserved are the famous autographs, letters, manuscripts as well as rare books. An interesting collection of documents of Princely States provides valuable insights toresearchers and historians. The textiles and fine embroidery such as jardozi and dabka work patronized by the Nawabas of Bhopal, acquired the status of the fine art form in Bhopal. The royal art gallery displays artifacts which were part of the personal collection of the Nawabs of Bhopal. It enhances the tourism potential of the State leading to economic development and cultural empowerment.
  48. 48. 34 The new museum building has been designed keeping in view the convenience of the visitors . The galleries have been inter- connected in such a manner so as to ensure easy access to them while maintaining the interest and the thrill of the visitors. Fig. : 2.17 Ground Floor Plan Fig. : 2.18 First Floor Plan
  49. 49. 35 The entire premises have been connected to a ramp to facilitate an easy access for the disables. A lift has also been provided. State of the art lighting arrangements like cold light and fibre lighting have been made in the building besides ensuring natural light. INFERENCES • The planning of this state museum, Bhopal’s circulation pattern is radial, which is most suitable form for museum planning. • Here all the facilities are enclosed within one building. • The distribution of different types of galleries through the central courtyard, which allows user to view galleries in a sequential order from the lobby. • Natural lighting is achieved through the use of atriums and cut out spaces. • The locally available materials is used for façade design, which gives a way for sustainable construction. • The desert sun plays a fundamental role, transforming the architecture into a play of light and shadows. • The large span of spaces can be achieved through coffer slab roof design. • Building is iconic and apt for that location.
  50. 50. 36 2.4.2 BHARAT BHAVAN,BHOPAL The Bharat Bhavan established in 1982, it is no doubt a centre for innovative creativity, pursuit of classics and tradition and wide participation in a new cultural upsurge. One of the most unique national institutes in India, Bharat Bhavan is a center for the performing and visual arts. LOCATION Bharat Bhavan is in the Shamla Hills. It is an independent trust created by the Legislature of Madhya Pradesh. Fig. : 2.19 View of Bharat Bhavan Fig. : 2.20 Aerial view of Bharat Bhavan
  51. 51. 37 Designed by the renowned architect Charles Correa, its contours merge in exquisite harmony with the landscape creating a visual impact of spacious and national elegance. It is a place for contemporary articulation, exploration, reflection and innovation. Fig. : 2.21 Views of Bharat Bhavan
  52. 52. 38 PLANNING The site is on a gently sloping plateau overlooking the lake in Bhopal. The natural contours of the site have been used to create a series of sunken courts and terrace gardens around which a number of cultural events are organized The terraces and courtyards once again reflect Correa’s concern with progression through space – the maze or puzzle – where parts are casually relieved and the complex of internal street act rather like a village layout. Fig. : 2.22 Views of Bharat Bhavan
  53. 53. 39 It is a multi art centre housing a museum of the arts, an art gallery, a workshop for fine arts, a repertory theater, indoor and outdoor auditoria, rehearsal room, and libraries of Indian poetry, classical and folk music The site for this Art Centre is on a gently sloping hill overlooking the lake in Bhopal. The natural contours of the site have been used to create a series of terraced gardens and sunken courtyards - off which are located a number of cultural facilities, including a museum of Tribal Art, a library of Indian poetry (in all the 17 major languages), galleries for Contemporary Art, workshops for lithography and sculpture, and a studio for an artist-in-residence. Fig. : 2.23 Plan of Bharat Bhavan
  54. 54. 40 Bharat Bhavan also houses a full-fledged theatrical repertoire company and facilities for the performing arts, including the Antarang (indoor auditorium), and the Bhairang (open-air amphitheater), overlooking the lake.Lighting and ventilation within the building are provided by top lights (from the concrete shells and from slots along the terrace parapets). The openings to the courtyards and terraces have two sets of shutters: the inner ones consisting of a combination of fixed glass and operable panels for light and ventilation: the outer ones consisting of large wooden doors, closed at night for security. Fig. : 2.24 Views of Bharat Bhavan Fig. : 2.25 Site Sectional View of Bharat Bhavan
  55. 55. 41 INFERENCES • This museum is owned by private institution, hence freedom of design in aesthetics can be seen. • The overall planning with respect to its site contours plays an important role in segregating various functional spaces. • The segregation of spaces can be achieved through courtyards • The sunken courts and terraced garden are the special features of this project. • The Planning has been done in such a way that the spaces are clearly identified thro the circulation path.
  56. 56. 42 2.4.3 REGIONAL SCIENCE CENTRE, BHOPAL LOCATION The Regional Science Center Bhopal was opened on 12th January 1995 by the then president of India late Shankar Dayal Sharma. The Centre is located on the Shyamla Hills. The nearest bus stops are at Polytechnic Circle and Jawahar Chowk Depot Chowraha, about 1 Km away. The distance from Habibgunj Railway station is 9 km and from Bhopal Railway station is 7 km. Fig. : 2.26 View of Science Centre Fig. : 2.27 Aerial View of Science Centre
  57. 57. 43 PLANNING The Regional Science Center is unique in whole of Madhya Pradesh, Spread over 5 acres of landscape with varieties of plants, trees and shrubs. The RSC building architecture is special where more than 266 science exhibits related to mechanics, energy, sound, light, atmosphere etc. are installed. This center is one of the 27 constituent units of National Council of Science Museums (NCSM) which is an autonomous scientific organization under the Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India. Exhibition Galleries 1. Invention 2. Fun Science 3. The Umbrella 4. The Energy 5. Science Park Science Shows 1. Tara Mandal Show 2. 3-D Science Show 3. Sky Observation Show Science Activities Indoor Activities a. Science Demonstration Lecture b. Computer Awareness Programs c. Creative Ability Center d. Popular Science Lecture e. Science Drama f. Teacher Training Programs g. Vacation Creative Ability Programs Fig. : 2.28 View of Science Centre
  58. 58. 44 Outdoor Activities a. Science Demonstration Lecture b. Mobile Science Exhibition Facilities a. Auditorium-200 seats capacity b. Conference Hall-25 seating capacity Slopes have been wisely used by designing the built spaces at different levels. In spite of different levels, the roof of the whole built up space lies in the same plane. On first floors, a series of vertical shading devices are provided rear the windows. Cylindrical shading structures with arches at its top and bottom have been provided at the elevation of projected areas of the building. Fig. : 2.29 View of Science Centre
  59. 59. 45 INFERENCES • The science centre, Bhopal planning is simple arrangement of squares in four corners through the corridors and stairs. • The museum gave circulation a high priority. • The elevation treatment will be the locally available building materials. • Overall planning and circulation spaces are interlocking the galleries • Shading devices acts as elevation design in this building. Fig. : 2.30 Block Model of Science Centre
  60. 60. 46 2.4.4 NATIONAL MUSEUM, NEW DELHI The National Museum in New Delhi is one of the largest museums in India. Established in 1949, it holds variety of articles ranging from pre-historic era to modern works of art. It functions under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The museum is situated on the corner of Janpath and Maulana Azad Road LOCATION The Museum has around 200,000 works of art, both of Indian and foreign origin, covering over 5,000 years. It also houses the National Museum Institute of History of Arts, Conservation and Museology on the first floor which was established in 1983 and now is a Deemed University since 1989, and runs Masters and Doctoral level courses in History of Art Conservation and Museology. Fig. : 2.31 View of National Museum Fig. : 2.32 Aerial View of National Museum
  61. 61. 47 Its rich holdings of various creative traditions and disciplines which represents a unity amidst diversity, an unmatched blend of the past with the present and strong perspective for the future, brings history to life. PLANNING The National Museum building has 2 floors. It has a rotunda around which the structure is based. Presently, there are several departments in the National Museum. The collections of the National Museum covers nearly all the departments. It represents almost all disciplines of art: Archaeology (Sculptures in Stone, Bronze & Terracota), Arms, Armour, Decorative Arts, Jewellery, Manuscripts, Miniatures and Tanjore Paintings, Textiles, Numismatics, Epigraphy, Central Asian Antiquities, Anthropology, Pre-Columbian American and Western Art Collections. Fig. : 2.33 Ground Floor plan
  62. 62. 48 The first floor gallery has two cupboards, containing the stone tools found across India belonging to the lower Palaeolithic period to the Neolithic age and also copper hoard objects. Mr and Mrs Heeramaneck have donated the pre-Columbian art objects. Fig. : 2.34 First Floor plan Fig. : 2.35 Second Floor plan
  63. 63. 49 The star of the museum is the strong room or the room with a built-in vault. It displays gold objects like a statue of Buddha weighing 20 kg in pure gold, an Ivory screen with four folds having pictures of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan, and other gold objects, precious stones, Tanjore paintings studded with almost two inch large stones of rubies, diamonds, emeralds and gold foil. Fig. : 2.36 Interior View
  64. 64. 50 Beside the galleries, the museum also has an auditorium with a seating capacity of 250 people. A brief film introducing the Museum and its collections is screened in the Auditorium regularly. Film shows on Art, Historical and Heritage are also shown. INFERENCES • The National Museum, New delhi as enormous collections, displayed thro various galleries. • A simple planning arrangement, which clearly leads visitors to the galleries. • Here all the facilities are enclosed within one building. • Care should be taken for the security of the artefacts. The CCTV camera ws installed and monitored. • Natural lighting is achieved through the use of atriums and cut out spaces, especially by north lighting.
  65. 65. 51 2.4.5 NINGBO HISTORIC MUSEUM, NINGBO, CHINA LOCATION Ningbo Historic Museum designed by Wang Shu, who is Professor and Head of the Architecture Department at China Academy of Art, Hangzhou and an architect from the Amateur Architecture Studio, is located in an open and clear square in Yinzhou District, Ningbo, a seaside city in the east of China. The area is a part of Ningbo city, which is a famous historical city, though it looks as if it were built last year. The roads around the square are wide enough toaccommodate 6 or more carriageways, but they are not open to traffic. There are only trees and shrubs beside the roads and withered grass between tiles. To the east of the site, there are two huge government buildings, a capacious square and a cultural centre. Across a park, there is a vast expanse of paddy field in the south of the site, but these paddy fields of a beautiful village will soon disappear. Fig. : 2.37 Aerial View of Ningbo Historic museum
  66. 66. 52 PLANNING In this area, which had been mutilated, there are only visible broken bricks and tiles everywhere. In the distance, the outline of a new high-rise apartment and an unfinished office building secretly foretells the prosperity in the future, though at present this area is temporarily in a state of limbo, with the past gone and the future still vague. The designer said that when he began to design the building, he thought of the lofty mountains. He could not design for the city, because there was no city. Therefore he wanted to create something zoetic and animate. Finally, he decided to design the museum with the concept of the mountain, which is part of the Chinese tradition. In this new and clear urban area, which lacks a vital force, the form of Ningbo Historic Museum was designed into a fragment of a mountain. The mountains are continuous, just as the urban context of a vital city is continuous. Therefore, the building, with the square border as the man-made fragment cut from the continuous mountains, remained or was left here. However, it can also be imagined as a fragment from the urban context from which a city’s rebuilding is continuing. Fig. : 2.38 Elevation view
  67. 67. 53 The bottom of the building is a simple rectangle. On the top, it is split into five pieces as a similar shape of a mountain. Visitors enter the museum through a flat 30 metre wide hole in the middle of the building. The north of the building is in an artificial pool, with soft banks and reeds planted in the water. The water runs over a stone dam in the middle of the pool, ending in the large pebble shoals. On the top of the building, there is an open platform hiding behind the five offsets. The visitors can see the view of the city and the distant view of the paddy field and the mountains. The facade of Ningbo Historic Museum is reinforced concrete molded on the surface using bamboo canes instead of wooden planks, as well as a large number of old bricks and tiles collected from old demolished buildings and demolished sites all over the region. Fig. : 2.39 Side view Fig. : 2.40 various perspectives
  68. 68. 54 This kind of wall built by recycled bricks and tiles is called Wa Pan Wall, which is developed by local farmers to cope with natural disasters but is nearly lost nowadays. The facade of the building presents 20 different types of bricks and tiles that form a unique pattern. The application of the Wa Pan Wall, with the extensive use of resource-saving recycled materials, embodies the traditional Chinese virtue of recycling construction. On the one hand, it embodies the traditional construction system of Ningbo, with its texture and colour fully integrated in nature. On the other hand, it freezes the time. These recycled bricks and tiles contain hundreds of years of history. They are the witnesses of history. The collection of these bricks and tiles coincide with the collection of history, which is the idea of the museum. The “bamboo cane molded concrete” was a new creation. Bamboo is a characteristic local plant in the Ningbo region and the nature of the bamboo’s random cracking is clearly shown on the concrete through its texture. Fig. : 2.41 Front View
  69. 69. 55 The designer indicates that the new museum is analogous to the Chinese garden. At the beginning of the completion of the Chinese garden, the state is not at its best, but after ten years of nourishment, it is provided with a thriving vital force. The application of special material of Ningbo Historic Museum gives it a vital environment. Some years later, when the Wa Pan Wall is covered with green moss and even shrubs, the museum will immerse in nature and truly integrate into history. INFERENCES • This building explains the importance of old building materials. • The building was simple rectangular in shape, applying a concept of mountain over it in its form. • The old materials used were wooden planks, old bricks, tiles from old demolished buildings were used to design the museum of spaces. • There were many different types of recycled bricks were used in the elevation treatment.
  70. 70. 56 2.4.6 BILBAO GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, BILBAO, SPAIN LOCATION The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao designed by Frank O. Gehry is located in the city of Bilbao in northern Spain. This museum was mentioned as “the greatest building of our time” by Philip Johnson. King Juan Carlos I said: “It is the best building of 20th century.” Its site is between the Nervion River, which runs through the city to the Atlantic Coast, La Salve Bridge, the railway and the new town. It is a symbol of the Basque metropolis that can be seen from a considerable distance. Looking into the city from the north shore of Nervion River, the museum is the most striking sight of offshore water as the first layer. Faced with such an important and most challenging site, Gehry gave the most daring answer in the whole history of architecture: the whole building was a combination of a group of masses with irregular surfaces covered by titanium, its form foreign to past architectural practice, beyond any experience in the habit of construction. It makes the museum integrate into the urban context seamlessly. Fig. : 2.42 Front View
  71. 71. 57 PLANNING The unfolding shapes of stone, glass, and titanium interconnect on a 32,500m2 site along the Nervion River in the old industrial centre of the city. Since its opening in 1997, this museum was hailed as one of the most important buildings of the 20th century with its distinctive titanium curves and soaring glass atrium. On the waterfront north elevation, the 3-level exhibition hall with a long transverse wave is designed to be in perfect harmony with the horizontal flow of water and its large scale. Because of the backlighting in the north orientation, and the fact that the main elevation of building is in the shadows all day, the building surfaces are designed as a series of random curves in order to catch sunlight. With the angle of sunlight changing, each curved surface of the building will show the constantly changing light and shadows. Furthermore, it successfully avoids the tediousness of the north elevation of a large building. To the south of the building, in front of the main entrance of the museum, there is only one street between the old buildings in the 19th century urban area and the museum. Therefore, the building is designed to match the old urban area by form, scale and material. In the south elevation, to be different to the north, some classic orthogonal shapes with stone facades are designed to be a transition to the urban context. Furthermore, in order to resolve the impact between La Salve Bridge and the ground floor of the museum, Gehry designed part of the museum to be under the bridge on the ground and connected to a tower on the other side of the bridge, in order to create an impression of the bridge as being held in the arm by the museum. To the south, a road runs through the ground floor of the building, under the plaza in front of the main entrance. The museum connects indivisibly with the urban context.
  72. 72. 58 As a place of arrival, orientation and relaxation for the visitor, the vast atrium is the true heart of the museum, which is one of the most characteristic spaces in this museum. In this space, it is possible to get an idea of each exhibition space and gallery. The whole museum is presented to visitors in this space. The enormous glass walls, the unusual irregular shaped galleries and the rectangular shaped ones are all shown at the same time. It is an essential part in the museum. In the 50-meter-high space, there are a series of bridges, glass lifts and a staircase tower, which is connected to exhibition spaces at three levels. Fig. : 2.43 Front View Fig. : 2.44 Interior View
  73. 73. 59 In this museum, the spaces are provided for a variety of exhibition displays and specially commissioned installations, which has been planned with and for artists by the designer. There are 20 galleries distributed in the 11,000m2 exhibition space. Ten of them are in classic orthogonal plans, which are identified from the exterior by their stone finishes. As a remarkable contrast, the irregularly shape of nine other galleries follow their swirling forms outside, which can be identified by their titanium cladding. The largest one was designed as a temporary exhibition space, 30m wide and 130m long. In 2005, the largest sculpture commissioned in history, Richard Serra's monumental installation The Matter of Time was displayed in this room. There is no doubt that it is a highly complex building. However, the circulation is quite clear. It can be simplified into one of basic circulation, in which there is an atrium connecting to each of the galleries. After visitors finish one gallery, they need to go back to the atrium. The other basic type, the tandem type, is partially used also. In the largest orthogonal shape, there are 3 galleries in tandem with each other on each level. Another characteristic of this museum is that the general idea of the design is shown perfectly in the vast atrium. Visitors can understand the whole museum earlier when they are in the atrium. Fig. : 2.45 Plan
  74. 74. 60 INFERENCES • Here in this case study, the elevation of museum for the first time, it is contrast to the world museum elevation. • The way the architect used fazard treatment is different compare to contemporary architecture. • The curves on the exterior of the building were intended to appear random • The overall form of the building looks like an sculpture. It’s a combination of a materials titanium, stone and glass. • The museum is seamlessly integrated into the urban context, unfolding its interconnecting shapes of stone, glass and titanium.
  75. 75. 61 CHAPTER 3 CASE STUDY 3.1 GOVERNMENT MUSEUM, EGMORE, CHENNAI. 3.1.1 LOCATION The government museum at Egmore was established in 1851, is located in Egmore, Chennai. It is Known as the Madras Museum, the museum is the second oldest museum in India. It is particularly rich in archaeological and numismatic collections. It has the largest collection of Roman antiquities outside Europe. Many of the buildings within the Museum campus are over 100 years old. Among them, the colossal Museum Theatre is one of the most impressive. The National Art Gallery is also present in the museum premises. Built in Indo-Saracenic style, it houses rare works of artists like Raja Ravi Varma. Fig. : 3.1 1980’s View of Egmore Museum
  76. 76. 62 Located close to the main museum entrance gates on Pantheon Road, the museum theatre is a rare specimen of the italianate style of architecture, inspired by Classical architecture and developed in 1802 at Britain by John Nash. However, the theatre was built by the british in the late 19th century when this style was no longer popular in England. 3.1.2 PLANNING Many additions to the original building were constructed between 1864 and 1890. The core of the old museum building includes the only surviving remnants of the Pantheon, identified from the broad steps leading into it when viewed from the north. Amongst the additions is the Connemara Public Library, built with stained glass windows, ornate woodwork and elaborate stucco decorations, formally opened in 1896 and named after its progenitor. The building was built by Namberumal Chetty and was designed by Henry Irwin, with the interiors resembling those of Bank of Madras (SBI). Fig. : 3.2 View of Museum
  77. 77. 63 The design included a huge reading room with a wooden ceiling between two curved rows of stained glass, supported by ornate pillars and arches embellished with sculpted acanthus leaves. It was supplemented with teakwood furniture, marbled floor, and decorative windows. All of these were restored in 2004-2007. The building now houses the Old Collection (pre-1930), which is used for reference purpose only. The museum complex consisting of six buildings and 46 galleries covers an area of around 16.25 acres (66,000 m²) of land. The objects displayed in the museum cover a variety of artifacts and objects covering diverse fields. The Madras Museum is categorized into eleven sections: - Eight Galleries • Anthropology, • Art • Archaeology • Botany • Children's Museum • Geology, • Numismatics, and • Zoology - Three supporting sections • Design and Display, • Chemical conservation, and • Education
  78. 78. 64 1. Main Building 2. Front Building 3. Bronze Gallery 4. Children’s Museum 5. National Art Gallery 6. Contemporary Art Gallery Fig. : 3.3 Site Plan of Museum
  79. 79. 65 3.1.3 MAIN BUILDING The structure has a high plinth and is accessed through a tall flight of stairs. It is primarily a semicircular structure with a rectangular wing at the rear. The latter wing now houses some of the galleries of the museum. The main hall is accessed through a verandah with a row of columns linked by semicircular arches. The walls and columns are embellished with floral and geometric designs. Fig. : 3.4 Sculpture Gallery Fig. : 3.5 Hindu Sculpture Gallery
  80. 80. 66 Fig. : 3.6 Ground and First floor plan of Main Building
  81. 81. 67 The huge main hall was initially designed for staging theatrical performances. It has around 600 seats and a commodious stage and the actors' dressing rooms adjoin this stage. During the British era, the theatre was mainly used for staging English plays preferred by the British elite of the city. Now, the museum has been using the theatre for its own cultural and academic programs such as art workshops, lectures and conferences. It also rents the hall for various cultural performances, mainly dramas. The hall has witnessed several plays including those of Shakespeare. Fig. : 3.7 View of Sculpture Gallery
  82. 82. 68 3.1.4 FRONT BUILDING Fig. : 3.8 Ground and First floor plan of Front Building
  83. 83. 69 This front building has number of galleries which include the collection of arms, wood carvings, industrial arts, ethnology gallery, rare musical instruments gallery, physical anthropology gallery, kathakalli gallery and folk art gallery. 3.1.5 BRONZE GALLERY Fig. : 3.9 View of Anthropology Gallery Fig. : 3.10 View of Bronze Gallery
  84. 84. 70 Fig shows bronze gallery. This gallery has a fabulous collection of about 1500 objects – 85 Buddhist, 25 Jain and the rest Hindu. The collection includes specimens from various periods of history ranging from the early centuries of the Christian era to recent times. Fig. : 3.11 Ground and First floor plan of Bronze Gallery
  85. 85. 71 3.1.6 CHILDREN’S MUSEUM The museum for children in the complex houses several static exhibits such as galleries of dolls adorned with costumes of various nations and civilizations and also exhibits ertaining to science, transportation, and technology Fig. : 3.12 View of Children’s Gallery
  86. 86. 72 Fig. : 3.13 Ground and First floor plan of Children Museum
  87. 87. 73 3.1.7 NATIONAL ART GALLERY The National Art Gallery is one of the oldest art galleries in India. It is Constructed with red stones sourced from Satyavedu in Andhra Pradesh, the Gallery was built in 1906 in Indo-Sarsenic architecture and houses paintings from Thanjavur, Rajasthan, Kangra and Deccan areas, as well as sandalwood sculptures. The National Art Gallery was built during the celebration of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee in Indo-Saracenic style, designed by architect Henry Irwin. The gallery contains several Mugul paintings and rare works of Raja Ravi Varma. It also has various Tanjore Paintings. Portraits of various British officers such as Lord Connemara and Lord William Bentinck are also present.The art gallery also included numerous miniature paintings depicting court and battle scenes. Fig. : 3.14 View of National Art Gallery
  88. 88. 74 The Gallery has been identified as a Heritage site by the CMDA. The Gallery has remained closed since 2002, as part of the structure suffered damage. Fig. : 3.15 Ground floor plan of National Art gallery Fig. : 3.16 View of National Art gallery
  89. 89. 75 3.1.8 CONTEMPORARY ART GALLERY The Contemporary Art Gallery now displays modern paintings and sculptures. In order to prevent ultra violet rays falling on paintings both from natural and artificial light, a new track lighting system with Dichroic Halogen lamps has been installed in the Contemporary Art Gallery. The Contemporary paintings have been redisplayed on Octanorm type showcases with special Dichroic lights. Fig. : 3.17 View of Contemporary Art gallery
  90. 90. 76 Fig. : 3.18 Ground and First floor plan of Contemporary Art Gallery
  91. 91. 77 3.1.9 INFERENCES • There is no grand visitors lobby to the building, The Main Building Entrance is at the North east rear end. • The visitors circulation pattern is not clear, one has to visit series of galleries and after completing the final gallery view, he has to walk back to the entrance to exit. • There are huge sculpture collections, but the given space is not enough, it seems too crowdy. • Display exhibits and the type of exhibits are not attractive. • The staircase to the upper floor galleries are not located properly. • There is no link between galleries, that is, the sequential order is missing, moreover few galleries were located in a separate building named front building. • In childern’s museum, most of the equipments were not working, the science techniques used were of old types. • Rear Play area with kids playing equipments were welcoming. • National art gallery was closed for the renovation work, there were many visible cracks seen in elevation of the building. • Contemporary art gallery has a huge collection of painting, security for the painting were missing.
  92. 92. 78 CHAPTER 4 SYNTHESIS Since the mid eighties museums have changed their policy more and more into a proceeding professionalism of their activities. The tasks of a museum concentrated on the presence of objects (collection, scientific research, conservation and restoration) and its presentation. In this study, it is examined to what extent this shift has taken place, and what the consequences are of this shift on the original tasks of an museum. The aim of this paper is to explain the feel of museum space to the visitors. According to Kotler & Kotler there are five basic elements that together should be able to organise the museum visitor’s time and activity during his or her visit: 1) The museum setting, its exterior and interior; 2) The objects, the collection and exhibitions; 3) The interpretive material available such as labels and catalogues; 4) The museum programs which include lectures and performances; 5) The museum services, such as reception, food and the museum shop. With a good functioning of these five basic elements the pleasure of the visitor will be increased during his or her stay in the museum. It is no longer sufficient to simply display a collection, people have high expectations. Modern trends in the museum world have broadened the range of subject matter and introduced many interactive exhibits, which give the public the opportunity to make choices and engage in activities that may vary the experience from person to person.
  93. 93. 79 Moreover, today, new presentation possibilities, such as museum nights and evening opening hours, are explored by museums with the same objective: to reach a wider audience and to accommodate them during their stay at a museum. The focus on collections and education has been joined by a focus on museum-going experiences, and as a result, contextual and interpretive materialism storytelling and exploration of the meaning of objects more and more surround collections and exhibitions. Visitors feel better informed and are better able to participate in museums. The end product of a museum is not simply viewing an exhibit. A more fundamental outcome is to change a visitor’s awareness and knowledge so that afterwards he or she can recall the experience as a significant one. The experience has become more important, not only in the culture sector, but in all sectors of society. Since museums have to compete with other cultural organizations for the scarce leisure time of their potential visitors, they are looking for ways to differentiate themselves in the hope that they will attract more visitors. Their main goal is to give these visitors background information on a certain exhibition and to educate them on the developments in the art world. They are educational activities that fit within the tasks and functions of a museum that consists of collecting, documenting, preserving, exhibiting and interpreting material evidence and associating information for the public benefit. The Design Process as suggested by ICOM is as follows: • Evaluate and allocate exhibition space according to storyboard themes and other visual and communication needs. • Determine circulation space needed, including disabled access requirements, security needs and official legal norms such as fire Escapes.
  94. 94. 80 • Examine and distribute objects by units, sections, subsections that correspond to themes and sub-themes in the script and storyboard. • Design the exhibition furniture system: panels, free standing exhibit showcases, screens, case shelves, block cases, table cases, wall hung panels and other wall mounted elements. • Design lighting systems. Consult with specialist and conservator • Design sound systems. Consult with specialist and education specialist The design of museums has evolved throughout history, however, museum planning involves planning the actual mission of the museum along with planning the space that the collection of the museum will be housed in. There are museums of different categories such as: 1. Museums owned by the state government 2. Museums owned by the central government 3. Museums owned by the universities / semi-govt organizations 4. Museums owned by the Non-govt organizations [ trust, society,etc.,] 5. Museums owned by the private individuals Other than the categories as discussed there were many types of museums, depend on the collections. Those categories were: fine arts, applied arts, craft, archaeology, anthropology and ethnology, biography, history, cultural history, science, technology, children's museums, natural history, botanical and zoological gardens. Within these categories many museums specialize further, e.g. museums of modern art, folk art, local history, military history, aviation history, philately, agriculture or geology.
  95. 95. 81 This paper history museum were focussed, and the proposal should be of cultural history museum. History museums contain a wide range of objects, including documents, artifacts of all kinds, art, archaeological objects. This paper focuses on the state government owned Government Museum, Egmore as a case study further literature study done over the State Museum, Bhopal governed by state government. A national Museum, New Delhi owned by the central government has been taken for a literature study. A Bharat Bhavan, Bhopal owned by the non- government organizations has been taken for a literature study. Also a Science Centre, Bhopal for a type of museum taken for a literature study. And a case study of Bilbao Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain and Ningbo Historic Museum, Ningbo, China shows the way the recycled materials used and the new materials in the fazard treatment. Through all the case studies from India as well from China and Spain, it is clear that museum of space has an impact over visitors thro the way they built. All the above said case studied museums were iconic time museum reflecting the past, present, future of its own image of the city.
  96. 96. 82 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION On the detailed analysis of various case studies, it is clear that the museum of space has an impact over mankind. The museum identifies the image of the city as well the study of the society. The planning of a museum should be such a way it gives an social impact to the visitors. From case studies, it is clear that, in museum planning, circulation, Types of exhibits, displays of exhibits, services were the main core. The planning of museum should be in such a way that the building should be iconic over period of times reflecting the past, present and future image of the city. This dissertation data investigate museum architecture and defines the role of a museum in terms of function and architectural implementation.
  97. 97. 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ching, Frank, 2007,Architecture: Form, Space, & Order, 3rd ed, Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. Dean, D. (1994). Museum Exhibition Theory and Practice. London: Routledge Publisher. Duncan, C., Wallach, A., 1978, “The Museum of Modern Art as Late Capitalist Ritual: An Iconographic Analysis”, Marxist Perspectives, vol.1, no.4, Winter, pp.28-51. Giedeon, Siegfried, Space, Time and Architecture, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1947 Hillier, B., Tzortzi, K., 2006, “Space Syntax: The Language of Museum Space”, S. Macdonald (Ed), A Companion to Museum Studies, Blackwell Publishing, London, p. 282-301. Harison Molly, 1960,Education in Museums, The organisation of museum, practical advice,UNESCO, Paris,, P.P.81-92. Hill, D. A. (1982). Design Procedures. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. Hooper-Greenhill, E. (1994). Museums and Their Visitors. London: Routledge Publisher. ICOM (2006) Code of Ethics for Museums, Paris, International Council of Museums Lin, C. H. (2003). Establishing a development process for since museum exhibition design. PhD Dissertation, Birmingham: University of Central England.
  98. 98. 84 Lord, G. D. and Lord, B. (1999). The Manual of Museum Planning. 2nd ed.London: HMSO Publications Centre. Met Studio (1998). The Discovery Centre at Millennium Point Masterplan. Unpublished content, Birmingham: The Discovery Centre. Nigam, 1982,M.L., Museum Research and Education in Indian context. Journal of Indian Museums,vol.XXXVIII, , New Delhi. P.P.1-7. Pugh, S. (1991). Total Design. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers Ltd. Tunstall, G. (2000). Managing the Building Design Process. Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann. Velarde, G. (2001). Designing Exhibitions: Museum, Heritage, Trade and World Fairs. 2nd ed. Hants: Ashgate Publishing Limited. Weeks,2002, Jeffrey R., The Shape of Space, New York: Marcel Dekker. Zevi, 1957,Bruno, Architecture as Space, New York: Horizon Press.
  99. 99. 85 WEBSITES Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia (homepage). URL: International Council of Museums (ICOM) (homepage). URL: State Museum Bhopal(homepage). URL: Bharat Bhavan Museum Bhopal(homepage). URL: National Museum, New Delhi (homepage). URL: Regional Science Centre, Bhopal(homepage). URL: Archeological Survey of India, ASI(homepage). URL: Government Museum, Egmore, Chennai. (homepage). URL:
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Architecture is the art of spaces. The human feelings were influenced by architectural space from time to time. Relating to the design of a history museum, it could evoke a certain feeling or memory of a historical event. This dissertation focuses on the influence of architectural space over period of times. A theoretical as well as practical key issue in the design of museum and galleries is how the layout of space interacts with displays to create a specific effect, express the intended message to visitors. This dissertation aims to capture and represent the history of mankind’s understanding of space in the design of an architectural building.


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