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SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION
Presenting by
Dr Anumalgundam Srikanth,
Dept. of pharmaceutical analysis.
Solid Phase Extraction
 very popular technique currently available for rapid and selective sample preparation.
 powerful tool for isolation and concentration of trace analysis.
OBJECTIVES:
Reduce the level of interferences.
Minimize the final sample volume to maximize analyte sensitivity.
provide the analyte fraction in a solvent that is compatible with the analytical measurement techniques.
The degree of enrichment achievable for a particular sample is dependent upon:
 The selectivity of the bonded phase for the analyte.
 The relative strength of that interaction.
Principle
The principle of SPE is involving a partitioning of solutes between two phases.(LLE)
 SPE is a more efficient separation process than LLE.
 Easily obtains a higher recovery of analyte.
Components – adsorbed to solid or remain in the second non solid phase.
Equilibrium – two phases – separated by decanting , filtration, centrifugation.
Solvent Miscible in
Water?
Non- Strong Reversed Weak Normal Hexane No
polar Phase Phase
Isooctane No
Carbon No
tetrachloride
Chloroform No
Methylene No
Chloride
Tetrahydrofuran Yes
Diethly ether No
Ethyl acetate Poorly
Acetone Yes
Acetonitrile Yes Yes
Isopropanol Yes
Methanol Yes
Polar Weak Reversed Strong Normal
Water Yes
Acetic Acid Yes
Phase Phase
Mechanism of Solid Phase Extraction process :
The selection of an appropriate SPE extraction sorbent depends on understanding the mechanism(s) of
interaction
between the sorbent and analyte of interest.
The most common retention mechanisms in SPE are based
van der Waals forces (“non-polar interactions”),
hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces (“polar” interactions)
cation-anion interactions (“ionic” interactions).
Partitioning of drugs towards aqueous and organic solvent
General theories of interactions :
Reversed phase:
Mobile phase – polar or moderately polar
Stationary phase – non polar
Materials used in Reversed phase:
Carbon based media: graphitic , non- porous carbon – organic polar & non polar – polar , non polar matrices.
Polymer based media : styrene/divivinylbenzene – retain hydrophobic – aromatic.
Polymer coated and bonded silica media: hydrophobic – bonded silica is coated with a hydrophilic polymer.
Normal phase :
Polar analyte, a mid- to non-polar matrix and a polar stationary phase.
e.g. acetone, chlorinated solvents and hexane
Retention of an analyte under normal phase conditions is primarily due to interactions
between polar functional groups of the analyte and polar groups on the sorbent surface.
Ex. Hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, induced dipole-dipole and pi-pi.
bonded silicas :
Alkyl chains with polar functional groups bonded to the surface. These silicas, because of their
polar functional groups, are much more hydrophilic relatively to the bonded reversed phase silicas.
Ion exchange SPE :
Anionic (negatively charged) compounds can be isolated on an aliphatic quaternary amine
group that is bonded to the silica surface.
Cationic (positively charged) compounds are isolated by using the silica with aliphatic
sulfonic acid groups that are bonded to the surface.
General properties of bonded silica sorbents :
Although other materials are available ex. polymeric resins and alumina, the vast majority of
SPE extractions are carried out by using bonded silica materials similar to those used in HPLC
columns except the particle size and diameter.
Bonded silica materials are rigid and do not shrink or swell like polystyrene-based resins in
different solvents. Use of too high flow rate when processing cartridges may affect retention of
analytes, particularly during the sample loading and elution steps. Potentially the capacity of the
cartridge will be affected by all the components from the sample not only the analytes of interest.
Steps of Solid Phase Extraction:
Pretreatment of sample
Conditioning of the cartridge - which is the main step in case of reverse phase SPE
cartridges. Preconditioning is mainly done by solvent such as methanol, acetonitrile, isopropyl
alcohol or tetrahydrofuran which is necessary to obtain reproducible result.
Loading the sample
Wash - very important step in case of the sample treatment by SPE. In this step a suitable
solvent or water mixture is passed through SPE bed to remove the contaminants.
Elution of fraction - in this a suitable solvent or buffer is used to elute the analyte from the
SPE bed for analysis.
selection of tube conditioning of tube addition of sample washing
elution
Five steps of SPE
Developing SPE methods :
 Physic-chemical properties of analyte, nature of matrix and known chromatographic properties of analytes and
the possible interaction with SPE sorbents.
 Screen a range of cartridges (ex. C18, C8, C2, Ph, CBA, SCX, SAX, PRS, NH2, DEA, CH, Si and polymeric
sorbent) under simple conditions (ex. from aqueous buffer solutions) looking for good retention of the analyte
 Select a more limited number of sorbents and examine conditions for loading/wash/elution consider if pH
control is needed, possible strength (% organic solvent) of wash solvents). Try the extraction from bio-fluid
and select sorbent for final development.
 Final development of extraction conditions and chromatographic analysis. Consider the robustness of the assay
when finalizing extraction conditions. Ex. Do not select a wash solvent where a small change in could lead to
elution of analyte from the cartridge.
Characteristic features of SPE :
 Complete flexibility
Longer column lifetimes
Powerful contaminant removal
Greater recovery
Better reproducibility
More sensitivity
Advantages of SPE over LLE
In SPE by choosing selective adsorbent analyte can be driven completely
In single stage LLE each extraction step equivalent to one chromatographic plate on the other hand by SPE in
single step one can generate 10-50 plates
Higher plate numbers in SPE leads to higher recoveries
SPE is less time consuming and not tedious as compare to LLE

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solid phase extraction method.pptx

  • 1. SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION Presenting by Dr Anumalgundam Srikanth, Dept. of pharmaceutical analysis.
  • 2. Solid Phase Extraction  very popular technique currently available for rapid and selective sample preparation.  powerful tool for isolation and concentration of trace analysis. OBJECTIVES: Reduce the level of interferences. Minimize the final sample volume to maximize analyte sensitivity. provide the analyte fraction in a solvent that is compatible with the analytical measurement techniques.
  • 3. The degree of enrichment achievable for a particular sample is dependent upon:  The selectivity of the bonded phase for the analyte.  The relative strength of that interaction. Principle The principle of SPE is involving a partitioning of solutes between two phases.(LLE)  SPE is a more efficient separation process than LLE.  Easily obtains a higher recovery of analyte. Components – adsorbed to solid or remain in the second non solid phase. Equilibrium – two phases – separated by decanting , filtration, centrifugation.
  • 4. Solvent Miscible in Water? Non- Strong Reversed Weak Normal Hexane No polar Phase Phase Isooctane No Carbon No tetrachloride Chloroform No Methylene No Chloride Tetrahydrofuran Yes Diethly ether No Ethyl acetate Poorly Acetone Yes Acetonitrile Yes Yes Isopropanol Yes Methanol Yes Polar Weak Reversed Strong Normal Water Yes Acetic Acid Yes Phase Phase
  • 5. Mechanism of Solid Phase Extraction process : The selection of an appropriate SPE extraction sorbent depends on understanding the mechanism(s) of interaction between the sorbent and analyte of interest. The most common retention mechanisms in SPE are based van der Waals forces (“non-polar interactions”), hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces (“polar” interactions) cation-anion interactions (“ionic” interactions). Partitioning of drugs towards aqueous and organic solvent
  • 6. General theories of interactions : Reversed phase: Mobile phase – polar or moderately polar Stationary phase – non polar Materials used in Reversed phase: Carbon based media: graphitic , non- porous carbon – organic polar & non polar – polar , non polar matrices. Polymer based media : styrene/divivinylbenzene – retain hydrophobic – aromatic. Polymer coated and bonded silica media: hydrophobic – bonded silica is coated with a hydrophilic polymer.
  • 7. Normal phase : Polar analyte, a mid- to non-polar matrix and a polar stationary phase. e.g. acetone, chlorinated solvents and hexane Retention of an analyte under normal phase conditions is primarily due to interactions between polar functional groups of the analyte and polar groups on the sorbent surface. Ex. Hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, induced dipole-dipole and pi-pi. bonded silicas : Alkyl chains with polar functional groups bonded to the surface. These silicas, because of their polar functional groups, are much more hydrophilic relatively to the bonded reversed phase silicas.
  • 8. Ion exchange SPE : Anionic (negatively charged) compounds can be isolated on an aliphatic quaternary amine group that is bonded to the silica surface. Cationic (positively charged) compounds are isolated by using the silica with aliphatic sulfonic acid groups that are bonded to the surface.
  • 9. General properties of bonded silica sorbents : Although other materials are available ex. polymeric resins and alumina, the vast majority of SPE extractions are carried out by using bonded silica materials similar to those used in HPLC columns except the particle size and diameter. Bonded silica materials are rigid and do not shrink or swell like polystyrene-based resins in different solvents. Use of too high flow rate when processing cartridges may affect retention of analytes, particularly during the sample loading and elution steps. Potentially the capacity of the cartridge will be affected by all the components from the sample not only the analytes of interest.
  • 10. Steps of Solid Phase Extraction: Pretreatment of sample Conditioning of the cartridge - which is the main step in case of reverse phase SPE cartridges. Preconditioning is mainly done by solvent such as methanol, acetonitrile, isopropyl alcohol or tetrahydrofuran which is necessary to obtain reproducible result. Loading the sample Wash - very important step in case of the sample treatment by SPE. In this step a suitable solvent or water mixture is passed through SPE bed to remove the contaminants. Elution of fraction - in this a suitable solvent or buffer is used to elute the analyte from the SPE bed for analysis.
  • 11. selection of tube conditioning of tube addition of sample washing elution Five steps of SPE
  • 12. Developing SPE methods :  Physic-chemical properties of analyte, nature of matrix and known chromatographic properties of analytes and the possible interaction with SPE sorbents.  Screen a range of cartridges (ex. C18, C8, C2, Ph, CBA, SCX, SAX, PRS, NH2, DEA, CH, Si and polymeric sorbent) under simple conditions (ex. from aqueous buffer solutions) looking for good retention of the analyte  Select a more limited number of sorbents and examine conditions for loading/wash/elution consider if pH control is needed, possible strength (% organic solvent) of wash solvents). Try the extraction from bio-fluid and select sorbent for final development.  Final development of extraction conditions and chromatographic analysis. Consider the robustness of the assay when finalizing extraction conditions. Ex. Do not select a wash solvent where a small change in could lead to elution of analyte from the cartridge.
  • 13. Characteristic features of SPE :  Complete flexibility Longer column lifetimes Powerful contaminant removal Greater recovery Better reproducibility More sensitivity Advantages of SPE over LLE In SPE by choosing selective adsorbent analyte can be driven completely In single stage LLE each extraction step equivalent to one chromatographic plate on the other hand by SPE in single step one can generate 10-50 plates Higher plate numbers in SPE leads to higher recoveries SPE is less time consuming and not tedious as compare to LLE