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Communities of Practice


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Presentation on the topic 'Communities of practice' made during KM Strategies course

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Communities of Practice

  1. 1. K6212 – Knowledge Management StrategiesCOMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar Daniele Izzo Nirmala Selvaraju
  2. 2. AGENDA CoP Basics CoP: The Organizational Frontier Situated Learning and its relevance to CoP Communities of Practice, Foucault and Actor- Network Theory Case Studies  KM CoP  Presentation Improvement CoP
  3. 3. COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE - BASICS CoP • Groups of people who come together to share and to learn from one another face-to-face and virtually. U.K. • They are held together by a common purpose; they contribute France California to a body of knowledge and are Florida Georgia driven by a desire and need to share problems, experiences, insights, templates, tools, and best practices. • Community members deepen their knowledge by interacting on an ongoing basis. Source: APQC with Richard McDermott Building and Sustaining CoPs, 2000
  5. 5. ARTICLE 1Title: Communities of practice: Theorganizational frontierPublication: Journal of Management StudiesMay 2006Authors: Etienne C,Wenger and WilliamM.SnyderType: Illustrative with examples
  6. 6. SUBAGENDA Communities in Action The Hallmarks of Communities of Practices A Paradox of Management Conclusion
  7. 7. COMMUNITIES IN ACTION Drive strategy Help Start new companies lines of recruit and retain talent business Communities of Practices Develop Solve professional problem skills quickly Transfer best practices
  8. 8. COMMUNITIES IN ACTION Help drive strategy production of knowledge collections (good practices, know-how, sector statistics, etc.) dissemination and outreach to staff and partners support to task teams, thus enabling staff to apply and adapt the global knowledge to the local situation raising additional funds for specific work program activities Start New lines of business • Met @ O‟Hare airport between engagements with clients • Domain was retail marketing in banking industry and focused on new business opportunities for client • After 4 years, created new line of marketing approaches for financial services companies. Solve problem quickly • A pulpmill customer in pacific Northwest have a dye-retention problem. • Within a day received several responses from experts peers in Europe,southasia and canada
  9. 9. COMMUNITIES IN ACTION Transfer best practices • Functional departments splits up to organize around cars platforms • Feared to lose functional expertise and ability to keep up with leading-edge change. • “”Tech club””-make the move to platforms, cut R&D costs and car-development cycle times by more than half • Engineering book of knowledge- information on compliances standards, supplier specifications and best practices Develop professional skills • Communities of practice as effective arenas for fostering professional development • At IBM,CoP hold their own conference, both in person and on-line • Presentation ,hallway conversations, dinners and chat rooms – exchange ideas,build skills and develop network Help companies recruit and retain talent • American management systems –communities of practice help the company win the war for talent • To develop skills and find new clients
  10. 10. HALLMARKS OF COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICES: • “Corporations • Guilds played ” of similar roles • “Instead of metalworkers for artisans being ,potters, throughout composed masons and Europe primarily of other people craftsmen working on had both their own, social they often purpose and exist within a business large function organization”
  11. 11. HILL’S PET NUTRITION Global leaders in pet nutrition Line technicians meet weekly to talk about the recent successes and frustrations as well as challenging looming ahead. The group has a “mayor” who‟s been chosen by his peers to keep things on track from week to week.
  12. 12. Roger,a technician from Senior John plumbing management explained the At recent background made a trip to at the plant latest revisiongathering.12 this occasion to had not of his proposal technician help John warmed to the includedfrom first and Hone proposal pneumatic evidence from second shift to “ Substitute tube idea. Roger, saymet around a pneumatic Community thatlarge table in tubes for the members had technology the glass- balky encouraged are reliable walled conveyor belt John to and would be conference that carried continue compatible room. the pet food pausing for with existing kibbles to change. equipment packaging bin”
  13. 13.  Result : Significant reduction in downtime and wasted pet food related to packing Community provide opportunities for the members to solve nagging problem and horn their ability to run plant effectively. Financial rewards in the form of bonuses
  14. 14. A PARADOX OF MANAGEMENT To get communities going and to sustain them over time- managers should :  Identifypotential communities of practices  Provide the infrastructure  Use non-traditional methods to access the value of the company‟s communities of practice
  15. 15. IDENTIFYING POTENTIAL COMMUNITIES Informal networks of people with the ability and the passion to further develop an organizations core competencies already exist. The task is to identify such groups and help them come together as communities of practice.
  16. 16. SHELL Join with Develop consultant Looks at new and interview challenges & prospective problems acrosscommunity units and team members Group begin the Build individual and Coordinator discussing plans group capabilities calls the for activities and increase members company‟s strategic agenda
  17. 17. U.S VETERANS ADMINISTRATIONCore group-technical capability • Sharing tips about Group participation implementing a First line was limited and managers new team structure progress was slow • Help to set Customer standards to reduce service representative processing time Core group • Upgrade training Training modules across coordinators organization
  18. 18. PROVIDING THE INFRASTRUCTURE AMS World Bank 1.Formal approach 1.Combine formal and 2”thought leaders” informal approach 3.Potential member must be recognised by 2.Knowledge bank his or her manager 3.Membership is open 4.member‟s paid by 4.Funding for specific business unit Activities & manage their own budgets Shows how different styles of formal commitment to communities of practice was effective when aligned with the organizations culture
  19. 19. USING NON-TRADITIONAL METHODS TOMEASURE VALUE Managers feel it difficult to assess the value of communities  The effects are often delayed  Results are generally appear in the work of teams and business units, not in the communities themselves The best way to access the value of a community of practice is “Listening to members stories”
  20. 20.  At Shell  They often conduct interviews to collect these stories and then publish them in newsletters and reports  Organizes yearly competition to identify the best stories.  Communities saved the company $2 million to $5 million and increased the revenue more than $13 million in one year
  21. 21. CONCLUSION The managers have to understand what these communities are and how they work Realize the hidden fountainhead of knowledge development and the key to challenge of the knowledge economy Appreciate the paradox of management
  22. 22. ARTICLE 2Title: Within and Beyond CoP: Making senseof Learning through Participation, Identity andPracticePublication: Journal of Management StudiesMay 2006Authors: Karen Handley, AndrewSturdy, Robin Fincham and Timothy ClarkType: Critique of established theories
  23. 23. SUB-AGENDA Situated Learning Theory vs. Cognitivist theories of Learning Key Concepts in a CoP  Participation  Identity  Practice Situated Learning within Multiple CoPs Notion of Participation in CoP Conclusion
  24. 24. SITUATED LEARNING VS. COGNITIVIST LEARNING Situated Theory of Learning Cognitivist Theory of Learning Learning by observance  Classroom based learning Contextualized  Decontextualized Concentrates on tacit  Positivist assessment of knowledge abstract knowledge Integral and inseparable  Learning – Accumulation of aspect of social practice symbolic representation Core processes –  Largely Explicit Participation, Identity-  Replicated through Artificial construction and Practice Intelligence Knowledge is provisional,  Knowledge is abstract and meditated and socially symbolic constructed
  25. 25. KEY CONCEPTS - PARTICIPATION Mutual Recognition Action Connection Participation Negotiate Meaning  Socialization bias between Novices and Masters Possibility of conflict  Marginal vs. Full participation
  26. 26. KEY CONCEPTS - IDENTITY Identity Regulation Organization enforced Identity Work 1.)Who we are 2.) How we Self-enforced are accepted Negotiation between Organizational and in CoPs Personal perception Identity “Identity dictates an individual’s participation level in CoP”
  28. 28. SITUATED LEARNING WITHIN MULTIPLE COPS Mutual Engagemen t Joint Enterprise Shared Repertoire
  29. 29. SITUATED LEARNING WITHIN MULTIPLE COPS Identity- Lifecycle construction Individual Heterogeneous across development dimensions Experimentatio Geographic Pace ofRole Modelling n Spread Evolution CoP of Claim Processors and CoP of Claim Managers Issue lies in the management of roles, actions and relationships across multiple CoPS
  30. 30. SITUATED LEARNING WITHIN MULTIPLE COPS Wenger‟s Compartme Different Types of -ntalization Participation of practices 1. Marginal 2. Contingent 3. Not to Join Mutch’s ApproachBourdieu‟s Agency through Bernstein‟sconcept of adoption/adaption work on „habitus‟ codes of participation and identity construction I D E N Fatalism of continual CoP1 T T CoP2 reproduction I T Y
  31. 31. NOTION OF PARTICIPATION IN COP “Individuals who successfully navigate a path from peripheral to full participation can be categorized as participating”
  32. 32. CONCLUSION Development of identities and practice is not within CoPs but between CoPs Distinction between Participation and Practice Definition of Practice is to be limited to activity Participation denotes meaningful activity developed through relationships and shared identities Scope for research on individual participation within and beyond CoPs
  33. 33. ARTICLE 3Title: Communities of Practice, Foucaultand Actor-Network TheoryAuthor: Stephen FoxYear: 2000Publication: Journal of ManagementStudies, Lancaster University
  34. 34. SUB-AGENDA• Example: The work practices of Naval quartermaster• COPT and CLT compared• Foucaultian concept of Power and COPT• Actor Network Theory and COPT• Conclusions
  35. 35. EXAMPLE: THE WORK PRACTICES OF NAVAL QUARTERMASTER• Recruiting• Learning how navigate: individuate wherethe ship is in relation to the seabed,calculate routes, avoid obstacles andcollision.• Newcomers learn through the “Learningby Doing”• Newcomers became member of a community and participate tothe navigation• After 1 year newcomer become young master and will teach tonovel newcomers
  36. 36. COPT AND CLT COMPAREDCommunities of Practice Theory Conventional Learning Theory(COPT)• Integration of working and • Separation among Learning andlearning, “Learning-in-Working” Working• Dilemma: • Leaning but not participation in  On one hand there is the a community involvement into the real work through understanding, VS • Understanding from the books participation, became member and not from the practice of the community  On the other hand there is • Just Explicit knowledge is they shape their own identity in moved their future• Both Tacit and ExplicitKnowledge are moved
  37. 37. FOUCAULTIAN CONCEPTION OF POWER AND COPTWhat Power is: What Power is not:• Is moving substrate of Force Relations in • Power is not a central point ofevery point of a Network sovereignty• Power seen as Act – Action • Is not constrain or dominate other people• Force is the way power acts • Is not the possession of some people• Pouvoir / Savoir – Power and Knowledge over othersare indisociable • Is not a group of institutions or• Power is Everywhere, not because mechanism to ensure the subservience ofembraces everywhere but because comes the populationfrom everywhere• Actant: Inanimate object can Act – NuclearWeapons
  38. 38. FOUCAULTIAN CONCEPTION OF POWER AND COPT Actant  Inanimate Object can ActNuclear Weapons:• Inanimate Objects• Act• Frighten people
  39. 39. FOUCAULTIAN CONCEPTION OF POWER AND COPT Example: how Newcomers became Quartermasters • Quartermasters imposes knowledge and power to the newcomers • Newcomers enforce their memories and learning process and use power as Force relation in the community • Newcomers use power and knowledge of the quartermasters in order learnRelation with COPT:Power not related to the individual but Powerrelated to the Force Relations in every part of anetwork
  40. 40. ACTOR NETWORK THEORY (ANT) AND COPT • Power is active and tangible • Substitution from passive to reactive • Passive is not the opposite of active but is another kind of active – like inertia
  41. 41. ACTOR NETWORK THEORY (ANT) AND COPT COPT ANT COPT tells us how tacit  ANT supplies a set ofknowledge is moved inside CoPs concepts for understanding howbut do not tell us how practice practices changes or innovatechanges or innovate in CoPs and how actors became obligatory point of passage COPT claim that learner can  ANT considers the learnerbe a community – So human as human and non humanactors Actant – changes in action can occur either in human and non- human element
  42. 42. ACTOR NETWORK THEORY (ANT) AND COPT How practice changes or innovate and actors became obligatory point of passage Problematization Interessemen t Enrolment Mobilization of the allies
  43. 43. ACTOR NETWORK THEORY (ANT) AND COPT Fishermen Example Problematization: Fishermen realize that the declining stocks of scallops Interessement: Fishermen agree to give a try to the experiment of the researchers Enrolment: The role and activities of the researchers are defined Mobilization of allies: Researchers reduce the fishermen to a handful of spokesmen
  44. 44. CONCLUSION COPT tells us that Learning and Workingtogether means moving tacit and explicitknowledge Foucault says that Power in COPT is notrelated to the individual but to Force Relationin a community ANT tells us how practices changes or innovate ANT tells us how actors become mandatory point of passage
  46. 46. KM COPWebsite URL:!/groups/km.cop/How often does the KM CoP meet in a single year? 4 times / year, as each meeting is1 quarter.What are the topics discussed during the meet? The topic is depending on thespeaker, we are not restricting to the topic itself as we are promoting people to shareknowledge.Any online/virtual meetings conducted so far? No Virtual Meeting conducted so far.But if u want to consider Face Book group as virtual meeting, then I would say yesWho are part of the administrative group and what is their roles?So far for core team we have Don Chai, Noraini Rahman, Prof Kan himself as well asme(Tendon Rudi).What are the benefits that have come forth after the initiation of this CoP? Thebenefit itself is more toward socialization, maintain the rapport of members as well as
  47. 47. PRESENTATION IMPROVEMENT COPWebsite URL: This CoP aims to improve the presentation skills of KM students byproviding opinions and suggestions.
  48. 48. THANK YOU